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in 2013 

For Reference 

Not to be taken from this room 

who maliciously 

in, mode 
work of lit- 

, , deposited in 

any publi I 1 1 1 e r y , 

museum 01 
of a misd 

1915, Section 623. 


January 1980 £2.00 $6.00usa 

Franz Marc comes to Berkeley 

FFB 1 1980 

UOKMn ' 

Rare Blue and White Porcelain Vase, 

Underfoot bears "G" mark in blue. 

Of the K'ang Hsi period. A.D. 1662-1722 

Height: n| inches. 


^H INC - 


^ c AST56th STREET. NEW YORK, NY. 10022, U.S.A. 

■ne 212 758-093 Cables "Ralima" New York 


Editor : William Allan 

Assistant Editoi Susan Livingstone-Learmonth 
Reviews Editor . Briony Llewellyn 
Sub Editoi Virginia FitzRoy 
Editorial Assistant Sara Nicholson 
Art Editor Chris Bower 

Advertisement Manager J. T. Carter 
Assistant Advertisement Managers Marilyn Homewood 
Anthony Freemantle 

Production Controller . Victor Haskell 
Progress Manager Ed Cadman 

Editorial and Advertisement Office* 
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Correspondent joi France Gerald Schurr 

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Telegraphi, address Robotlvpc Lund 

/ ///■ ('onnoisseur , lou tided in itjo 1 , was a< quired 
l>\ William K.indol|>h Hearst in i'i-'7 and is pub- 
lished monthly in (ireal Britain and the 1 sa b\ I lie 
National Magazine Company Limited, hngland 

Managing three tor Marcus Morris 
Publishing Dunlin Roger Q. Barrett 
Puhlishei Anthony Martin 

Early consideration will be given I" mss amimpanird by 
j suitable photographs Although due can is taken the publishers 
da mil accept responsibility jar mss ." p/mtugraphs n bn It must 
be submitted at the owner's nsl 
1 h, Editor's decision is final in nil editorial mailers 

Second class postage paid at \eit I <ik sv, 1 sa 

Pi in led in (ire at Br itniri, issn 0010 (127", is ps -aVj 520 

( The \ational Maga'im < timpani Limited Jam, 

January 1980 

Volume 203 

Staffordshire Porcelain 1740-1851 

I ITCIIir L() | 

Pal Halfpei 

The Boy's Own Paper 

Patrick A. I) 

Two 'Fancy' Portraits 
by Alexis Grimou 

Bri;-nv IJewcllv 

Pride and Tradition : 

Military jewelled badges 

Gavin Mnsgrave 

Franz Marc's 'Animalisation of Art' 

Mark Rosenthal 

William and Mary and their House 

He iitrt Jan 

Post-Impressionist Prints 

MaryAnne Stevens 


Sir Thomas Lawrence 

Geoffrey Ash ton 


The Comfortable Revolution 

John Gloag 


The 25th Annual Winter Antiques 
Show, New York 

Mario Amaya 


'Distinctly Decorative': 

Korean Chests of the Yi Dynasty 

Bidi Jones 


A New Museum on an 
Old Railway Station 

Lynne Thornton 



Nineteenth-centurv Art 

Antony Thorncroft 


The Arts Reviewed 


Front cover: i ran/ marc, yellow Cow, 191 1, 140.6 • 189.2 cm. The Solomon R.Guggenheim Museum, 
Xew York. The ant i< join derirre ol the Yellow Con is the first and perhaps only case m Man 's career ol a 
joyous animal. Although its head is tilted in a wav similar to the central horse in Red Horses, it is totalis 
abandoned to play, The animal's emotion perfect h evokes the concept proposed l>\ K.andinsk\ 
( ailed 'iiinei net rssiu ', b\ wlui h is meant the essent e ol feeling determined by whatever physii al 
and cultural i ircumstances pertain. Golouristic ally, the repetition of the animal's yellow cast just to 
the i ight of the head, the w hite ol the udder in the area below, ami the b'ue spols in the mountains 
beyond suggest a unity between the cow and nature. Yellow, Marc's symbol ol femininity and 
sensuality, is shown in Yellow Con with such intensity that Man requires nearly equal doses ol red 
and blue. The sharp juxtaposition ol these primaries supports an organii vibrani v .\\\s\ results in a 
kind ol random, svnaesthetit quality to the point of chaos that characterises Kandinsky's 
contemporaneous work and also many ol Man s best paintings. 

Circulation Injormation 

Great Britain. Single cop\ price £2.00 I In- annua 
miIim 1 1 pi ion is ( 25 '" 1 un luding postage Kurope an. 
overseas, (, 50 on in. hiding postage win. li ma\ be 
booked from your lot a I booksellei . .1 remit tain e 1 an 
sent direct to rhe National Magazine Co Ltd.. 
National Magazine House, 72 Broadwii k Sinn 
1. 1 an 1 1 m wiv 2BP Enquiries regarding sul>s< riptions 
The Connoisseur Subscriptions Depart men t. 
cdp Limited, Oakfield House, Perry niouni Road. 
Haywards Heath, Sussex 1 1 Upborn Ha\ wards Hea 
-,() 1 H(( , in w here notifu ation ol < hange ■ .1 address 
should also In- sen I a I least foul 01 live wet ks hi fori 
I in I.I u ,iii. .11 I hi Connoisseur is distributed b\ ('nude N 
and National Magazine Distributor* Lunitc 'I 1 om.m 

I ,i\im,h k R. i.l.l Wesl III. m. Hi. Middlesex. 1 I'" - 
A, si Dl.iMoll I |o-,j 
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Deputx ( liaiiuiau Allan limliK 
Managing Due. toi Phil II. mi 

United States of America 
Single 1 op\ price 8b. on Subscription price 
I in ted Slate* ami possessii ins S4K.n0 for one yeai 
1 2 issues , SK',.oo for two \ears 24 issues Canada 

and all mini < mi nuns S , , 00 lot one year, loi 
two wars Single 1 ..pus m.i\ be obtained b\ sending 
\0111 01 del with 1 .11111 lam e In Hearsl Magaz.ini 

dial ordei so as to pro\ ide I he lirsi-i . 
Postal Sei\ 11 e within si\ to I web <• wccUOf0|f||uic 
teason ibis 1 a 11 not be done, vou will be prompt l\ 
notified of the isstu dale dial will begin yoin 
subsi I I pi nil 1. Willi a I. 1 1 in si loi all\ llll I lie I 
insli ui lions regarding \ our ordei Please add n all 
such 01 deis to I In < 01111111 s >iui, l'.o Bos in 1 21). Des 
Moines Iowa V'i 1" Should vou have an\ problem 
with wiui nbsi riplinn, please write to |ohn Hams, 
eivice Department, '/ lie I .'niiiiiiissnii 
ess I'o assure i|ini kesi si 1 \ 11 . 
11 mailing label when wi nine I 
1111 1 lie in rived al least . ighl wi 
n .11 in assure ( ontinued sei \ i< e 

1 np\ sales 2 ,0 Wesl -, ,tll Street. New York, NS. . 
//;, (oniiiiisMiir will, upon leceipt of a completi Imastei semi .;-,;., I. .1 11 

renewal subscription ordei undertake fulfihnei po Bos mot 20. Des Moim 



Michael Hedgecoe 

Antique Furniture 

The finest quality 

period furniture restored 

with skill and care 

by the most 

experienced craftsmen 

Carriage available throughout the country 
Regular London Collection 

Please write or telephone for an appointment: 

Burrow Hill Green, Chobham, Surrey 

Telephone Chobham 8206 


Art Nouveau and Art Deco Specialists 


BY Ft. LALIQUE c 1925 

Stand 14 The Antique Hypermarket 

26-40 Kensington High Street 

London W8 

Tel 01 -937 9796 

it,, 1 

„rimn\\rui . aniiaiA 




vdon win 5pr 

29-31 george /tnzet london win 5pl 

tel. OI-48<5 0678 


rine antiaue furniture 

ooiet/ a art 

One of a set of six Empire Mahogany Fauteuils - the curved top-rails 
mounted with classical plaques in rope-twist borders, the curved 
arm-supports with eagle's-head finials, the drop-in seats on sabre legs 
mounted with laurel foliage and roundels - possibly Russian. 
c. 1 340 



QpjiipPMi^i^iMiiiiiifiiiMiPiBiiMfa f^iM fM Pia iafaiaiiipppirgJiMi 



Reaches of Heaven 




Ira moskowitz, an unusually gifted 
representational artist whose drawings are 
found in the collections of the National 
( iallery, the Metropolitan Museum, the 
.Museum ol Modern Art, the Biblioteque 
Nationale in Paris, and in many important 
American ,\nd European collections, is a 
leading interpreter ol the East European 
character. 1 lis etchings portray the mood 
and personality of the days of the 

Baal Shem Tov, the humble leader whose 
almost universal influence is still alive. 

A deluxe album (MWx 18") in a limited 
edition of 275 copies on all-rag Arches paper. 
The text was printed at the Stinehour Press 
and the etchings were pulled at the Sorini 
Studio. Each copy is signed by Singer and 
each of the 24 etchings is signed by the 
artist. Subscription price, $1500.00. 

Issued by 

Drawings and oigravings on exhibition at 

I K A U 13 G A L L E RY, 992 madison avenue, new york 

The Co 

c«r,Januar> 1980 

a better investment^ 

. . . it's the work of Matthew Boulton, 
appreciating every day. 
Call it a vase (its 18th century name), 
not just a teapot. 

Use it for anything, not just 
the water an 18th century butler 
needed for tea. 

Look at it often. Not just at its form, 
fretwork and fittings. Look deeper: 
you can see forever in mile after mile 
of English countryside. 
In Battersea enamel. 

From the lonides collection. 
Exhibited at the recent 
Bath Exhibition. 



For an appointment to view in a Georgian townhouse 
off Park Avenue, call New York (212) 794-2545. 
Cable address: WELLANTIQ NEW YORK. J 

Friday January 25th at 10am 





Illustrated 1 5th century Koran 
appro timately 5 W illustrated pQ%es 


Thursday January 17th at 12 noon 


/ ate i ..i trgian black lacquered 
and i hinoiserie secretaire, 
curly l^th century 

-' ■ 

t- ff ■■ . . . ■■. 

rt i ! w%. 

., rv ( 


.>-•'" ""' ' ' ' 

,-. .'-.-"f ■ 

" " •• 


J?i •" •* i*^~- "'•' * ' * 

,.,- • •' 

,-, f ' ' ■ ' '■ ""' 

ft ,, < .' . - - 


Plaza s standard i harge to the seller 
m ■ , rmmssion o/ /0'fl in addition to the 10% premium paid by the buyer as part of the purchase price 

79TH STREET NEW YORK, NEW YORK • 10021 • (212)472-1000 • CABLE: PLAZAGAL 


lln ( minor.,,,,,, lamian 1980 

Important American Art 



1075 Paseo de Peralta Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501 505/982-4631 

Sacred Paint/Ned Jacob 135 pages, 118 illustrations, autographed copy 335 

EDWARD BOREIN 1872 1945 

Cutting Back a Steer oil 2Q"x 30 " 




Thomas Daniell RA (17494840) 
William Daniell RA (17694837) 

by Dr Maurice Shellimwith a foreword by Mildred Archer 

lli> Indian aquatints of Thomas and William Daniell have long been appreciated. Yet their oil paintings have received little 
attention and no publication has hern devoted to them. In this beautifully produced book which has taken over 20 years 
to com| aurice Shellim has catalogued and arranged chronologically all of the 151 known oil paintings - 1 19 by 

nd inc ludes reproductions of them all, many in full colour. It is the first book to give a broad 
if tlu- artists' oil paintings ■ >t India made between 1787 and 1836. These fine oil paintings played a great part in 

ig the fashionable< foi the romantic and picturesque. Through Thomas and William the British gained their 
irate km iwledge of Indian architec tun- and the country's exotic scenery - vast rivers, great waterfalls, mountains 
aves. 'India and the I hmiclls' will be treasured by collectors, galleries and museums as a unique source of 
joy to the reader. 


Published by In< In ape & Co Limited with Spink <Sc Son Limited 

Available from Spink &. Son Limited 

5-7 Kin^ Street, St. James's, London SW1 

Price £50 (US $100) 

//„ C'onnouwar, Januar) 1980 



Aver\ important mid-i8lh-centur> mahoganx 
commode, attributed to John Cobb, with 
magnific ent ormolu mounts. Circa i 760. 

Width: 4ft. 4111V 
Depth: 2ft. 21ns. 
Height: -'It. 7-^ins. 

« A n.ETr*sos^ 7 , ? v f ^^^^ 

M. Knoedler & Co. Inc. 



19 East 70th Street 

New York 

N.Y. 10021 



Wednesday January 23 at 10 a.m. 

17th- and 18th-Centuty English and Continental 

Furniture and Decorations, Georgian Silver, 
Old Master andl9th-Century European Paintings, 

Tapestries and Fine Rugs, j^ 





; Sun. Jan. 20, noon-5 p.m.; Mon. Jan. 

Uiam Doyle Galleries' standard charge to the Seller will be a corn 
e 10% premium paid by the buyer as part of the\p\ 

A unique opportunity 
to have your name 
and your quality donation 
presented on television 
to millions of viewers 

To make your 
art/antique donation 
for the benefit of 


please write: 

The Thirteen Collection 

356 West 58th Street 

New York, N.Y 10019 

or call 

(212) 560-2700 weekdays. 


sischman, Kennedy Galleries, Inc. 
^>theby Parke Bernet 
ick Inc. 



jctible to the extent provided by law 





640 Acres. A Complex of 7 Houses near Mobile, Alabama. 

A sumptuous estate along a river well known for its 
unspoiled beauty. ( Hose to city and only minutes by boat 
to Gulf of Mexico. 

Exclusive Sunbelt location and climate. Designed as a 
private estate, this property has exceptional development 

It includes the 17.000 sq. ft. main residence at river's 
edge, a complex of 6 guest houses, excellent wildlife and 

and favorable property tax structure. 

1 Iighlights of the Main Residence include unique indoor 
swimming pool— in entry lobby, outside docking for 50-foot 
yacht, indoor docking tor smaller boat, stunning Overview 
room at Ixiat house for entertaining, solarium, patio, decks. 
second-level garden, controlled temjx-rature wine storage, 
sauna and health room with Roman whirlpool. 

For brochure and further information contact Alovis 

hunting preserve, fenced farmland and barns, office, main- Lee, Agent. (205) 973-2809 or 973-2724, Route 1. Box 
tenance and storage buildings, elaborate security system 1 54. Theodore, AL 30582. 

The (.unnuiWL, .January [980 

O -r— 5 
°-\= 6* 2 
x c = £ 
.2 « * c 

"5*"0 £ .2 

u ©tig 

&m|* . 

5 "S * "o .s 

«, < as — 
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■£ .E c J2 © 

30-5 CS &C CI 
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= - ■© 

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s =.=■.- 
(a — "35 r~ 

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u. © 



Tankard, Viennese enamel on ste 
19th century. Overall sight 


6, Lower Merrion Street, Dublin i. Tel: 762506 

he only gallery in Ireland specialising in 16th to iXth century 
Dutch .md Flemish Paintings 


1 587 Antwerp 16^1 

Mountainous landscape with horse 

and rider and figures 

Oil on Panel 30 x 41 cm 

Director: Dr. Marie-Theres Schmitz 
Opening Hours: 10 6 Monda; to Fridaj Saturday by appointment 


paperweight specialists 


de St Louis 

1979 Series 

Basket of Fruit 

French Bronze 
signed DUBOIS 


Bird on the Branch 

Bronzes. Jade, Orientals 

and Art Glass 

Complete Gndel Series" to date 



807 Broadripple Ave 

Indianapolis, Indiana 46220 

tel: 317-251-9820 

All subject to prior sale 

/ hi i onnoisseur, |anuai \ 1980 












A fine George II I 4-poster bed, with a moulded decorated cornice and finely carved mahogany 
bottom posts in Chippendale's gothic taste. English, circa 1 770. 

Length: 6ft. gin. Width: 5ft. Gin. Height: 8ft. 4m. 


alternative entrance at 22 Albemarle Street. London W1 

Telegrams: Culleus London Asprey S.A. Geneva. 40 rue du Rhone. Geneva Telex; 25 

Telephone 28-72-77 

Second Annual 




A gathering of the world s major 
Oriental art dealers and collectors 
in Asia's art centre. 

May 15-18, 1980 

Hotel Furama Inter -Continental 

Hong Kong 

For information on 

exhibiting or attending contact: • 

Andamans East International Ltd 

6 On Lan Street, 

10th Floor, Hong Kong 

Telephone: 5-252446 

Cable Address: ANDAMANS Hong Kong 

Telex: 85213 AGELL HX 

Official Carrier A great wa\ to fly 


Robert Noortman Gallery 

Giovanni Battista Salvi 

Called Sassoferrato (1609 1685) 

Madonna and Child 
Canvas: 1 34 ■ 94 cm 

Old and Modern Paintings 

Robert Noortman (London) Ltd 

8 Bury Street, St James's 

London SW1Y6AB 

Tel: 01-839 2606 Teiex: 915570 

Robert Noortman Gallery BV 

Aalbekerweg 49 


Tel: 04405 1934 Telex: 56715 

I \ WIS! I klJ-WI I N I'll*, Ml CI sc K I A I \ I1KI Mills 



This prize, totalling 5000 
U.S. dollars, is intended to 
aid the publication of a 
Doctor's Thesis - - or a work 
of similar worth — on the 
history of art. For further 
information, please apply to 
the following organisation: 

I 1 1 1 UK I I ISH A N I l< >l [ I 'I A I I KS WM » I A I H N 

* w 1 I V.I il ,AI I 

i i '.i - ■ 

/'., / aiimnweur. laiman 1 


. H.Af. U"^o Elii.ab>th 11 


/*> Appetnimtnt 
H« Qunn Elitattih 

Cornclis van Poelenburgh 
i 586-1667 

Oil on copper 
38 x 4'; cm 


Bahnhofstrasse 29, 8702 Zollikon 
(Switzerland) Tel: oi-6sNs7> 

$875,000 Editi 

I or information on 
authentication or re 
other |ai kson s< ulpt 
please call, toll-free, 

■ ir u rile 

l6 3 /4 "h xl9"l x7UV 

The subscription to Harry Jackson's new work 
"Marshal II' was opened on February 7th, 1979 
and sold out on February 22nd, 1979. The edition 
comprised 1 00 patinaed and SO painted bronzes. 


PO. Box 2X1. Depl 143 , Cody. Wyoming 82-414. 

Exclusive International Representatives for Harry Jackson 

/ //, Cimnois tew . |ai 


Since the beginning of the 

20th century reqowned for 

its „Haute cuisine". 

Open daily from 6.00 p.m. till 1.00 a.m. 
closed on Sundays. %«** 

Prinsengracht 444, 1017 KE Amsterdam. 


Situated alongside the oldest 

canal of Delft. Famous for its 

culinary specialities. 

Open daily for lunch and dinner 

closed on Saturdays for lunch 

and on Sundays. 

Oude Delft 125, 1611 BE Delft. 


Rustic 16th century farmstead 

transformed into one of 

Holland's most elegant restaurants. 

Open daily from 10.00 a.m. 
closed on Sundays. 

Terweeweg 2-4, 2341 CR Oegstgeest. 

For information Tel: (20) 267721. 


« -• 



' Picture taken a\iikker en Thijs restaurant, Amsterdam. 


Member of The British Antique Dealers' Association 

- q ty pair of Minton vases 

i imerald green ground 
Cin -i I860 
Height overall 1 3" 

ith 337952 



The Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco 
18-20 April 1980 

A weekend seminar on 

English & Continental Ceramics 

with lectures including: 

John Austin, Hugo Morley-Fletcher 

Bernard Watney 

For further information please contact: 

The Program Office 

The Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco 

Golden Gate Park 

San Francisco, CA 941 18 

Tel: (415) 387-9432 

//;, ( annaiwem |anuar\ 1980 

"The Princess" 

Abbey Altson 

Nineteenth Century 

Canvas size: 35" * 28" - 89 ' 71 cm. 

Outside Frame size: 42" * 35" 1 07 ■ 89 cm 

"In Toronto" 

Fine Paintings by 

recorded artists 

Abbey Altson, E C Barnes, L Barnlot, David Bates, Berne Bellecour, 

F. M. Bennett, A de Breanski, Arthur Briscoe, Edgar Bundy, I. Chelminski, 

Ivan Choultse, Jules Dupre, Victor Dupre, Dietz Edzard, E Eichinger, 

William Powell Frith, F Goodall, R A , Paul Grolleron, Jos. Gyselmckx, 

William Hemsley, Joseph Highmore, Bernard de Hoog, Arnold Houbraken, 

Goodwin Kilburne, Aston Knight, J B Ladbrooke, W Lee-Hankey, 

Sir Peter Lely, E. LePoittevin, A A Lesrel, H LeSur, Constantin Makovsky, 

J E. Meadows, Hans van Meegeren, E Niemann, Henry H Parker, 

E Parton, B Pnestman, Ft A., James Pyne, Leon Richet, George Romney, 

Ferdinand Roybet, W Dendy Sadler, C Sell, E Semenowsky, Wm Shayer, 

H Tenkate, Wm Thornley, A. Toulmouche, A Vickers, James Webb, 

and others. 


1 94 Bloor Street West 

(just west of Park Plaza Hotel) 

Toronto M5S 1T8. Canada 

Telephone: 416-921 3522 
Area Code: 416 



I ( IK Ml SI I Ms 

SI.I.I-.CI I I) \NTIOI KS Al.l.l ( )l \ I K lis \NDAU. STYLES 


\\ I \' I i ( II U \l M I VKMI II \IK K I.I.I NC I l\ 

i iii '.( \ ■. . i i i>\ i in I in \k II k or I HI. j H I II 

I I \ 1 1 ; III I'l II (,,] III II, II I ,.. 

|8 HEYSELSTRAA1 [ti SSKLS BELGIUM rEL: 32 1 478 34 93 

V.: ■ I ( >\l \ 


/ hi ( in . J.iini.ii \ 1981 1 

A silver tankard made during the first year of 
the reign of James II, 1685, by Robert Smythier. 
Engraved centre coat of arms possibly those of 
Morris, Co. Cardigan. 
Height 8 1 4 inches, weight 51oz. 

Garrard are always interested in buying 
fine antique silver. 


HI \milMMIM III HI K M \JI Ml I III i n II-. 


The Crown Jewellers 

I i: KH .1 \ I M kl M I ( IS DON W I \ U.I I II I I'M i in h 


A fine set of four fluted Georgian Sheffeild 

candlesticks with hand-cut storm shades, 

by Blagden-Hodgson, England, 1821 . 

19% inches tall. 

Georgian silver epergne with five lead 

crystal glasses by Matthew Boulton, 

Birmingham, 1802 


Telephone: 502-633-4382 



Member of the Art and Antique Dealers League of America, Inc. 

Write for our new illustrated catalogue, $3.00 

Henri Fantin-Latour 


White Roses in a Vase 

Oil on canvas, 12V2 \9 { /t ins. 
Signed and dated: Fantin 72 

terry-Hill Galleries, Inc. 

<:.iU.-.BKKinilll.l \K\\ YORK 

743 Fifth \wnur. Vv* York, N'.Y. 10022 • (212) 371-6777 

Member o) the \ulional Amuim and -In Dialers Association ofAmerit a. 

fill l ( ™«n,»,.|.,lli 

John Keil 


Member of the British Antique Dealers Association 

In i in fun hint w / <>/ u\ (ini)oi III I Iti/i/irmliili jn nml w«»/< i /nun. hi ill uijinhh < \ttutnl Inn In. ( n,,i ijl„i 
Hcii'hl ; ;" i|i|im Wnlili i'<|" ", ;mii Depth i 7 |}!< in 

JOHN KF.IL II 1) \1.S( ) A I _.«, THIRI.< )1. I'l \( I. I .< ).\1)( )N S\\ 
:; i, ()l 11.1 SI Rl.hl BA'l II BAi j.JI I II BA'I II 

HI I 1,1, ( ii--,»<i 1 ;«i 

/ ' 1 

sw La 


America s only auction house specializing in rare Rugs, Tapestries and Textiles. 

Announcing an auction 

of important rare and antique Chinese 

rugs, carpets and textiles. 

Also included- fine Persian and 

Caucasian rugs and carpets. 

FEBRUARY 16, 1980, 2PM 


!t. nir. MM* i ■' ■ ! >[: .mi jhtir > t ; i. ■ ■ |< ill' - , I fy ■ ij if .anfmi Tit, < ]fn I u 'nl< itive estimates may be < J - 1 ' iinei 1 1 >y sendmi j phi ■■' 

ml ■ -vnte 

JohnC Edelmann, Inc 123 East 77th Street. New York, NY 10021 Phone(2l2) 628 1700 

i 10 mudffiiiiin fu rhe Iff*., premium putd by thebuyei a porfof the pun hose price 



r he Don in Gallery with Rodin s Burgher ol Calais and Henry Moore s 

Upright Motive in tionl of its building has 1 7 rooms on 4 lloors 

Oil on canvas, 36 ■ 28 inches 

Great European Artists 
19th and 20th Ceniurv 

Old Masters 
200 Canadian Artists 



TEL (514) 845-7471 and 845-7833 

///, l armmueur, l.imi.irv I980 



Telephoncl 01-352 0644 
01-352 3127 

Cables: jeremique, London, s.w.3 


Members of The llrilish Antique Dealers' Association Ltd. 

T *k 

English ; the last quarter of the 18th 
century. A superb quality George III 
period writing cabinet of small 
proportions being executed in figured and 
laded Rosewood with inlaid panels of 
Satinwood, the concave cupboard doors 
opening to reveal a shell. 
Max Height: 3' 7|". I m 11 cms. Width: 

2' 6". 76 cms. Depth: 1' (>". 16 cms. 



Friday, [anuary 18 at 11 a.m. 

Important Continental Pictures of the 
19th and 20th Centuries 

The Properties of Bruno Schroder, Esq. and others 

Max Liebermann: Portrait of the artist, three-quarter 

length, seated, signed, painted in 1902. 

}sm. by 27.',in. (87cm. by 70cm.) 

1 1 Ins, 1 '/n 1 1 30 plates, including 4 in colour) £j.J0 (% 12.00) post paid 

lh, 1 „nn„iwm |; I'IKO 



Friday, February 8 at 1 1 a.m. and 1.1,0 p.m. 

Paintings and Drawings from the Studio of 
The late Sir Gerald Kelly, K.C.V.O., P.R.A., R.H.A 


Mml\ tor ilu- Si.Hi' I'iitir.i 

Mil \1 i |i ' : ' < »i 11 1 : 1 I Ii/.iIk'I I), 1 1 11 
I ,>m 1 11 \l \i 1 \ V 

I'.. III. Ml 1)1 1> I lh.1, ( > \l . II. 
(ill! I 1 \ ; : 

I (it |.lll( 

M.11 I out \ \\ , 

: il.ltl ill' 

HurniiM I). hum. \n '.. \|.i Sc\ n \i 

pi IS( \ 1 I I 


11 hist }\i ud iiifd/o'i/n 


New York 

Tuesday, January 29 at 10 a.m. and 2 p.m. and Wednesday, 
January 30 at 10 a.m. and 2 p.m. 

Fine Americana, American Paintings 
and Chinese Export Porcelain 

iming table, i76< K , 29 in. (74 cm.) high, ^6.1 in. 9} cm.) wide; Chinese export 
'Tobacco Leaf' 1, cover and stand, width ot si a ml 14 in. (5 s. 6 cm, . Pair ol 
candlesticks, stamped Joseph \l oorf, circa n;u, 7 A in. (19 cm.) high; and a pair ol 
il brass andirons, probabh New York, circa 18 , 19 in. (49 cm.) high. 

r In- 'Kirk' with « link, bank draft or monex order in I S dollars onl\ 

//„ < »nn«ii»'»>..).inuarx \')i 


New York 

Tuesday, February s at 10.30 a.m. and Wednesday, February 6 at 

10.30 a.m. and 2 p.m. 

Paperweights, Art Nouveau and Art Deco 

Rare St, Louis faceted double overla\ upright houejuet weight, 
I'rench, circa i X <, , ; in i.U cm. diam. 

i ,u 1 1, n.'in Si : / s In mail, urdur In '< is' with clu-cl kink < t m mmi i i i I S i1m11.ii 

New York: -,oj Park Avenue. New York ioojj : hi: jij M 'h-joMI!: mhl, . (In is woods. New N"< >t k 

ml, 1 iKitiaiiiil It It \ New York (uoyj 1 ; iltniit \/n l,/,\;\rw Yoi k ~ I o-",!! I j [_•", 

Christie's East : .» i<) East by ill Street. New York nmj i ; hi: _■ i _• ",70- ) I ) 1 

California : Suite ; j!!. <) ■;",o \\ ilshii e Boulevard. I>e\ i 1 U II ills, ( ialiloi nia <|o_> 1 _• : 

;i : hi, \ / (,10- |(,o |t 

Mid- At Ian tic: Mi Paul 1 hints, ,11. I >^M Morris Avenue. I>i \ 11 Mawi . Pa. i<|o n >; h I : _> 1 -, ",',-", ji 15 
Mid-West: Mis Edward McCormick Mail. Jr.. 4I1 1..M Elm Si reel. Chic .iim>. Illinois I > 





Sat. January 26 through 
Sun. February 3, 1980 

Amenta's most prestigious antiques show 

the twenty-sixth annual exhibition and sale ot antiques 

trom the collections of distinguished dealers 

Seventh Regiment Armory 
Park Avenue at 67th Street 
New York City 

Daily: Eleven a.m. to nine p.m. Sundays: One to six p.m. 
A Benefit for East Side House Settlement 


(Advance sale tickets, prior to January 8th, $4.50) 

To order tickets, or for brochure with further information: 

Benefit Office — East Side Settlement 

337 Alexander Avenue, Bronx, New York 10454 

Telephone (212) 665-5250 



PREVIEW PARTY — Friday, January 25, 6:30-9:00 p.m. 

Tickets $50 00 

PATRONS' RECEPTION, Friday, January 25, 5 p.m. 

Tickets, $75 00 

LECTURES Sponsored by The Magazine Antiques 

Monday, January 28, 11am 

Wendell D Garrett, Editor and Publisher, The Magazine Antiques 

The Artot Collecting" and Elisabeth Donaghy Garrett, 

Author and Lecturer Documenting the American Interior' 

Wednesday, January 30, II a.m. 

l)i maid C Peirce, Assoc iatr C urator, Department of 

Decorative Arts, Brooklyn Museum 

American Painted Furniture 1680-1880 

Each illustrated lecture, coffee, pastry, catalogue and 

shi iw admission $12 00 

SEMINARS Sponsored by Antiques World 

Tuesday, Jan 29, Thursday, Jan 31, Saturday, Feb 2 at 2 and 4 p.m. 

English & Continental Furniture — Porcelain — Paintings — 

Textiles — Decorative Arts 

i included with admission of the day) 


Tuesday, January 29 and Thursday, January 31 at 10 am 

Tic kc-ts $10, includes admission, coffee and pastry, and catalogue 


A La Vieille Russie, Inc. 

Didiet Aaron, Inc. 

W. Gtaham Arader III 

Bedford Green Antiques 

Doris Leslie Blau 

Ronald Bourgeault 

Alfred Bullard, Inc. — Helen McGehee 

Ralph M Chait Galleries. Inc. 

Childs Gallery 

Ed Clerk 

Lillian Blankley Cogan 

Audrey R. Conniff 

M. Darling Limited 

Dildarian. Inc. 

Dillingham House 

Malcolm Franklin, Inc. 

Georgian Manor Antiques. Inc. 

James & Nancy Glazer 

Price Glover, Inc. 

Elinor Gordon 

John Gordon Gallety 

Gulhman Americana 

Hastings House Antiques 

Hayestock House 

Hirschl & Adler Galleries. Inc. 

Hobart House 

(Malcolm Stearns, Jr.) 
Ruth Hubbell 

The Incurable Collector, Inc 
Valdemar F Jacobsen 
Simon Kaye, Ltd 
Lawrence E King 

Robert E. Kinnaman/Bnan A Ramaekers 
Raymond B. Knight Corp 
Gerald Kornblau Gallery 
H.J. Kratzer, Inc. 
La Ganke & Co. 
Landrigan & Stair, Inc. 

L Antiquaire, Inc. 

Le Cadet de Gascogne (Gilbert Gestas. Inc.) 

Linlo House, Inc. 

Ellen Fales Lomasney 

D M &P Manheim Antiques Corp 

Marine Arts Gallery 

Elinor Merrell 

Nigel A Morrison, Ltd 

Fred B. Nadler Antiques, Inc 

Members of the National Antique and 

Art Dealers Association of America, Inc. 
Newhouse Galleries, Inc. 
Nimmo & Hart 
The Old Print Shop. Inc 

(Kenneth M Newman) 
Jack Partridge 
David Pottinger 
Marguerite Riordan 
George E Schoellkop* 

Matthew Schutz, Ltd. 

Thomas and Karen Schwenke 

Robert Spencer 

Stair & Company, Inc. 

Garnck C. Stephenson 

Anthony Stuempfig 

Sylvia Tearston Antiques 

J.J. Thompson 

Tillou Gallery 

JohnC.R. Tompkins 

Timothy Trace & Jonathan Trace 

222 Imports 

Vernay & Jussel, Inc. 

Village Green Antiques 

The Virginians 

Thomas D. and Constance R. Williams 

Thomas K. Woodard 

York House 

Managed by Russell Carrel! 

7sh Regiment New York Army. Nanornl Guard Armory. <w 1 Park Ave . New York. NY 10021 



Established 1878 

i 1 ( ienei ;il <\le\andei I )irom 

Sir Henry Raeburn 

(1756 1823) 
On Canvas. Size 30 • 25 inches 

19 East 66th Street 

Telephone: (212) 87 9 -2700 

New York City 


I >.,,„„, |.,illl..l\ 1'IHII 


781 FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK, N.Y. 10022 (212) 752-1727 ESTABLISHED 1851 


//„ ( onnov ii »i |. inn. H \ I ' ' ; '• ' i 

' ro h » *** 


781 FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK, N.Y. 10022 (212) 752-1727 ESTABLISHED 1851 



torn dt/ur Collection 

A new book on FABERGE is now available: 


featuring the Forbes Magazine Collection. 

$21.55 via surface mail, including postage and handling, or New York State sales tax. 

Catalogue: The Art of The Goldsmith & The Jeweler $7.00 by surface mail 


i^//r f/uipsJ>ooks and 'prints 


1000 Boxwood Court, Kin}; of Prussia, Pennsylvania l'>406 


Exhibiting at the Winter Antiques Show, Nets York, NX, Ian 26-Feh } 

Picter van der Aa. 
World in Two Spheres 

Nova Orbis Terraquei Tabula 

Accuratissimi Delineata. 

Ix'iden: Mauchaud Libraire, 1713. 

l9'/a x 26. 

Twin representations of azimuthal 

equal-area projections of the world by 
one of the most ornate cartographers 
in the early eighteenth century. The 
four corners allegorize the primal 
elements of earth, air, fire, and water. 
The central decoration shows the sun 
lighting earth while gods, goddesses, 
and pulti support the title on a banner. 

This is the second of three- 
frontispieces for La Nouveau Theatre 
Ju Mamie. 

( )ur illustrated catalogue contains 

scholarly descriptions of our slock 

ol original |Sih-l9th century 

maps, prints and books. 

Send five dollars for new issue 

We are interested in purchasing 
fine single items and collections. 

I nil papei restoration services 
are available. 

Member of the Antiquarian 
Booksellers Assoeiation of America 

A |),ur ol ( hincsc blue and white garden sens Circa 1820. 

l>ti *" YORK HOUSE, INC. 

\ntiques • Decorations 


1150 2nd Avenue (Between 60-61 st Ms.) New York, NY. 10021 
(212) ?55-'J 

Come to the experts 

For packing, shipping and removals 
of antiques and works of art 

Gander & White 
Shipping Ltd 

for the most specialised and comprehensive services 

Fine ju and 
jnnquc packing 


,,..'1 Rcgulai container 
U— J groupagc services 
t3 to East West 
J & Gulfl'orts 

limpress Place 
Lillie Road 
London S.W.6 ITT 
Tel 01-381 0571 
Telex: 917434 Ganite 

Rcgulai T.I.R 
to Europe- 

"] High security 
I storage 




Driver, guide 

and at 

14 Mason's Yard 
Duke Street 
St. James's 
London S.W.I 
Tel: 01-930 5383 

Happy and kumh I ihall be Gander & While him packee me 

I It, I (,iinoi\u>ui Januan 198(1 

■S ^ 5 .3 gv 

"O «) is 

Si S £ *$. S ~ 


2 > .£ S. * ^ * =- 

2" ? 2: 

La Ganke & Co. 

1093 Second Avenue at 57th Street New York, New York 10022 212/688-9312 

A very rare pair of Vincennes Seaux a Bouteilles. Seven and one-half 

inches high, ten inches wide. Interlaced L's enclosing date letter A on 

one, painter's mark for 1753. (For mark, see the Catalogue of the 

Vincennes Exhibition, 1977-1978, p. 185, mark no. 27). 

Ex collection: The Dowager Marchioness of Tweedale. 



Pair of Delft tobacco jars 
I h/tch, ( irca njo 

(I in virid blue 
' 1 1 d" Indian 

tobat i o plant , 
\ ()( woHograw, the Dutch l:ast 
<> one side. Marked HP. 


H / :a ' ) oi k i 1022, \ .) . 


I ' "^sM """"' 


i — 


^ .P<"*™UI.V 

J l^MBHi 

H^ 1 JH 

\: 1 1 

Take a fresh look at the Westbury 

Yuw may nut ice a few changes since you last 
looked in. New faces. New stylish decor in the 
bedrooms and suites. New international direct 
dialing system. New dimensions in comfort and 
hospitality. But if you have always valued the 
special ambiance of this unique Bond Street 
hotel, you'll find that at heart the Westbury is still 
its inimitable self. Come and take a fresh look. 

The Westbury Hotel 

New Bond Street, London W1Y0PD. 01-629 7755 



I he C.i 

,„, \, 

Sotheby's london 

Wednesday (>th February, 19X0, .it i i am 


particularly of African, American, Canadian, Indian, Australian, 
New Zealand and South American interest 

Willi. mi Urailtoril, I'lie 1 1 iitk <'/ an^iant Ship on tin ( io,hl ol Vcir /:// <j hunt, ml on i an \ i ignot mu ' mil dated I Sen; .11 id 
signed .1 seeoild tlllK' .11 111 1 l.ik (I '74, With < >l l;j 1 11. 1 1 Ir.lllH wllli 1 1 is It) si tlbed II ' 1/ S/;//> 

William Br. id lord left New York and came to I' upland with Ins fa mil \ on 4th April [ N7.2. I le soon 

received commissions tor paintings including one from Queen Victoria. In the summer ol 

he held an exhibition of paintings and photographs at the 1 angh.un I lotcl 111 I ondon. 

lite limes on 1st August reported that 'with tin temperature 111 the 'Sos, 

it is delightful without ^oing furthei than the I .anolnim Hotel, to revel in the cooling 

presence of n ehergs half a mile long and o^lai tors that fill three miles and a half 

of fiord . . . I he Wreck of an limigrant Ship on the ( !oast of Xcw lingland' , in which 

the painting of the ship is particularly powerful, . . . the great dismasted <hip from which 

the shorehoats are taking off the huddled passengers is treated with a sailor's knowledge its well 

as a painter's feeling'. Bradford must have sold the painting in the first months of 1 S74 when 

he resigned and dated it. I le left England 111 the middle ol that year returning to his native Ainerua. 

l:>n]unn> ahoul tln> vi/< should he addressed to ftinu Milhi 

Sotheby Parke Bernet newyork 

'< >tl "-> i""-i Irli-phont Uu i : 14"" Mo :;^|;M)I UK I clcy.uih P.irkgal. Nnv York 

I i ul.iy 2 >th January, [9X0, .it 10. 1 5 am and 2.30 pin 


On view from Saturday January 
Illustrated iatalo<>uc S<S by mail, So overseas, order by sale no. -/ >• ,'S with < //C(///c n/< /iw<7 to 

Sotheby Parke Baud, Department CA >\ 

1 / iommiwion 1 Initial to sellers <)/ \ Lull sou . \renne is 10 pei tent. . I// property is sohl iiihjcit to ,i pi cm 111 111 
c/ /(» /'(/ m ■/;; payable by ,ill buyers as part oj the purchase pine 

< h. 1 rli s I r.iiKuis I 1.1 nl ■ 1 ;_• 1 1 \ , /'(>.'/// du I oiti , I '< )ise, lb ite I \m.\ . signed and dated 1 Xf>9, ( leorge Frederic k Watts, R.A., The Ambei 

^i \>\ 14s i 111. Xecklacc. signed, on panel, 62 by 5- cm. 

I 1. hi/ Xivui Si 111 m . I In I uruly Siuer, signed and dated iNSij. Salomon Leonardus Verveer, Loading the Ship, signed and dated '4X, 
on panel. ^ s In 49 1 111 on panel. 42 by 5 ft cm. 

Sothcb) Parki Hi rnci lm . '6f>o Hi vi rly Uouk vard, 1 os Angeles. ( ahlornu 110036. Soth< b> Parke Bcrnct & Co., 
dun Wi A 2 A A ii id from rcpn scntativcs in Amsterdam, Huston, Brussels, Buenos Aires, Cluster, Chicago, Dublin. 
I dinhin I lamburg, I louston, I lung Kong. Johannesburg, Madrid, Melbourne, Middleburg, Milan. Monte Carlo, Mimn h. 

I'.ilm i r iladelphia, Rio di |anciro, Rome, San Francisco, Sao Paulo, Stockholm, foron to and Zurich 

III, 1 mmmwfiii |\ I'tKll 

Sotheby Parke Bernet new york 

ij.Nn M.uli' Avi-tnu-. Nnv York. N Y ji hi, j , ■_• ; ,,„. / , /, , : u'i.H SOI II' hi, ■:,.„-. I'.irU 

Friday 2 s th |.uui.n \ , 1 <;<So, .it 10. 1 s .1111 and 2.30 pm 

1 1 ) 1 1.1 II II ( k'l il ;4 \1i \ 1 i voil Hi 11 IK II. I'llf I loillfc 0111 I »\', 

signed .11 id i'il Bui 111, 1 s S 3 , N6.s by 1 1 ! un 
I rnl.i\ 2 s t h lanu.iry, i<;So, .it 2 pm 


Innn the collection ot M. |,icqucs Kngcl, I'. ins 

/ 1 In si hit fit 1, 1 1, 1 1 0^1 it' So />)' mail f S 7 on »m ,i / , o\ itfi by vii/c //.' / j >•(> with i tifijiif , />,;///,• i/rii/l <>/ uioiify ordei ttfiioinuiatfit 
111 I S t/ci//ii; .'»/)■ /.' Sotheby I'dikf lieinet, f)f\hiitmfiit COS 

Kin Uer.uiil, Mllf. ll'eissweile) tin.\ Chomps Hlysees, signed, Ss In '>s 
{inquiries about these uiles should he addressed it' Judith Landri^on 

PB Eighty-Four 

a division of Sothcby Parke Bernet Inc. 

NY 1002K telephone (212)47235X4 Telegrams Parkgal, New York lelex 232643 SOL UR 

Tuesday 22nd January and Thursday 27th March, 1980 


January sale A diamond, emerald, pearl and sapphire plume brooch, c. 1925 

liamond butterfly brooch, c. 1X40, a gold enamel and diamond exotic flower brooch, I iffany c\ Co., 
.1 diamond collar ornament, c 1900 

urrcntly accepting antique and period style jewellery to be included in our 
Spring Ann niction. Consignments will be accepted until March. \<)S<>, for the June sale. 

ihout these •■ales should he addressed to Alison Bradshaw 

I it, 1 ommiwem |anuar\ 1980 




Telephone (212) 535-2888 

Fine English & French Furniture 

A superb Hepplewhite 
bookcase -cabinet 
in finely figured mahogany 
in original condition, 
circa 1785. 

Length 50'/2 inches, 
Depth l4'/2 inches. 
Height IOO'/2 inches. 

Member Art and Antique Dealers League ol America, Inc 

r^An Invitation spend some time each 
month among the rarest most 
exquisite treasures gfthe 
ancient and modern World! 

"The most beautiful magazine printed in the 
English language," THE CONNOISSEUR 
contains full-colour plates, illustrations and au- 
thoritative articles on: 
Arms& Armour 
Plus, definitive news on the showings, sales 
and events worth noting in American and Eu- 
ropean galleries, museums, auction rooms and 
private collections. 

eO.WOISSEUR S6.00acopy. 

1 year $48.00 (You save $24.00 from the single- 
cops cost). 

2 wars $85.00 (You save S59.00 from the single- 
cop\ cost). 

I oi these substantial savings, just till in and clip 
out the Subscription Order Form below and mail 
it today. 

Your first copy will be on its vva\ to you in six to 
twelve weeks. Watch for it! 


P.O Box 10120. Des Moines. Iowa 50350 

)(>s! I lease send me THE COYVOISSM'R 

( )ik- yeai ( 12 months) for S4X.00 

(saves me S24 00 from the single-cops cost) 

I v\o vears (24 months) for $85.00 

(saves me $5S> 00 from the singlc-eopj cost) 

I'auiicnl is enclosed ; Bill me 


St. Hi 

Illl ( ()\\( )|SSI I R M. 00 ,i cop\ 

\ I'ubli 

Zip - 

\\ Dsl 





European Ivory • Jade 

Hardstones • Netsukes 

Snuff Bottles 

March 22nd and 23rd 

At Our Galleries 

No Buyers Premium. 

I eaturincj moo- than 150 lotsc 
European Ivory, more than 150 
lots of Oriental Ivory, and more 
than 300 lots of Jades, Mardstotu 
Ait riouveau Bronzes, Snull l>< >ttl< 
rMid Metsukes. 

Illustratcdc atalocjue available 
on or about January I, 1080. 
$12.50 postpaid; overseas 
$1 7.50 postpaid . 


825 Woodward Avenue, Pontiat, Michigan 48053 
(313)338 9203 • Inquiries ask for "Appe! hot." 

Antique Early 19th-century Kazak Rug, 

very rare type 

Size 3x4.10 

On brick-red field, 2 
star medallions with at- 
tached latchhooks, one 
yellow, one red. Re- 
peated geometric leaf 
design on olive green 
border. In reds, blues, 
greens, yellows and 

Rare Collection 

of Antique 

Persian, Turkish, 

Caucasian, Chinese 

and French Rugs. 

Special Repair & Cleaning dept. for 
Hugs, Tapestries & Needlework 

1125 Madison Ave., New York, N.Y. 10028 

OnthtN.B loinrr of 84lh St. • (212)838-3763 
An and Antique Dealers League of America Iru. APPRAISALS 


/ hi ( Unniiiy w m . |.i 

TO H.M. Q1 EI V 



Mcvre G?wu&fi and Continental olicvtr. c/funiattttw. 
c/fntia/ie tfeu>e£d, oMm o/fiuff- 2jox&4 




\ - 

% r 


XVIIIth-century Dutch silver basket byjohan Fredrick Seis, Amsterdam 1769. 

Length (between handles) : ty. 50 inches 

W eight : 5 1 .35 ounces 

From out collation oj antique continental silver. 





1, ///S/ J 

Valuations for Probate, Insurance and Division 

A. WtbL.HLtK &: MJIN 

l ) E St. NAY. Washington, D.C. 20004 Tel. 202 628-1281 


FRI., SAT., SUN., FEBRUARY 22, 23 & 24 

I XI 111)11 If >N 
I ii., Feb. 15 through Mon., I eb. 18 

I0 .i in to 5 p in. Sun Noun to 

( Ad miss urn SI Benefit Georgetown 

University ( entei loi Sight) 

Fri., Feb. 22 through Sun., Feb. 24 

Daily 11 a.m. - Sun. 12 Noon 
(Catalogue Admits Two to Sale) 

Illustrated ( atalogue,$10; U.S. Mail $13; Overseas $15. 'Avail. Feb. 8) 

Post Sale Price List $2 

! ree Illustrated Brochure on Request 

JuliusSergiusVon Klever (Russian 1850- ' 
Winter Woodland Scene. Signed in C 
and dated 1897. Oil on canvas. 35|x22£ 
ot three Klever paintings in this sale 



Petrovich Sokolov 'Russia 1821-1898). Winter Landscape with 
Wolves Attat king .i I roika. Signed in ( Cyrillic . Oil on canvas. 14 ' \ _' I 

'ladimii O. Shervud kussun 1833-1897). Caucasian Mountain 
/ith Sheep. Signed in Cyrillic. Oil on canvas. 3 65 x 54l 

Wo kei (Ger. 1810-1872). Farmer's 

,i,.,l inrt A '\'\ ( )il nn f.inv.T, Uv >Q 

Russian 19th Century School. OctoberAutumnal Landscape. Signedindist 
and H.itpH Ortohpr 3 188ft Oil on canvas mounted on board. 14ix22i 

Attributed to Aleksandreivich Ivanov (Russian 1806- 1858). "The Appearance of the Messiah to the People "Oil on < anvas on arched 
stretcher. 25 x 70 

(ostantinovith Aiva/ouskii (Russian 18 17- 1400 Seapoi I. Signed in Cyrillic 
n canvas. 7 \ 14 1 

I e\ Feliksovich Lagono (Russian 182 -1905c F.xlensive Landscape. 
Si -tied in Cyrillic . < )il on < .hums. (■>■> \ yi 

lii Grigorievich Perou (Russian 1834- 1882. 
rait of a Bearded Man. Signed in Cyrillic. 
;>n canvas. 17 x 12;} 

Important l')th ( vntur) Russian and 
■ i ntings b) '\rsseni \ 
Mt'shi hvrsku \ \ Si \/e^- 

sandi ' ch < Io/o\ /n, M /.'< >s^/n, 

\/ 1 alumm lean-Baptistv ( amille 
( on >( ,i/)W i i(/hts ii/s. . 18th-2()th 
tury Russian ( .nman and I nglish 
Pi in plains, Sil\ ei I urniture i ; 
a linfi'' Fine Persian Carpets and Rugs 

N. Sintsov (Russian 1'JI 

ing Young Boy His Trad d ii 

canvas. 28 { x 21 1 





.- m k. i*L_ 

, -: 


A pair of unusual cut-glass sweetmeat dishes. 
London 1 838. by Paul Storr. Overall length 8^ inches. 

Our London and New York collections feature antique silver of the highest 
quality and always include exceptional and rare pieces of interest to the 

serious collector. 

Our collection of Old Sheffield Plate is also one of the largest in the country 


LONDON 43MUSEUM STREET LONDON WC1 A 1LY TEL 01-4052712 NEWYORK 104 EAST 57lh STREET NEW YORK 10022 TEL 0101-212-75-38920 
Member of the British Antique Dealers ' Association and the National Antique and Art Dealers ' Association of America 

Staffordshire Porcelain 1740-1851 

Terence Lockett and Pat Halfpenny 

Hie development of the Staffordshire porcelain and illustrate the story ol die first century <>l 
or china industry makes a fascinating story, and china making in Staffordshire. Now an attempt 
yet no modern hook has been written on the has been made to remed\ this omission. 1 he 
subject. Volumes have been devoted to the Northern Ceramic Sociels whose membership 
pottery side of the industry, and indeed mam includes manv ol the foremost ceramic historians 
monographs have appeared in recent years deal- and collectors both here and in America or- 
ing with individual factories such -is Longton ganised lor its third exhibition, reccnth held in 
Hall, Spode, Mason. Davenport and Ridgwa\ Stoke-on-Trent, a display of Stallbrdshire por- 
and much research has been published on other celain from the fust tentative beginnings in tin- 
aspects of the rise to a pre-eminent position ol earh 1 7 10s to the triumphant displa\ ol technical 
Staffordshire porcelain. l>nt the threads have masten and artistic virtuosit\ which was mani- 
ne\'er been drawn together in order to recount lest in the b'lal Inhibition. 

Tlhc origins olpmcelai n-nia knit; in I'm i e la ins I ( *7 1 has suggested there is 1 7.» ( ) I 71 1 1 tlin e w as a gap in pmduc tion 
Si, i Hi in | s| iii i' ,ii c i ,n lie i ( 1 1 im iii c. some evidenc e that a gioup hitherto re- < >l [nut chiin in Siallordshn e in nil die 
In 1 1 1 1\ I 7 111 il ina\ be assumed garded as R'eid and ( 'oiupan\ ol I avei- New I la 11 ( oinpan\ was Im ined in 1 1\\ 1 
thai heri'. as else w here in fug laud. e\- pool < . 17 V") 1 7l> I might tie l e-assigned in ( oiuinue in Slallordshh e I In- ma im- 
pel ii in -ills ii i pi( id in c die liea mil nl. u hiie l< i Steel s at New east le. Ia< Hire nl hard paste poi celain to the 
and translucent ware were taking place. follow ing these two tailed enterprises, [latenl I m inula m iginalh taken out l>\ 
1>\ 1 743 two men f hoi n as Br i and and the next at id much inure successlul veil- W illiain ( 'ookworth\ a l l'l\ mouth and 
William Steers had claimed l" have line w as that ol the f oiigton I lall la< toi \ subsecpieiitb made b\ Richard 
made porcelain. These tentative trials I7JII 17MI Collectors have lorn; ( Hianipinii at Iii istol with whom the New 
pre-date both Bow and ( 'helsea. though valued pieces I nun this enterprise and I lall pai I tiers negotiated. Recenl re- 
both were unsuccesslul as documents in die exhibition iik hides some choice search has i evea led t hat this pictiue uia\ 
the i ,ise o| biiaiid. anil lire-distorted examples covet in g the lull range ol pi < i- ha\ e to be modi lied slighth . \\ m k done 
wasters from Steers' Newt astle-undcr- ductimi Iron) undergla/e blue painied b\ John \liuia\ and ( «eolhc\ (iodden 
Lyme 'Pomona' factor\ indicate. I hese wares to the line large pohclnome indicates thai the Stallordshire potters 
bit t ti are on displas and iik hide i he ex- painted nu it; with the vcr\ ivpical under- did no I entireh lose all interest in poi- 
cavated fragments nl a bowl inscribed in gla/e colnui known as ■fittler's Blue' celain production in thai I wi-nt \ veai 
undergla/.c blue with the date "JV7/// July NO. 1 -is well as figures, dessert dishes period. Ii would appeal thai William 
/ / th . I he Newcastle porcelain I rat;- and examples ol standard t a blew a res. I attlcr having lclt the Staflm dshirc 
ments have not yet been conclusiveh Ii has usualh been maintained that <- I7h! he had been the inaiiagei ,u 
matched with surviving whole pieces, altei the closure ol Longton Hall and fongton Hall spcnl several \e.u in 
though (ieolbiN (iodden in his 'An the failure nl the short-lived Reid and Scotland at West I'.ms makmt; and 
Introduction to English Blue and White .John Iiaddele\ partnershij) at Shelton orating porcelain, and then 


Mm;, soil paste porcelain, moulded with 
three reserve panels, decorated underglaze 
with a band of Lit tier's blue and overglaze 
with enamelled flowers and birds. Long ton 
Hall. < . 17 r >T>. Height: (> inches. See Bernard 
Watney, 'Longton Hall Porcelain' i l ( ). r >7) for 
,t lull discussion of the factory's wares. 
Pri\ ate collection. 

1770s 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 < < I in Si.illi imKIhi i .iikI 
,i( led again as iii.ih.ilmi ol ,i porcelain 
I. n ti u \ inn h\ Ralph Baddelex . and 
which ma\ have Haded as Baddeley, 
l)i M 1 1 1 1 and ( 'ol ii | i.i n\ until r. 1 7<".7. I all lei 
died in 17B-1, Iiul death emerges as a 
man ol pel sistent e and < il lailh in the 
pit idin l In made al I ,< n i sj, t < hi Hall and 
\\ i i Pans | lie wares now associated 
with his i lui d and final venture can 
provisional he relei red to as the Vadd\ 
Li . s< i-t ailed altei a well-know n lea 
t add\ in the Stoke ('it\ Museum col- 
lection de< oi aled with a t hinoisei ie 

s( die III oll-gla/.< enamels No. 'J . I Ills 
whole ( lass ol wares had hitherto heeu 
ascribed as 'probabh Liverpool ol the 
Wolle I. ii lots -. 17!).") 1800. The re- 
t lassilit al it hi lo Slalloi (Klin e and the 
continuing del tale as to the pre< ise title 
ol die lii iii which ma\ have been i cs- 
ponsihle. is siill so ret ent thai a positive 
statement is unwise. Bui il is a fascinating 
example ol die it-suits ol persistent and 
detailed I eseart 11. 

A similai comment is apposite in the 
case ol die origin and development ol 
In hi e china. Here the tradition is strong 
that Josiah Spode n il lie did not 'invent' 
hone china certainh pel lei led il and 
marketed ii supremeh well. Once more 
recent i eseai i 1 1 lias i e\ ealed dial I he 
e\i i eincK loveh and rare porcelain pro- 
diii ed l>\ (allies Xeale and ( 'oinpanx ol 
ll.iiile\ is in chemical composition a 
hone ( Inn. i made some ten years before 
I i ii Spode "in\ cnlK hi oi 'pcrlet I ion 
No. "> . Indeed, as Reginald Hangar 
points out in an important essa\ in the 
c at a loo He in diis exhibit ion. bone ash. as 
.in ingredient ol Knglish porcelain was 
well-kin iw ii Ihhii die lime ( il Bow and 
Lowesloll onwards. I lie admixture ol 

Teapot, lea caddy, coffee cup and cream 
jug. All soil paste porcelain decorated in 
overglaze enamels \ ith chi toiserieor floral 
designs. All "cadi! ributed to 

Baddeley/Liltler.r. 17.:' height : 

) ' inc lies is from the (.' Stoke- 

on-Trent, other items fron 
Sec (i. A. Godden in C.'olU'i t tie 

and July 1979 for lull details 

//„ ( omimsM-m latitui \ I'WI 

1. Mug (height: 41 inches), tea pot (height: 
(> ■ inches) and stand, bone ( hina decorated 
in enamel colours and gilding Mark: Mug 
impressed 'NEAI. I & CO.". Tea pot attributed 
to Neale. c. 177K-17MO. The mug is in (In- 
City Museum Stoke-on-Trent, the teapot 
and stand are from the Geoffrey (iodden. 
Reference Collection. Sec Northern 
Ceramic Society Jo u >'»«/, Volume 3, 1979 for 
other examples. 

Iimiic witli (Ik haul paste ini^i cdiciils 
i il ( lnii.i ( !,i\ ,iikI < Inn. i sli mr u ,is lint 
,i |i xjjc ,il .in' I indeed ine\ itable 
( lev eli ipmenl . 

I'l e-i K ( npal k mi w idi l lie i)()(l\ i il ,i 
IX tree hi in is oil en regarded .is .i strange 
aberration on i lie pai l < >l collet tors, and 
whilst il is line that potters \,n led I lien 
'mixes quite coiisiderabh and there was 
in > i me soli | ). isle l)od\ and ( ei I. link no 
(Hie hone ( lllll, I I >< >d\ . \ el I lie si ud\ ol 
paste oi both is important loi collet tors 
and w as a ten Ira I concern < > 1 the potters 
themselves. Here again the recent exhi- 
bition breaks new ground, loi wlnKi 
die wares ol New II. ill are well-known 
anil have been loni> understood as an 
Kiiglish version ol Chinese li.nd p. isle 

poll (1,1111 No. ( I . I I IS ( III I \ III \ (1 \ I ('( (III 

\ eai s dial the lull i ani;e ol w lial 1 )a\ id 
I locate in his standard book called 'I lie 
Imitators lias begun |o be recognised. 

1 1 1 us ,is well as ,i huge set lion <>l New 
I hill | H H ( el, mi. die exhibition ( ontained 
antheiitii examples ol h.ud paste por- 
( (lain oi 'hybrid d p. isle as il isotten 
(ailed li ( mi I In I ni mi I.u li a \ N( i. ) , 
hoin 1 ).i\ cnporl No. (i . am 1 li i mi Miles 
Mason. I here w ei e also pieces Iron) 
I hose I xitt ei ies designated b\ I loi gate as 

1 ,k lories' x. N .mi\ / As I hei e is no 
i ei I <u nt \ . as \ ei . dial these ( atfgol ies are 
watei-llghl groupings, and dial all were 
positi\el\ located m Stallordshire, theii 
i epi csi n la I K iii was on 1\ ,i token one. 

A hu thei pri ibleinal it al area w as 
I epl esc n I e< I l)\ I lie piet e shown 111 No. f). 

I liis lin II i |)i 1 1 is n i. ii kid 'w * * * and is 
li aditionalh asi ribetl to Knot h \\ oik I 
w ho potted in htirsleni < . I 7o I \H 10. I lis 
earthenware production especialh in 
hgures is well-known as are his bine 

I Jug height: 5, 1 inches), hard paste por- 
< (lain, painted by Fidelle Duvivier, New 
Mall. c. 1782-1787. Presentation piece with 
initials 'si)' for Samuel Daniel cousin of John 
Daniel one of the New Hall partners. 
Extensively decorated in overglaze enamels 
with landscape scene and exotic birds: m 
the background smoking kilns. (!it\ 
Museum, Stoke-on-Trent. 

Mug (height: 3J inches) and sucrier 
height : r > ', inches), cover and stand. All hard 
paste porcelain. Mug, decorated overglaze 
with a pinky/grey chinoiserie design, Mark : 
'TURNER' impressed on the foot ring, c. 1785. 
The sucriet with pineapple knob and en- 
amel floral sprig decoration. Mark : TURNER' 
impressed on the stand 1 79f>— 1 8(M). The mug 
is in the City Museum, Stoke-on-Trent, the 
sucrier is from the Geoffrey Godden Ref- 
erence Collection. 

printed wares with A merit an scenes, I a it 
the port elain is vcr\ ran - , and the direct 
evidence that he was the maker ol these 
wares is very sc.mi indeed. They are oi 
the h\ la itl hard paste type and examples 
are also known uiih the asterisk mark 
.iikI painted atltlil ioiialb l Billingsley, 
M(insfuld\ (Obviously, wares bought in 
the while .iihI decorated l>\ that much 
travelled pcrlet tionisl in the period ol his 
sojourn at the Mansfield decorating shop 
i . I 7't ( i 1 .".nl. Teawares too are attri- 
buted to Wood because ol the initial and 
asterisk mark and were displayed in the 
Kxhibition and wen illustrated and 
discussed b\ (icoflrey (iodden in Ins 
"( imde to Knglish Port 'el. tin" Plate 7 1 . 
By the lime William Billingsley was 
established in Mansfield and det orating 
these problematical pieces, the 
Staffordshire porcelain industry was in 
its most dvnamic stage. The earh years 
ol st i uggle and la i lure had given way to a 
period < >l success and expansion. Success 
had started with the New I fall company 
which made porcelain for the lowei end 
ol the middle-class market. Thereafter, 
the development ol bone china, so mut li 
more stable in the kiln, whiter in finish, 
and t hea pei to manufacture ensured the 
supremacy ol Staffordshire in the nine- 
teenth century and brought porcelain 
even further down market. Some ol the 
mosi important and prolific firms en- 
tered the mdiisii \ in the last decade ol 
the eighteenth and the first decade ol the 
nineteenth centuries. Selling both bone 

I w o 'D'-shaped bulb pots, both hard paste 
porcelain. I .Hi Decorated overglaze with 
a landscape in purple monochrome and 
moulded decoration in salmon pink and gold 
(height: 6o inches). Mark: ''Davenport'' over 
an anchor both impressed, c. 1800-1805. 
Ri 'hi Decorated overglaze with landscape 
m enamel colours, gilded outlines, (height 
5 V ' inches. Impressed mark: 'w(***)', 
attributed to Enoch Wood, c. 1800. The Wood 
piece is in the City Museum. Stoke-on- 
Trent, the Davenport example from the 

Geoffrey (iodden Reference Collec tion. 

//;, I imnnl 

7 Teapot and cover height : 6 ', inches), bone 
china, new oval shape, decorated over- 
glaze with a blue bat-printed landscape 
and gilding. Mark : W/xx/c' and pattern '61 t' 
both painted in red, c. 1803. Vase (height: 
6] inches), bone china decorated overglaze 
with grey bat printed landscape Mark: 
pattern number ''557'' painted in red. Spode, 
c. 1805-1810. Both private collections. 

iliiii, i and ,i range ol earthenwares the 
three highest eonecrns, Minton, S])ode 
and Davcnpoi I outsti ipped all dun 
rivals in size and volume <>l production. 
Spode above .ill set the tone. Josiah 
Spode marketed bone china with flail 
and stvle. I he still extant pattern books 
show a range of fine designs deeoi a ted in 
the pre\ ailing Regency style, in ceramic 
terms that meant shapes and forms still 
responsive to the constraints of Neo- 
classicism, but displaying in decoration a 
vers Knglish love o I landscape scenes and 
(lowers, sometimes enamelled but often 
bat-printed No. 7) and with the rather 
( flourish of lavish gilding. In 
the vears up to 1 H 2 Spodes wares 
decorated b\ Henry Daniel outshone all 
rivals. Minion was not lar behind, but 
having begun poo elain manufac lure in 
1 7bb. ihev abandoned it in 18 lb for no 
apparent reason. When they resumed in 
I 82 1 the stvle was < hanging and revived 
Rococo was imminent. Davenport t<><> 
excelled in the production ol bone china, 
bin from beginning manufacture c. 1800 
to the middle ol the decade, they also 
produced, as has been noted, a hybrid 
hard paste No. b . The Prince of Wales 
and the 1 bike < >l ( 'lai enc e v isited the 
lactones ol bo ih Davenport and Spode in 
180b. The Koval visitors also went to 
Wedgwoods which in the lifetime ol 
Josiah had nevei marketed porcelain, 
though i . 1812 the man ulac line ol bone 
i hin, i was begun and continued to 
i. 1825. At about the same time, c. 1812. 
New Hall Imallv abandoned hard paste 

H Tureen, cover and stand (height: 5] 
inches), all bone china. Handles in form of 
goat's head, pineapple knob. Decorated 
overglaze with enamelled floral groups. 
Mark impressed on stand ''PEOVER'' and 
pattern '20' painted in puce, c. 1820. The 
name of Peover occurs in rate records from 
1818-1822. Mr. Peover leased a works in 
High Street, Hanley from John Glass, in 1822 
the works is recorded as in the occupation ol 
Ann Peover. Only one other marked piece of 
Peover porcelain is on record, this too is 
displayed in the exhibition. City Museum 
and Art Gallerv, Stoke-on-Trent. 

Ih, I -(»„ m ,«, |.i 

1 Tureen and cover (height : A\ inches) and 
dish (length: 11 inches), all bone china, 
dec orated in on-glaze enamel colours with a 
bowl of fruit, encircled by bands of light and 
dark underglazc blue, enriched with gild- 
ing, both marked: 'Breeze No. W in red 
script, c. 1825-1830. There are 'Directory' 
entries for John Breeze and Company of 
Cobridge 'china manufacturer' in the late 
1820s. Tureen from the Geoffrey Godden 
Reference Collection; dish from (he City 
Museum, Stoke-on-Trent. 

.Hid the iikIiis!i\ was united in ] >i < x I n< - 
1 1 rj 1 1 1 i i he i me porcelain I )< k1\ . bone 
(Inn. i. though il lnusi be stressed 
i hci c wen mam varial ions some ,i 
1 1 1 1 1 1 i ion ol price . Ii oin the standard 
leu inn la ol ">0 pei cen l bone ash, 2 > per 
( cni china cla\ and 2") pel cenl china 

As the si/.e ol the industry inci easei 1 
and markets expanded, main ol the 
great < • i o | ) i ( ■ < ■ i n 1 1 - < i-i 1 1 in \ II. lines clis- 
appeared. < msted b\ the ( oinpel ition 
Irom 'the Potteries'. Bow and Chelsea 
were bought out b\ Duesbun ol Derbv, 
Plymouth and Bristol succumbed to New 
Hall, the lone survivoi in Liverpool aft ei 
1 800 \\ .is i lie I lei ( ulaneiim Pol lei \ . 
Lowestoft closed i. 1801, . 1 1 i(l though 
\\ orccstei and the Coalporl concerns 
continued, they nuisl have lelt the sharp- 
ness ol the Stallordshire i oinpeiiiion. 
Statistics \\lii(h appealed in the recent 
exhibition catalogue loi the lnsi lime. 
revealed that local Stallordshirc 
l)iic( tones list |usi twiii hina manufac- 
iineis in 1 78 1. b\ 180") the numbei had 
risen to tweiitv, in 1822. no levvei than 
lorty-two are listed and in 1850 some 
si\i\ live. Main ol die names listed have 
i level had am wares attributed to them, 
presumably all theii output was un- 
marked. Bui some fat tones did mark a 
lew ol i heii pi od in ts. and a spet lal ellorl 

In Three vases, all hone china. I. (Ii 
Octagonal lor in, moulded w ith basket work 
pattern, mask head terminals, on-glaze 
enamel painting of a vase of flowers (height : 
I 1 inches). Mark: ' U ' , ' painted in red, 
Mayer and Newbould,'c.l820-1830. (Centre). 
Three panels each hung with an enamel 
painted floral garland height: 5 inches). 
Mark:',., painted in red. Charles Bourne, 
i. 1820—1825. Righi Decorated in overglaze 
enamels w ith a named \ iev\ height : 5 inches . 
Mark : ' I anthill Ab hey" 1 and pattern number 
• ' ' both m black script, c. 1820, lohn and 
William Ridgway. The first piece in the 
Geoffre) Godden Reference Collection, the 
last two items from the (his Museum, 

///, ( wmh/iwui. Januan 198(1 

Trr — ■ 



I i Plate and teapot, both bono china. I.c li 
Decorated in tiverglazc cnaincl colours with 
a central Highland landscape within a bull 
border with gilding (diameter: 'I 1 inches . 
Hilditch and llo]>wood. c. 184"). The shape 
is a design registered l>\ tin-* firm. K i ■ ■ 1 1 1 
Decorated overgla/e with a wide band ol 
greet) and sprays of roses enamelled 
(height: <> inches). Hilditch and Sons or 
Hilditch and Hopwood, c. 1!!(> Private 

1 1 ; i s been made to displa\ .is man\ ol 
these rarities as possible. Illustrated here 
ai esomeol the real I \ unusual piec es sin li 
,is the two examples marked 'l'l-.ovi-.K 

No. ?! and two III. liked 'likl i/i No. 
'• . Less rat e. hut still unusual, are llie 
marked \laver and New boitld examples 

No. Ill and I lie ( !hai les Bourne pieces 

Nos. II) and lb . In a sli"Jitl\ dill, lent 
e.ttee.(H \ are the Mat h in and ( 'onipam 
( up and saucer. Recent research on the 
In in I >\ Philip M illei , pul dished m 
\ ( ih unc "> 1 1 1 die .\ in I //< i ii ( '.ii a in 1 1 Si i, i cly \ 
'jniiiiinl. has !_u\en an outline tonspec Ins 
cil then pal lei n i aniM' in teaw ai es and 
in i i it 1 it ation ot then standard slui| »es. 

I he c|iialil\ is sell-e\ ldent when seen 
next to the torn para hie Minion and 
Mason piec es. Anolhei e.uh nineteentll- 
ientur\ linn whose products are well 
1 1 pi esented and which ai e in >w much 
In t lei know u is ol 1 I ilchtc li and 
Sons and llildilch and Hopwood No. 
I I . I he painstaking work ol I Yum 1 1 el in 

and Ins h lends pul > 

ished in \ olunie J ol 
the .\m l/iii ii (.iiiiiiiii Sniiity's '/iiuiiiii/ 

1**77 , has o i \ c • 1 1 considerable insight 
lino 1 he Insli ii \ ,i]n\ pi i nine Hon ol I his 
1 1 1 1 i t < " loiljU-llVed illlel pi lse. I he mile h 
mote l.uniliai wans ol Miles Mason. 
Wedgwood No. | 'J . II. and R. Daniel 

No. hi . ( . J. Mason. Samuel Alcock 
and ( 'onipam Nos. II and l(>. the 
Rtd<"\\a\s No. 10 and ('oi)eland and 

I J Ink stand and cup and saucer, all bone 
china. Inkstand height: 'i J inches with 
fitments for pens etc. decorated with 
Chinese style figure subjects in on-gla/e 
enamels. Mark 'WEDGWOOD' printed in red. 
Pattern 494, c. 1815. Cup (height: 2 ', inches 
and saucer decorated in enamel colours 
with named birds flanked by groups of 
leathers, attributed to Aaron Steele. Mark: 
'WEDGWOOD' printed in green and 'Pied 
Wagtail' painted in grey on cup. 'Sedge Bird' 
painted in grey on the saucer. Private 
collections. See ). K. des Fontaines, in 
'Proceedings' ol the Wedgwood Society, 
Volume 10. 197*). for full details of this earls 
bone c lima. 

|.i ,n I'lKII 

i I Tureen stand, teapot, cup and saucer all 
hone china. Stain! decorated with a green 
ground border inset with panels <>l floral 
bouquets and exotic birds, die centre with 
the < rest of the Earl of Shrewsbury. From 
one of the services made to his order. 
Mark: 7/ c\. R Daniel, Stoke-on-Trent, 
Stuffordshire\ c. 1827. Teapot (height: 6 
inches on lour leal moulded feet decorated 
with pink ground between gold bands, and 
additional gilding. Mark: '^676"' (the pattern 
number painted in gold, II. and R. Daniel, 
v. 1830-1835. Cup (height: 2.1 inches) and sau- 
c it. with hea\ ily moulded border decorated 
with enamelled exotic birds. Mark: '42J7' 
the pattern number painted in gold on the 
cup. II. and R. Daniel, c. 1830. Various 

(Jarrcti No. If) arc also illustrated here. 
No. In -.hows ,i representative y,roup ol 
Staflordshhe porcelain (inures which, ii 
he hi Id Id- remembered are lai Irom 
plenlihtl in the period nuclei review I he 
l.]ii\(l ol Shelton lis>"nres .tic represen- 
tati\ •(■ ol (jtiite .1 substantial class, so too 
are (he Min ton examples, but the Adams 
piei e is e Ntrcineh rai e. si 1 It 10 is the 
Alcock bust. B\ 111)1 parian porcelain 
had bci>un to make an imparl, but tin 
Hi h k| (i| parian ware espet i.tlh busts and 
1 1", 1 1 res nl populai heroes, ro\alt\ and 
ihealrical I inures comes at a slight 1\ latei 

A iniisi interesting indication ol the 
size .ind strength nl the Staffordshire 
nidiist i \ has been pi t ivided ret cut l\ 
1 1\ Ki idne\ 1 lanipsim s research in 
iIk Wedgwood archives .11 Keele 
I ni\ crsiiN . A dot umenl ret mils the 
In) malion in 111 ><i nl .1 pottei \ manufac- 
t liters ( Ihainber ol ( 'onimen e, 1 he hinds 
I >i ( i\ ided b\ ,1 lcv\ on members al 
the rate ol .")\. per oven. I he huge scale 1 >l 
certain lai loi ies at that date is indit ated 
b\ the lai 1 thai 1 leni \ and Willi. 1111 
Davenport and Company, had no lewei 
1 hau 1 lni i\ 1 >\ ins. ( '1 ipeland and ( iarretl 
lw en 1 \ -li\ e. Minimi and Alt o< ks twenty 
each, I. mull Wood had tweiit\ -one. 

I Vases, both bone c lima. I'll Flared rim 
.mil foliate handles, underglaze blue ground 
and on-gla/.e enamel decoration of a land- 
scape 1 Mowers on the reverse height: 10 
me lies . Mark. , painted in black and 
with black printed registration mark for 
l\ February 1843. Samuel Alcock and 
Company, c. 1843. Kiln Overglaze dec- 
oration ol an apple green ground with 
enamelled Moral bouquet height: 8 '. in- 
ches . Mark. , painted in pink. Samuel 
Ah eie k and Company, c. 1845. Hot h ( .colli ev 
Godden Reference Collection. 

//„ Connniwrui. |anujr\ 19HI 

Tea cup, coffee cup and saui er, all l>«>nt' 
china. Cup (height: 3.1 inches) all of faceted 
shape, the pale yellow ground decorated 
with floral sprays in enamel colours. Mark : 
T it G. 47.')" in red script on coffee cup. 
Copt-land and Garrett, c. 183"}. Private 

Wedgwood and Sons fifteen, whereas 
Hilditch and S< ms had onl\ three. 1 1 
must l)e i emembei e< I . how e\ ei . thai 
these were nol i hina ovens < »nl\ . and 
mosl (>l ihe linns mentioned above were 
major earthenware mannfaeturers, in- 
deed Wedgwoods made no i hina at .ill a I 
this period. Snlliee lo sa\ thai an in- 
( 1 1 ist i \ of vei\ eonsiderahle si/.e had 
developed m North Staffordshire whose 
products, when displayed in the 
Kxhibition evinced .i technical master\ 
which would have astonished the pion- 
eer porcelain makers of the 1740s and 
"ids. The revived Rococo style ol the 
1830s and '40s is not t< > everyone's taste 
todav, hut its pi cdoininaiu e in the taste 
of the time enabled the Staffordshire 
pon clam makers to exhibit then 
complete masten ol the medium. 
Staffordshire bone china had ousted all 
competition. All t lie on t-potteries such as 
Derbv and Woreestci used bone china, 
and indeed it is still the staple body ol the 
Staffordshire china indiisi r\ to this da\ . 

Sta/Jiadshire Porcelain was the subject of a 
i rt i n I exhibition In hi ol tlh City Museum and 
Ail (•nllciy. Stoke-on- I n nl . I In jully illus- 
trated catalogue <tv/t prefaced with detailed 
articles In Arnold Mount/ord, Reginald 
llauvtn and Da rid lloloatt . and edited by the 
aiillnn \ oj this mlii le. 

1 1), Group of biscuit, glazed and parian 
figures. | Back row) Bisque bust of William IV 
height: 9,1 inches). Mark: 'Published as 
the Act Directs by Satnl. Alcoek & Co. 
Cobridge, Staffordshire, October 1828" 
printed in blue with beehive device mark. 
Enamel coloured bone china figure of a 
woman in Moorish dress. Mark: 'LLOYD 
SHELTON' impressed, c. 1840-1845. Parian 
figure of a girl with additional gilding. 
Mark: 'ADAMS' impressed on back of base, 
c. 1845— 1850. limit row Bone china coloured 
ram (length: 31 inches) and cat (length: 2.1 
inches) both marked 'CB' painted in red, 
Charles Bourne, c. 1820—1825. Pair of figures 
of a girl tying a shoe lace, the coloured 
example in bone china, the uncoloured is 
parian, both height: 31 inches, both Minton 
c. 1825—1845. Pair of coloured bone china 
figures of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert 
each with a child. Albert: 51 inches high. 
Mark: 'LLOYD SHELTON' impressed on both. 
Various collections. 

1 h, ( onwmifur.Jaiuun I9HII 




Patrick A. Dunae 

I Ins \ i.ii in, ii ks the i mi' hundredth 
,h in i vn s.i i \ of the Inu IK ling of 7 he Hoy 's 
< ),, n I'njti i . a magazine remembered as 'a 
l.ulliliil i i i(ii(l to generations ol boys'. 
I mil n icascd publication twelve years 
ago ii was die longest-running juvenile 
papci in history. Ihc bop. as it yvas affec- 
tionately known to millions ol \oudis 
throughout the Knglish-spcaking world, 
was respected lor its integrity and for 
(he situ ere interest it took in its readers. 

I he papei pro\ ided its i eadei s with 
st i mu la ting articles on phi kit el v. popuhu 
science, model-making, and athletics. 

I In r.< >p alsi i provided them with a in Ii 
assortment ol school stories and adven- 
ture tales, w i itten l)\ si ime ol the most 
p< ipulai ant hors ol the dav. 

I lie Hoy's Own was launched by the 
Religious Tract Society k is a centur\ 
ago in ordei to combal the sensational 
juvenile [)eriodicals which were then 
i im 1 1 la ting in Britain. 1 he penny dread- 
luls. as the disreputable papers were 
( ailed, leal in ed tales ol juvenile loot pads 
and rebellious schoolbovs. Liberally 
spiced with 'blood and thunder", t he 
dreadfuls were accused ol promoting 
|ii\ enile delinquent \ and an\ numbei ol 
i it hei' anti-st it ial behavit mis. 

I he \< i s. w lut h was one < il the oldest 
and largest evangelical societies in 
Britain, had long been opposed to sen- 
sal ion a I literature in an\ lorm : however, 
with the advent ol the 1 870 Kdu< ation 
At I. the Si ii iii\ s i ippi isition to I he 
literature int leased. The Lducation At t 
introduced a s\ siein of Inc. compulsory 
i lenient. u\ education, and in so doing 
< i eatet I .i million new places in the 
primary st hools () | Kngland and Wales. 

I he ids along with othei ri'lorming 
gi"tmps. feared dial bo\s who were being 
educated in the new set nlai st hot ils 
w i mid bet adei s and ultimately 

\ it timsof 'unw holesonit ] iei it k licals. 1 o 
preyenl thai Ironi happening, the 
Sot iet\ resolved to sponsoi an edifying 

penny w eekl\ that could Mict essfulK 
1 1 'i hi t he th tat lluls i m their ow n "I oiind. 

Initially, the rts hoped dial their When The Bin's Own Paper made its 
proposed periodical would be issued bv a inaugural appearance on Saturday, 
lay publishei . Im although the Society 18 January 187'). the competition was 
published a number ol magazines in- fierce. No less than a do/en boys' week- 
eluding the Visitor, the Lei sun Hour, and lies were being published and some rts 
Sundd) at Ilium , it was reluctant to dive members wondered whether their paper 
headlong into the notoriously t aprit ions would even secure a place mi the news- 
juvenile market. Bui the Society was siands. Their fears were quickly dispel- 
iinable to interest an\ ol London's com- led. lor the hop was an immediate suc- 
niertial publishers in the project. An t ess. Within three days .ill copies had 
one, the ris later reported, 'would incur been sold ami the BOP offices at 56 
the iisk ol pecuniary loss which the Paternoster Row were inundated with 
publication seemed to threaten. The subscription requests. The paper also 
Sot iety . therelore. was obliged to under- made a profit, which lew of the ris' other 
take the venture itself, anil alter a Mar's publications were able to do. More im- 
work it was reach to put its ideas into portantly, as far as the ris was con- 
action, cerned, the bop's manlv, muscular 

•• :..,„, |.,!IU.iI\ I'lHO 



■o. 1 -VoL I. 


Old B.-y. 

ww * proud moment 
Id my siintanee when 
Wright, captain of our 
football club, aame op 
to me in school cue 
Friday and • a i d, 
" Adams, your tmnm ia 
down to play In the 
match against Craven 


I could have knight**! him on tbe ipot. 
To be one of tb« picked " 6fteeu," whose 
glory it woe to fight tbe battles <>f 
■chool Id the Gnat Cloaft, ha-! been the 
loading ambition of my life I nuppoae I 
ought to Ihi ashamed to oonJeel it ever 
since, at a little chap of ten, I entered 
Parkburat aii yearn ago. Not a winter 
Saturday but bad aoen mo either looking 
on at aoine big match, or ofteoar still 
scrimmaging about with a score or so of 
other junior* in a scratch game. But for 
a k>ng time, do what I would, I always 

Prloe One Penny. 

seamed m far as ptoi from the coveted 
goal, and was half despairing of erei nn- 
iiig to win my "first fifteen oap." Lat- 
terly, however, I bad noticed VY tight and 
a f-'w others of our besl players more than 
onoe lounging about In the UtUe OIom 
where we junior* need t.. play, evidently 
taking observations with an wye I" business. 
Under the awful gaze .if these heroee, need 
I say I exerted myself ™ I bad uavei done 
before P What cam] 1 f.-r h«.-kn or bniisea, 
so only that I culd distinguish myafjf in 
their eyca ? And nerer was uuii<] sweeter 

X, r*fl:< 



Christian message was reaching a huge 
,iiii li< in c. \\\ 1 Htti) the papei was selling 
^i\ hundred thousand < < >pies pei week 
and in ill*' wars dial lollowed Us ( im u- 
lal u m passe< 1 i he i me niilln >n mat k a 
limn «' w liu h tew < il hei < ( mtempoi ar\ 
pci it »di( als a< lull < n |u\ enile w ei c able 
h i man h. 1 ndee< I w il Inn a de< ade < >l Us 
founding 7//c Hays Own had be< nine an 
insiu m ion. I he Lords <>l the Admiralty 
ollered to lake it Iree of ( barge to hoys in 
die outposts ol (he Kmpire, and several 
headmasters reported thai the\ were 
iimii^ il as classroom aids. I he critics 
were «<|iiall\ enthusiasti< and to a man 
the\ applauded ihe 'war which the bop w.i^iiii; against the 'degrading and 
debilitating dreadful'. * I he Iiuv\ Own 
Vd\hi\ one ol diem noted in Wu\\\, 'has 
had a gi eatei su< ( ess than an\ < tl her 
boys' papei ol a high-< lass published in 
Kngland . . . Us arti< les. are a model ol 
w ha! .i b( >\ s peri< x 1 i< al \ >ughl to be . 

I he success ol the itop was pai ll\ the 
result ol Us parent - resources. Ihe rts 


MARCH 1931 


w c u ~ 


r S Milk Chocolate U 

was. I>\ the lH70s, .1 large multi-national 
organisation, with an impressive port- 
lolio o| Consols, railway storks, and 
overseas investments. As a result, the i< is 
was able in 1 1 1 ) « « i .t great deal <>l capital 
into the paper and. once the paper was 
established, it continued to invest monev 
in up-to-date printing machinery. The 
Societv also had powerful friends and 
patrons such as the Karl ol Aberdeen 
.nitl Lord Shaftesbury who promoted 
the papei vigorously. But the papers 
greatest asset w as undoubted lv its editor, 
( ie< irge Andrew 1 liilt hison. 

I bin hison, who was a printer b\ trade, 
had been i e( 1 1 ii nd in 1878 to design the 
specimen numbers ol the hop. lie re- 
mained with the papei lor thirtv-five 
vears. although much to his disappoint- 
ment lie was not ollicialh recognised as 
editor until 1897. Prior to that date, the 
editorial » hair nominal lv held b\ 1 )i 
James Macaulay. a long-time member 
ol the R i s. Nevertheless. I nun the outset 
Hutchison w as in all Inn name the 
papei s managing editor. He supervised 
the lavouts, organised the hop's evei 
popnl.n prize competitions, and hand- 
led most ol the editorial correspondence. 
1 1 w as also ihanks n> I Inn hison thai the 
papei was able to serialise the stories ol so 

many distinguished boys' authors. Bop 
readers were Heated regularh to the 
tales of ( J. A. Henty, W. H. G. Kingston, 
Gordon Stables, R. M. Ballantyne, and 
Jules Verne, to name but a few. Many 
other writers such as Talbot Haines 
Reed and Arthur Conan Doyle got 
their start with The Hay's Own, and in 
later years the) were to praise Hutchison 
lot his support and encouragement. 

Despite the well-deserved plaudits he 
received, I lute bison's task was not easy. 
Specifically, he was often .u odds with 
the more conservative directors of the 
k is, who wanted to turn the bop into a 
pious, evangelical publication. Indeed, 
il was only after a long light that 
Hutchison was able to persuade the 
direi tors to include athletic notices, 
school stories, .nid spoiling tales in the 
paper: the dour directors had believed 
that such features were 'too secular' and 
several ol them tried to have the editor 
print religions sermons instead! Yet 
while Hutchison was able to keep ser- 
monising to a minimum, he did work 
hard to promote a 'moral conscience' 
among the papers readers. I'nder Ins 
direction thev raised monev for two sea- 
going lanni lies which were presented to 
the Roval National Lifeboat Institution. 

Bop readers also endowed a ward in the 
Last London Hospital and provided 
funds lor a wing which was built on to the 
Barnardo Home in Stepney. Other re- 
cipients of bop funds included overseas 
missionary societies, the National Home 
lor Crippled Boys, and the Ragged 
Schools Union. It was activities such 
as these that raised The Boy's Own above- 
its competitors and which ensured 
Hutchison's place as an innovative, en- 
lightened editor. 

hollowing Hutchison's death in 1913 
the editorial duties were assumed by A. 
L. Haydon, formerly of Cassell's and at 
one time assistant editor of a rival publi- 
cation lor bovs. Haydon had the nnenv i- 
able task of guiding the bop through the 
hirst World War. Wartime paper shor- 
tages curtailed printing runs and in 1911 
the weeklv one penny numbers were 
replaced by (><■/. monthly issues. Further 
economies had to be- introduced in 1916 
and two years Liter the price- of the paper 
was increased to one- shilling. All in all it 
was a difficult period, and there were 
tears that the paper might have to sus- 
pend publication. But like the Kmpire it 
was pledged to serve, the bop survived. 

By that lime a new group of writers 
among them Charles Gilson, Kent Can. 

///. ( nntlnlWrlll, J.I 

6JAlE<v or 'WoNDERJ^o DC1LGH] 

and Percy W'esterman had come lor- Morcovi-r, thev enabled die paper lo 
ward (<i claim the mantles ol Hentv. compete with the Magnet and (ion the 
Reed, and the other writers who had Amalgamated Press weeklies di.u lea- 
contributed to the paper in lis earlv tured die trite, hut popular, (heviriars 
years. Aficionados ol hoys' literature have stories ol 1 r. ink Richards. 
argued that stories by the new authors In 1924 («. R. Pocklington, an Oxford 

were somewhat inferior to the Victorian scholar and journalist, became the 
and Edwardian tales. While that mav be fourth editor ol 1 in Hoy's Own, and it was 
so. the bop's post-war contributors still | U s task to organise die paper's (Jolden 
commanded a large ariuv of devotees. Jubilee celebrations, which were held 

five \ ears later. 1 lie event was a stunning 
success, .uid the honours the paper re- 
ceived were unprecedented in juvenile 
publishing history. I he Lord Mayor ol 
London, various peers and a number ol 
bishops, joined the headmasters ol the 
majoi public schools and representatives 
from (he Overseas Dominions at the 
paper's birthdav banquet. I lie Prime 
Minister. Stanlcv Baldwin, was also in 
attendance, along with several members 
ol Ins ( labinet. ' 1 he eternal bo\ remains 
the same', the Prime Minister said, pav- 
ing tribute to the magazine ol his youth. 
'///( />'(/) \ Own /'(//)<>, while giving him 
(odder of all kinds, has succeeded with 
infinite skill in avoiding Scvlla and 
Charvbdis. It has not turned linn into a 
prig or a prude. It has given him in- 
tellectual interest without turning him 
into an intellectual. And perhaps best of 
all. it keeps up today as it did at it^ 

inception, that spirit ol adventure which 
is the most essential part ol the normal 
and healthv boy". 

During the next decade (he BOP con- 
tinued its tradition ol providing boys 
with factual reports and topical fiction. 
( hitwardly the paper remained much as 
it had since the war. although a number 
ol changes took place behind the scenes. 
Pocklington lelt in 1933 and was re- 
placed bv (». J. H. Noi the rolt. He in turn 
was succeeded bv Robert Harding. The 
papers publisher also changed during 
the period. In 1935 the rts amalgamated 
with the ( 'In istian Literature Soc ietv lor 
India and Africa under the name ol the 
I nited Soc ietv for Christian Literature. 
1 he new societv reorganised its publish- 
ing division to form die Lutterworth 
Press which, lor the next twenty-eight 
v ears, w as responsible lor I In Hoy's Own. 

The Second World War affected the 
BOP moie diastic allv than had die first. 
1 he size ol the paper was reduced, 
illustrations were limited, and a lower- 
grade newsprint was introduced. To 
compensate loi the enforced austerity 
measures, the echtoi temporarily de- 
creased the price ol the paper lo 'h/.. 
although he was compelled to sell more 
advertising space within the papei a 
polic v which the directors of the bop had 

I lit- 1 ' miiweui |.iiiM.u\ I'lJid 




JFlyinaA dvenlure in the Sahara 
7 C, Bridges 


always been reluctant to undertake pre- British puss. On hearing <>i the hop's nines wen- .ill handsomeh produced, 
\ iouslv restricted to the papei \ outside demise a writer lor the -Illustrated London although those from the \"u torian and 
wrappers, which were easily discarded. .\ews declared that he felt as il a part of hdwardian years are the most attractive. 
Vet while the paper survived the war, its his boyhood had been 'flung into the They sport richly embossed covers, fold- 
days were numbered, waste basket 1 . The Times sounded a ing full-coloui plates, and superb line 

Jack Cox, the editoi who took ovei in simihu note, but drew broadei impli- illustrations by such artists as R. Caton 

1 ( )4(), attempted to restore the papei Id cations, in its obituary notice. 'The Woodville, Gordon Browne, and Alfred 

its pre-eminent position. However, tin- disappearance ol The Boy's Own Paper\ it Pearse. And of course they contain orig- 

hoc's decline appeared to be irreversible said, 'is a nostalgic social landmark and inal talcs by Ballantvne, \ ''erne, and 

and was. perhaps, inevitable. Alter the perhaps a depressing and ominous com- Ilentv names which are synonymous 

wai British youths were less inclined to men t on the standards ol 1 ( )()7\ with the Golden Age ol Boys 1 I aterature. 

turn to a one shilling monthly lot en- The death ol The Boys Own was cer- Fortunately, the 'Annuals' are fairly 

ter tain incut and instruction. Instead, tainlv regrettable, particularly since few common and they can still be found in 

the\ turned increasingly to the cinema of its successors were able to maintain the bookstores, auctions, rummage sales, 

and television. The papei also had to high standards it had set. But whether its and family attics. I nbound copies of the 

contend with a new wave ol multi- loss was to be regarded as 'depressing paper, however, are much scarcer and 

coloured action comics comics like and ominous 1 is another matter. Times they command higher prices than most 

the Beano, which lured a wa\ the youngei change, tastes change; and a magazine other contemporary mass-< irculation 

readers, and the Eagle, which captivated was launched when much ol the periodicals. But as we have seen, the bop 

the older boys. Accordingly, The Boy's world was not vet lull\ explored might was no ordinary periodical. It had a 

Own, which \\m\ been losing money lor be excused for faltering in the Space Age. distinguished history and made a signi- 

ihe Lutterworth Press, was sold to In any case, although it has not appeared beaut contribution to boy-life for most 

Piunc-lfs in 1963. Gox remained as edi- on the news-stands for a dozen years, the ol its eighty-eight years. Quality and 

ioi ,ind ii was hoped ihat I'm n ell's, w ho bop is in no danger of being forgotten, diversity characterise ea< h issue, and the 

were known lor their aggressive market- Historians now recognise it as a unique articles and stories that appear in the 

ing iec hnicpies, might be able to revive record ol British social life, and recently journal can still evoke a sense of wonder 

the paper's fortunes. Thev were- not. it has been the object of considerable and excitement. The'Boj's Own Paper, 

Circulation fig ires fell to less than twen- attention. Not surprisingly, 'The Boy's consequently, will always have ad- 

tv thousand a\u\ in January 1 ' >( ( 7 the Own Annuals' have also become col- mirers, and it will continue to occupy a 

paper was finally discontinued. lectors' items. The 'Annuals', which prominent place in the annals of popular 

New- ( 1 1 I lie Hi ii' s ileal Ii w .is received were comprised of the weekly 01 monthly literature, 

wnli general regret, and ai- numbers ol the paper, were once stan- 

inles appeared immediately in the dard Christmas gifts. I he weighty vol- 

//;, ( nnnoiutui |. 1980 

Two 'Fancy 5 Portraits 
by Alexis Grimou 

Briony Llewellyn 

Recent 1\ two attractive portraits ol 
voting twirls. In 'jmtu StudiruM and l.u 
'jriinr I '.iilim it iim . I>\ (lie little-know 11 
ai list. Alexis ( irimou 1(>7<S 1 1'.\'.\ . ap- 
peal eel in the gallei \ ol a b< ni< l< hi clealei . 
I'1:C\ are signed and dated 'l/L'h'. tin 
ir.'ddle ol the most productive < lei adi i >l 
(die ai list's career. Ka< li |xn tra\s a de- 
niure \ i unit; girl with prettv. delicate 
leatin es. intentK absorbed, the one in 
hei i ea< ling, the othei in hei sew ing 
perhaps alli - u,< tries ol intellecl and 
manual labour. In cat li pi< lure the light 
l.i I N Ironi iIk lelt. < as ting soli shadow s on 
die l;ii K l.u is ,im| h juh I igh tini; against 
the sombre backgrounds the w hite slce\ e 
ol the Si in! it u\, .uid the cloth on w Inch the 
1 .tihoi iiiiM is w oi king 

( it inn hi has been dubbed the " 1 rein 1 1 
Rembrandt". Although ver\ little is 
know n ol his artisti< background ol an\ 
apprenticeship oi influences it is ob- 
vii his limn Ins | lid lilci don h n hal l-lci iu,t li 
\l ll 'lit l lt< limn es peel ing oil I ol the shadows 
thai he was an admirci ol the great 
l)uu h master, whose wink he tna\ have 
seen in l'ai isian pri\'ate collections. 1 1 is 
main portraits ol topers and gourtn a nds. 
iin hiding several sell-portraits, draw 
hea\ il\ on the Dun li *li >w -lile n aditii in 
and max ha\'e been pat tialK responsible 
li n the legem I ol his ( |el lain lied, 
lalstallian wluih grew up in 
t he latei eighteen! li centur\ . l.u geh 
Ii niiided on rumoui and coiilused u bu- 
ll t \ . I here w ei e in i limits to Ins grossness 
in eating and < It inking, it seemed : he was 
uncouth and a braggard. and liis com- 
p.inioiis w ei e i li i ii i kei i and disoi dei'h 

Although lie had a hud' opinion ol 
hntisell. he dressed in rags and was 
coiistanth in del M bet ailse he seldi mi 
delivered his commissioned paintings. 
( )n one o( i asiott he w as loi ked up b\ the 
din d ( )t leans ui a lust lloor room with 
his painting materials, but seeing a 
li lend in the street w ho ]i ikingh pi i 1- 
pi isei I t he\ should have a drink, he 
pioinpth lumped out hoin the window 
am I I a i ike a leg in his lall. I he ( rowning 
ol Ins e\( esses seems to have been a 
mammoth drinking contest with a lei low 
paintei who had the reputation ol being 
the greatest di inket in la i rope : ( it "in ion 
w i ui I mi paid lot his \ icinrv with his lite, 
la t tei lain ing though ihts image ol the 
(list cputable. bolieniian at 1 1st is. as 
( iabillol and othei w t "iters this i enl ui \ 
have show ii. it has little basis in la< t . 

I hei e is no i leat picture ol ( »i imoii's 
true i h.iracter. lie was the si >n ol a 
n hi ( haul in Argenteuil. near Pat is. mar- 
t led ( /.ibt idle l'elil in 1 70 I and led the 
une\ eni I ul hie ol a i easonabh successlul 
pi H trail t-i . All that < an be sin inisei I o| his 
( at eei is that he tna\ ha\ e been the pupil 
ol I'l.incois de lio\. the distinguished 
portraitist, was no/,', h\ the Academic 
Ron ale. and latei became a niastei pain- 
tei at the liiiml ilet A< ademie de Saint 
I.ik. Ills most |>i ohtit Neat's w ei e be- 
iw ecu I 7 JO and I 7 'ill. When he died in 

I / i ">. his obit u a in in the Mrrruit ,/, 1'itiin , 
was c ins, un : "... II peignait une tete chins 
le gout de Rem bra nd I : il avail beaucoup 
de ( ( il< it is et mi beau pirn can. mais il 
.iN.til pen ( 1'iiiN cut ii ui e| n'etatt p. is 
gi and dessinatein . 

Repetitious though his hall-length 
figures are. there is some varietN in the 
pose, gestures and dress ol ea< I), and not 
all are prcdominanth Dutch in st \ le. 
I he two pot traits illustrated here, and a 
great main others, slum voung girls and 
boN s in instK (it lam \ diess and have a 
sweetness and charm which has less in 
common with Rembrandt than with 
Muitllo. whose work he is recorded as 
( o|)N ing. I he simple ( harm ol l.u '/rum 
SluditiiM and / 1/ 'J rum l.uhm irusr and 
othei poll raits like them, i he lightness ol 
then In iishw oi k. and then ail ol infor- 
nialilN . have a Rococo sp< intaneitN 
w Inch looks lot w ai 1 1 lo ( !|i. ii din and 
1 t ,ig< maid. 

I lie pan were in the Si nivestre 
( iollei lion in I /fib. and were engraved in 
that veai I>n the celebrated engrave] 
Levillain. One of these engravings is 
reproduced In ( ia billot in his article on 
(iritnon in the (mrrll, drs Bruux-Arts, 
1**1 I . In the nineteenth centuiN . thcN 
I nil inged to the ( 'omte I. audi in de 
I .ongueN i lie w hose seal was identified on 
each st ret < her. Not long be lore P 1(1(1 tin a 
were brought bom bans b\ a membei ol 
the Codriugton lamilv to Roche Court, 
\\ iltshire. from w here th in were sold in 
197H in an auction oft he house's contents 
held Iin Messis. King and Chasemoi e. 
I I H \ were bought 111 the sale Iin I'etel 
Mm lull, w ho managed to find in Paris a 
line and rare pan of gilded /' 
It .lines ; the pair ai e no\x in an Knglish 
|)i i\ ale « i illei tton. 

/.//// nut, hi,, 1 1,, Ih, //,!/ 
<>l Ih, l,, o/mlui, . '/tt/in \l 

I "Ml. Ills ll\ AK'XIS I ,|||||i,|| 


Lajeune Studieuse, 
signed and dated 7726', 33 ■ 271 inches. 

Tht ' onnoiiseur, [anuars 1980 


Lajeune Laborieuse, 

signed and dated '1726', 33 271 inches. 

Ik, < nnmn \ru> |.uiudi\ I'tHU 

Pride and Tradition 

Gavin Musgrave 

Last autumn Sotheby's sold a remarkable collec- was built up by one man, who commissioned this 
tion ofjewelled badges of the British, Imperial and series as a tribute to the history and distinguished 
Commonwealth Armed Forces. This collection record of many of our most famous regiments. 

1. Royal Company of Archers, 
Queen's Bodyguard Scotland. 

2. The Life Guards. 

3. 1st Life Guards. 

4. 2nd Life Guards. 


5. Royal Horse Guards (The Blues) 




- VH*4. 



6. The Queen's Bays 
(2nd Dragoon Guards). 


7. 3rd Carabiniers 
(Prince of Wales' Dragoon Guards). 

8. The Royal Scots Greys 
(2nd Dragoons). 

9. 4th/7th Royal Dragoon Guards. 

10. The Queen's Own Hussars. 

V. ,Jt.,^. 

13. 9th/12th Royal Lancers 
(Prince of Wales'). 

16. 10th Royal Hussars 
(Prince of Wales' Own). 


11. The Queen's Royal Irish Hussars. 12. 8th King's Royal Irish Hussars. 

14. 9th Queen's Royal Lancers. 

17. 11th Hussars 
(Prince Albert's Own) 



15. 12th Royal Lancers 
(Prince of Wales'). 


3& ■ 



18. 14th/20th King's Hussars. 


19. 15th/19th The King's Royal Hussars. 

20. 17th/21st Lancers. 

21. The Lanarkshire Yeomanry. 

22. Queens Own Dorset Yeomanry. 


23. Surrey Yeomanry. 



*%, ■---, 

25. Royal Regiment of Artillery. 

26. Irish Guards. 

24. Sussex Yeomanry. 

m ■ 

— - 

28. Royal Highland Fusiliers 

(Princess Margaret's Own Glasgow 

and Ayrshire Regiment). 

31. Royal Sussex Regiment. 

27. The Royal Scots (The Royal Regiment). 

29. Seaforth Highlanders 
(Ross-shire Buffs, The Duke of Albany's) 

32. The Middlesex Regiment 
(The Duke of Cambridge's Own). 

30. The Queen's Royal Regiment 
(West Surrey). 


33. The Royal Fusiliers 
(City of London Regiment) 

The Green Howards (Alexandra, Princess 
of Wales' Own Yorkshire Regiment). 

37. The Roval Welch Fusiliers. 


35. The South Lancashire Regiment 
(The Prince of Wales's Volunteers). 

38. The Sherwood Foresters 

and Derbyshire Regiment). 

36. The Loyal Regiment 
(North Lancashire). 

39. The Royal Hampshire Regiment. 

40. The Royal Berkshire Regiment 
(Princess Charlotte of Wales'). 

41. The Wiltshire Regiment 
(Duke of Edinburgh's). 

42. The Somerset Light Infantry 
(Prince Albert's). 

• itffrr 


43. The Rifle Brigade 
(Prince Consort's Own). 

44. 2nd Royal Lancers 
(Gardner's Horse) Indian Army. 

45. 19th King George's Own Lancers, 
Bengal Cavalry, Indian Army. 


I'hcre took place at Sotheby's premises ofthe orders ofchivalry are also badges ol title, in the same mannei thai the 2nd 

in New Bond Street on Tuesday, 27 Sep- rank today, while the crown and lion North British Dragoons became (he 

lember 1 ( »7 ( ) a sale ol a collection ol appear on the tip of the staves of Regi- Royal Scots Greys. Il must he noted 

jewelled badges of the British, Imperial mental Colours and standards ofthe that the correct colour for a cavalry horse 

and Commonwealth Armed Forces. The British forces. was by tradition black, as can be seen 

lasi two decades have seen a growing It iua\ surprise those unfamiliar with today in the horses of the Household 

in lei est in mil it ana ol the official aspect the history of the British Army thai the ( 'avail \ on duty in London, 

ol war. noiabk in the study and col- badge ol the senior Regiment of the The eagle was suppressed as a badge in 

lection of uniforms, headgear, accoutre- Royal Armoured Corps should be the 1915 lor obvious reasons, but such was 

ments and weapons an interest fostered elegant double eagle ol the Hapsburg the affection lor it the Royal 

by such institutions as the new National monarch. On the appearance of modern Armoured Corps sin (ceded in getting 

Army Museum at Chelsea. But in this armies in Lurope in the seventeenth permission to revive its use in 1937. Asa 

collection are to be seen some mementoes century it was the practice for Regiments footnote those who visit the excellent 

01 the other side ol military life, the to have a Colonel as proprietor who Regimental museum at Shrewsbury in 
informal bits and pieces associated with delegated the functions of command to a Shropshire, will see there a delightful 
the history ol the Regiments and lor- Lieutenant-Colonel. The practice sur- embroidered miniature of the eagle with 
mations ol the British Aimed forces, vived as a tradition whereby members ol extended outstretched wings a relic of 
most ol w hit h ( an tell ns as much about Royal la mi lies and other distinguished an attempt to obtain permission for those 
those lorces as any olli< ial item. Il is a persons become Colonels-in-Chief as members of the Regiment trained to fly 
custom almost as old as some ol the a mark ol honour. The last German helicopters to wear it instead of more con- 
Regiments themselves to present as gifts Lmperor was, until I'M L aconsi ientious ventional pilots 'wings'. Sad to say, this 
jewelled badges such as these to wives. and popular Colonel ofthe 1st Dragoons, time the Ministry ol Defence won and 
rtiot hers and sweethearts, 01 to those who 'the Royals' ; and the kettle-drummer ol this use ol the eagle was not approved, 
have become associated with a Regi- the Royal Scots Dragoon Guards is still The eagle of Prussia also lives 
mint the wives ol benelai tors and In easily distinguished by the white fur on in the Royal Armoured Corps it is 
more recent limes those who have inn bearskin cap presented b\ the las! the cap badge ofthe 14th/20th Royal 
canteens 01 helped with military chari- Lmperor ol Russia when Colonel ol Hussars No. 18) and dates from the days 
lies. Perhaps the tradition began when the 'Greys'. The 16th Lancers received when the 14th Light Dragoons were given 
many items of Full Dress were (and some less obvious, but perhaps more timely the title ol 'Duchess ol York's Own' 
still are made and embroidered from assistance from their Colonel, King George ill's son, the Duke of York, hav- 
precious metals, stones and materials Alphonso \u ol Spam, who also was a ing married the Princess Royal of Prussia, 
and so could be used as adornments with useful member ol the regimental polo Heraldic emblems ol a national kind f 
little- or no alteration. However, what we team which he frequently led to victory. also appear, the harp from the Royal 
ei comprised in this collection are the The custom survives, and lor example Arms of Ireland (Nos. 1 I and 12) and the 
work of jewellers and many similar items the King of the Belgians is always ( lolonel Red Dragon ol Wales ! No. 37), although 
are still available in our shops today. e>l the 5th Royal Inniskilling Dragoon this latter is il anything pre-heraldic, 

In comment on the badges repre- Guards. The late Karl Mountbatten ol being a survival from Roman Imperial 

sen ted in this collection must he a woi k ol Burma was (lolonel ol The Life Guards traditions. The while horse of Hanovei 

omission suffice it to sav that each and those who saw his funeral will recall appeared in I 7 13 with the Hanoverian 

badge nils us something about the null that the music played during the pro- kings and is the badge of The Queen's 

represented and the Army as a whole. In cession was the march ol (he Imperial Own Hussars (No. 10) and is associated 

the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries Russian Guard Regiment Preobraschen- with oilier Regiments raised at (he lime, 

(hemonan hv was strongly set to prevent ski. ol which his lather was Colonel-in- often coupled with the motto of the 

the re-emergence ofthe private armies of Chief until 1917. kings of Hanover and their Army, '.\n 

the teudal and territorial barons, and it In the case ol the 1st King's Dragoon aspera terrenf 'Nor do dangers deter us". 

was thus a strict!) enforced rule at the Guards their Colonel from 1896 was the A frequently used crest is the three 

time- of the creation of the standing army Lmperor Francis Joseph ol Austria- leather badge ofthe Prince of Wales', par- 

in these kingdoms that the- soldiei should I lungary and out of deference to him, his tic iilarly with the 10th Light Dragoons. 

wc.u onlv the badge ol the Crown or of crest was adopted as the collar badge, The Prince Regent, later George iv, 

the Captain of his company whose com- and on the introduction ol the forage became Colonel of the 10th Hussars and 

mission the monarch had signed. Thus cap. as a cap badge. The Regimental considerably influenced the style of the 

die badges ol many ol the oldest Regi- march is from the same source being that Regiment with his passion for uniform, 

ments in the Army show the Royal mono- most famous Austrian music 'The and the nickname 'the Shiny Tenth' was 

<>i. mi and the lion and crown (test ol Radet/ky March'. in use until (he amalgamation ol 1969. 

Lngland, as in the Life Guards Nos. I he 1st Queen's Dragoon Guards are When Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg- 

2 1 oi ihe star ol one ol the orders ol an amalgamation ol two Cavalry regi- Gotha arrived in England for his mar- 
chivalrv as in the badge of the Ith 7ih ments raised by the Stuarts in the 1680s, riage to Queen Victoria he gave permis- 
Dragoon Guards No. 9 which incor- more recently the 1st King's Dragoon sion for his crest to be used as the badge ol 
porates the stai ol the Order ol Saint Guards and the 2nd Dragoon Guards, the Nth Hussars, who also formed his 
P. iti uk and the Cross of Saint George the Queen's Bays. The 2nd Dragoon first escort. The Royal Hussars, formed 
from the Order of the Garter (his being Guards being entirely mounted on from the 10th and 11th still maintain 
the amalgamation ol an Iiish and an mate lied bav horses their nickname strong links with the German town of 
Knglish Regiment. The miniature stars eventually became part of their official Coburg. Perhaps the most attractive 

//;, ( omoiwem |anuar\ I'I80 

: rest is the* only sacred emblem besides 

tie cross) worn by British lYoops, the 

: as< Lamb being the crest ol (,)ueeii 

Cathci ine i >l Bragan/a, ( Chai les n s 

)ueen. and worn b\ the Regiment 

used !( ' (l(l«ii(l he! dowry, the l< >i 1 1 ess 

("Tangier. I nder its ( Colonel Kirke the 

ILegiment gained such .1 reputation loi 

•rocitv in 1 > u 1 1 1 1 1 sa. down 

the Duke ol I 

.lonmouth's rising in 1 08:) that 11 wa- 
it k 1 1.1 med sardi niicalb 'Kirkc's 
,ambs\ Il is now part ol the ( hieen s 
legiment w lm h recruits from the 
'English home counties, and has a pos- 
ibl\ less lei i h ions reputation. 
Am ithcr chai actei istic i >l Bi 11 ish and 
Comnionw eallli badges is olten a coin- 
11011 motil to all Regiments ol a parti- 
cular i\ pe, such as the hunting horn 
vorn bv light inlantn and nlle regi- 
neiiis originalh raised in emulation ol 
lie ( hi 1 nan \ Corps ol Jagei's and using 
he I ingle In 11 n as a less cumbersome 
01111 ol signalling than the iufantr\ side 
Irum. The stvlised bursting bomb is worn 
>\ (iunners, Lnginecrs. ( irenadiers and 
Fusiliers 1 hn nigh* nil the Bi 11 ish 
[ 'oiiinioiiw call h. while among die mosi 
•leasing badges are ihe simple (Kissed 
am es ( i| 1 he Laucei Regiments. 
Fi:< arms are less popular, but appeal on 
he I ladge ol the ">id Prince ol \\ ales s 
Dragoi hi ( Juards Ihe ( Carabineers 
No. 7 . The badge of the Ro\ a I Artiller\ 
diows the gun with which the Regimen l 
was equipped at Waterloo in 1H1 1. Bui 
no battle honours appeal die one word 
'( h/i/iii' recalling that gunners serve 
everywhere and .11 all engagements. 
lolli iw ing iIk old si ildiei s' boast '1 he 
Right ol l lie I .inc. pi ii le ol the Bi itish 
Arim ,\\\i\ lei i 01 o| the whole universe . 
Bat 1 le In mi mi s do In iw e\ ci . appeal 
frequently, sometimes symbol icalh and 
at other nines 1 1\ name. I he Kaglc ol the 
Scots (i revs now wi n n w ill 1 die ( ai bines 
ol the !h"d Dragoon (juards on the badges 
ol the Roval Scots Dragoon (iuards is 
that captured at Waterloo l>\ Sergeant 
Lwarl whose memorial stands on the 
esplanade at 1 .dinbut gh ( Castle. And 
above the gar tei star ol the Roval Sussex 
Regiment No. '• 1 is the feathered 
plume ol the lunch Regiment "Roval- 
Roussilon'. defeated b\ the Regiment at 
the ( Capture ol Quebei in I 759. I lie 
Middlesex Regiment bears the name ol 
Albuliei a in Spain, w hei e in loll the 
Regiment earned its nickname from its 
commanding ollicei who died there, still 
exhorting his men to shoot straight and 
'die hard . Admirers <>| Victorian paint- 
ing will recall Lad\ Butler's work S/r/it/r 

ill, hiji\ ami l)inni\ wliuli depicts the 
same action. 

( )n occasions a s\ mbol stands l( a a 
campaign: distinguished service in 
Lgvpl is ma 1 fed b\ I lie Sphinx as in the 
South Lam ash ne Regimen I No. > > 
,\\\(\ in ( China b\ the Dragon, as with the 
Roval Berkshire Regiment No. 10 lot 

ndia the Lie] ihant and I igci are used. 

Ihe naval crown on the badge ol the 
Ixille Brigade recalls then service as 
marines at Admiral Nelson's victor\ at 
( Copenhagen 111 bit) I No. I J . 

I he Sullolk Regiment raised in l(io5, 
became the 12th loot and is now amal- 
gamated with the Roval Norfolk 
Regiment .is the 1st Roval Anglians, 
one ol the oldest Luglish 11 llan 1 1 x 
Regiments whose histor\ includes battle 
In an airs t( 11 1 niiiiK 1 mis to mention here. 
Ihe 1 astle motil common in main 
British badges here represents the lor- 
1 1 ess ol (iibraltai where the Regiment 
served throughout the successlul delence 
mult-] ( icneral Llliot from I 77!* to 1 7tt'.\. 
I he\ thus avi tided him >l\ cmenl in the 
disastrous campaigns in the American 
i oli niies. but 111 1 1 the exertions and priva- 
tions ol a long and gallantK si is lamed 

IIk Sulli ilks were also at Minden in 
17V). where six British Battalions mis- 
Ulldei sti ii 11 1 1 Inn 1 hi lei s and supported 
b\ some I lanovei ian and Hessian in- 
l<i ill r\ at lai ked the massei I 1 nan h 
( Ca\ .ih \ win ise (Commander, the 
Marquis <lc (Contades. described the 
se(|iiel thus 'I ha\ e seen w hat I lie\ el 
thought possible a single line ol 111- 
lantl \ In eak tluo three lines ol cavalr\ 
ranked in ordei ol battle and tumble 
t hem lo win. ( )n the anniversary. 
I August, the Regiments celebrate 
Minden da \ and earn roses in t hei 1 caps 
.\\\(\ 1 hi dun di mils and Regimental 
( Co|i mi s (<> commemorate that whin the 
troops advanced to the attack through 
the gardens ol the ( it\ lhe\ plu< ke< 1 
roses and fixed them in then hats. Also 
present on that da\ were the Roval 
Welch Fusiliers No. Ci7 and the Roval 
Hampshire Regiment No. 3!) . 

liu Sulli ilk Regiment ha\ e been as- 
sociated with the ( Couiii\ lioin 1 heir 
origins until todav. nearh three cen- 
1 uries later. I he rural nature ol the 
cotintx .ind the agi n 11I1111 al < harai lei ol 
the soldiers u has pro\ idei I are .i|)tl\ 
recognised in the old Regimental Man h 
'Speed the Plough". 

But 1 ilteii there is no wa\ ol learning 
h 1 mi the cap badge alone ol the annals ol 
Ian urns Regiments. 1 hus we see here the 

badges ol the Ith and f'th Hussai in >w 
the ( hiecn's Ro\ ,il 1 1 ish I lussai s . the 
I I ih I lussai s now the Ro\ al II 
the I "'ih I lussars now the 1 ith loth 
( hleeii Mai \ -. ( )w 11 II llssal s | No. II 
and the I 7th Lam eis m iw the I 7lh '_' I s| 
Lam crs I No. '_'( 1 1 ; I m I there i>- no w a\ ol 
knowing that these distinguished units 
Ii 11 med the Bi 1 Li . 1 ( le ol I .iglit ( Ca\ alr\ ill 
b'ial w hii h ( barged the Russian guns a I 
Balaclava 'while all the world wan lied 
and all the wi n Id w< nulei ed". 

Perliaj)s this is now more sad than cvci . 
because a very real reason wh\ these 
badges are held 111 su< h a (lection b\ those 
w ho wore them and made and still make 
such line and cherished br< io< lies f u 
1 hen ladies is because the decline ol full 
Dress uniform, and .ill the other panoph 
ol war, has meant the onh visible 
link that the lighting man ol the twen- 
tieth ( entui \ has to remind him ol the 
lamous deeds ol his |)iede( essors is often 
the little badge he w cms in his cap. 

I ol liu ise who seek the histor\ ol the 
Fori es ( i| the Ih itish Lmpii e and its 
( oiiiinoiiw ealth in c< 'lle< ting the uni- 
lolllls ami weapons ol loiinei limes the 
quest has now become expensive and 
elusive, so 1 nam institutions and experts 
are there in the field. But as the historian 
ol the British Aiim Su John lortescue 
wrote: 'How lew ol us recognise thai a 
great regiment is. as nub as a great 
( Ci illegc. an ancient and honourable 
so( iet\ . Such si it hi us have le It us a 
w ealth 1 il 11111 iIIk ial 1 >bje< ts too vai nil to 
dcs( libe ( ullei \ and ( tockerx . |).iinl- 
ni'^s and [ >ao o bo\ s uniforins, cigarette 
boxes and cufllinks. gold and silver, brass 
and tin. Main such objects are attrac- 
ti\e. some are valuable, all .ire interest- 
ing to l hose w hi 1 have an eve to see and 
a questioning mind. The brooches ol 
w I iM 1 1 I his i oil ci lion is a representative 
selei lion are among the most valuable 
,\\\t\ inlonnative. while the skills ol 0111 
jewellers rendei thein enduring and 
1 ibtainable. 

•16. 1st The Queen's Dragoon Guards. 

'*('•„«, 1,,, 

Franz Marc's 
'Animalisation of Art' 


Mark Rosenthal 

Weasels at Play, 1911, 101.9 67 cm. 

//„ ( owromraij iar\ I '180 

The Large Blue Horses J91 1,104.8 181cm. 

Deer in the Forest I, 1913. 100.3 103.8 cm. 

/ /„ i 

|.iiiii.ii\ 1'IHII 


Weasels tit Play, 1911, 
101.9 67 cm. 

On in ( asion Mart depicted the vibrant 
character of nature with little reinforce- 
ment by animals, as in Weasels at Play, 
I 'M 1 . The landscape is brightly hued, and 
tbe colours are applied in flat areas. The 
arabesque tree trunks and branches are 
reminiscent of Art Nouveau formulas, and 

recall Matisse and Derail). 

The Lame Blue Horses, 1911, 
104.8 181 em. 

Marc's discussion of his colour symbolism 
suggests that in Blue Horses we witness 
the st ruggle by the blue, geistig force <>f 
intellect and spirituality against the 
overbearing weight of matter, shown as 
red. In this st ruggle, yellow can serve only 
as a comforter, according to Mare, bate in 
191 1. while Blue Horses was being 
completed, Mart joined forces with 
Kandinsky to form the artistic Putsch 
known as the blue Rider. Blue Horses is 
symbolically bound to certain of the 
original concepts of the group: in the 
symbol of the horse as vehicle of 
breakthrough, and in the emphasis on 
spirituality battling materialism. 

Deer in the Forest I. 1913, 
100.3 103.8cm. 

The animal that symbolised innocence 
more than any other lor Mart was the 
deer. Yet the all-over organisation of the 
canvas, uniting animal to landscape, 
diminishes the heroism of the animal 
subje< t sin h as was di pit let! bv Marc in 
1911. Employing futurist lines of force, 
Man shows an energis« •! environment of 
random chaos. Hie sensi of an inchoate 
environment demonstrates both Mart's 
lii lint; of the world as a whole and his 
developing urge to represent creation. 

Ai the beginning ol the century, 

AAw hen avant-garde artists were eithei 
A^ _\_ abbreviating or distorting recog- 
nisable imagery, the German Iran/ 
Marc (1880 1916 sought a visionary 
theme to epitomise his world view. He 
arrived at the 'animalisation ol art'. 1 his 
is a process whereby (he animal would 
lift (line die subjci i matter ol art, not 
onl\ seen for itsell, but as a vehicle to 
express human sentiments. Man's un- 
fashionable seat eh for a significant imag- 
er) was subsequently joined with the 
contemporary desire to reject naturalis- 
tic portrayal. In that spirit, he helped 
pioneer abstraction in Germany, co- 
Ibunding Dei Blanc Reilei ('Blue Rider' 
with Wassily Kandinsky. Because the 
First World War cut short his career, 
Marc never achieved the recognition 
at i orded his colleagues Kandinsky and 
Paul Klee, except in his homeland. Now, 
to celebrate the one-hundredth birth ol 
Mart, the University Art Museum, 
Berkeley, California, has organised the 
first large-scale exhibition ever held out- 
side I, mope. It will be shown, in ad- 
dition, at the Fort Worth Art Museum 
,md the Walker Ait Center in 

Man was born on 8 February 1880 m 
Munich, to an aristot ratic and religious 
family. Following theii lead, he studied 
theology with the goal ol entering the 
priesthood. However, he gradually 
mingled philosophy and literature in 
Ins sludies. I he result was a tvpicalK 
German Romantic background, in 
whit h despair and ex. illation were con- 
stantly courted. In 1000. Marc suddenly 
turned to ail. Before becoming aware ol 
advanced tendencies, he learned the 
traditional verities at die Munich 
Academy . 

A trip to Paris in 1903 exposed Man to 
die Impressionist and Art Nouveau in- 
novations m French art. His still, studio 
style was loosened, as he explored plenum 
sludies. die expressive potential ol line. 
and free use ol colour. These tentative 
experiments were strengthened follow- 
ing a second Paris trip in 1007. Then, he 
tame under die influence ol Paul 
( iauguin and Vincent van Gogh, both ol 
whom were kindred spniis. As with van 
Gogh, Man saw life in religious yet 
tortured terms and found transcendent 
ellet is in insignificant themes. 

Gauguin had rejected contemporary 
societ\ altogether, for subject mattei 
taken from a tribal culture. Man. like 
Gauguin, found a basic form of life to 
make die lot us of his ,u i . Re pi at ine the 

portraits and melancholic landscapes 
that wen- his interest earlier, animals 
became his principal theme in 1907. His 
aspirations were identical with 
Gauguin's. He believed animals wen 
more 'virginal 1 than humanity, and 
sought to express his own naivete and 
spirituality through the medium of these 

Large Lenggries Horse Painting, 1908, 
announces Marc's engagement with the 
major theme ol his career, the horse. A 
vivid subject on the Parthenon, the horse 
became a romantic motif in the work of 
George Stubbs. While Mart probably 
knew nothing ol Stubbs' fearsome de- 
pictions, he certainly would have been 
familiar with the work of Theodore 
Gericault and Eugene Delacroix. In 
French hands the heroic horse joined 
brave cavalry officers or was shown in 
in n .lined situations ; it epitomised nature 
in an uncontrolled slate. But Gericault 
presented die horse in other situations as 
well. The range of his portrayals, to- 
gethei with the constant interest in the 
horse lor its raw brute energy, would 
have been the most significant precedent 
lor Marc 'sown interpretations. 

According to one report. Man fol- 
lowed the horses lor months in a meadow 
in the village ol Lenggries, near the 
Austrian border. While he had painted 
horses earlier, those versions were often 
of domesticated or placid animals. Large 
Lenggries Horse Painting introduces the 
enormous vitality and vivid, simplified 
rendering that would characterise later 
paintings. It also reveals another aspect 
typical ol Marc's mature work animals 
arranged rhythmically, yet with each 
indicating an individual and potentially 
symbolic attitude. This unity, within 
which individuality of gesture exists, is 
reminiscent of Ferdinand Hodler, an 
artist well known in Man's lime. In 
Hodler, parallel vet differing gestures 
indicate divergent spiritual states. 
Perhaps most important. Large Lenggries 
Hoist /'muling shows Mare beginning to 
use colour in an arbitrary, rather than 
naturalistic manner. 

Man's engagement with contem- 
porary developments in colour was 
quickened by meeting August Macke in 
January 1910. Macke acquainted him 
with the work of Henri Matisse, as well as 
other members of the Fames. Later in 
die same year, Marc met Kandinsky. 
The Russian had not only absorbed the 
Fame free use ol colour, but had em- 
ployed colour symbolically. B\ 1911, 
Man evolved his own colour svmbol- 



|aniiar\ 1<)H<) 

**'ii^ . \ 


Grazing Horses II (The Red Horses). 1911, 121 182.9 cm. 

The painting that established Man "s new 
maturity immediately at the start ol 1911 
was The Red Horses- Still painted with 
light impasto, like the Lenggries Horse 
Painting, Red Horses departed from that 
work by its colouristic intensity. Mart 
heightened the red to a shrill pitch. In 
contrast to the earlier w ork, he created a 
rich relationship between the animals and 
the landscape by reflecting in the animals 
the arrangement of the hills through the 
rhythm of mounds. Further reinforcing the 
energy of Red Horses is the juxtaposition 
of other primary colours, in the blue rocks 
in the right corner and tin' yellow ground. 

Man has not sought to flatten colour into 
planes as the Fauves had done. Rather, he 
retains an illusionist ic portrayal within 
which he seeks to form a rich colour' 
composition that reflects the vitality of his 
subject. Vitality bv virtue of a colouristic 
boldness re( alls Matisse, particularly in 
The Dilute, a work chosen by Marc and 
Kandinsky sometime in 1911 for repro- 
duction in the yearbook of the Blue Rider 
group, entitled Der Bla tie Reiter. As in 
Matisse's work, unification of figure and 
ground is accomplished by repeating 

ism. ami \\ .is lulls committed to colon i mast i limits m Mart s iconographs , thus temporars ss in hols that < on Id he placed 

exploration. I hese events were pre- the major coloui contrast in I.(ii'g~t Iihti on the altars ol (lie spiritual religion ol 

requisites for Marc producing his great Hmses implies a struggle l>s spiritual the future'. 

works of 1911. forces against the effects of terrestrial it v. Marc's spiritualistic aim was charat - 

I imatui alistic . symholit colour s\as ii/Inw Cmc completes a suite hs evoking teristit ol the aspirations of I)i> Blum 

the principal trait ol Marc's I'M 1 work. Mart \s written comments that feminin- Reilei. the almanac puhlication Its Man 

In Red Horses, the form of the animals is its and uninhibited sensualiu can be and Kandinsks. Published in 1912, the 

suIIk ientls simplified so as to allow col- shown with vellow. Aside from the differ- almanac initiated the brief life of the 

our to lie paramount. Marc's desig- ing characterisations, in all three works movement of the same name. While two 

nation ol terrestrialits to the coloui red powerful, cursilineai rhvlhnis fiimls exhibitions occ urred. the 'group was 

suggests he intended to emphasise an orient the animals in the landscape. nesei more than a loose alliance iiuitid- 

earthls orientation to these vibrant Marc's rich animal dramas give him the ing, among others. Man. Kandinsks. 

horses. Blue signifies spirituality and potential to, in his words, 'create con- Macke. (iabriele Milliter. Heimich 

ii„ (,„„„„»,,„. |. 

Three Horses, 1912, mixed media on paper, 157.1 51.7 cm 




I ace 




/ urge I entries Horse Painting I. 1908, KM. 8 206 cm. 


ll„ Cvnmnneur. January 1980 

(lampendonck, Arnold Schbnberg, lol lowing scar's production w .is less law or bv an overall si i uciure. oe eupied 

\ tadimir and David Burl ink and Klee. (ocussed. as he alt cm pled to de\ clop an Man in his final paintings. I he \ ibi ani 

he Bla ut' Re iter was the second wave ol abstract stvle. lormal i'elationslii|)s m these la-a works 

[ierman Expressionism. As with its ante- Once attain the majoi impetus loi ,1 were meanl lo evoke ol apoe- 

edent Die Brink?, oi 'the Bridge', Blaue change in Man's lormal development al\|)se and creation al once, as il new 

t'eitet artists sought inspiration in tribal came Irom France, lie and August beginnings were al stake. 

nd lolk traditions, and possessed .in Mackc visited Robert Drlaunav in Paris In the Spring ol 1 ( ) I 1 1- 1 an/ and Mai ia 

nti-materialist outlook. Bv contrast, the in Septembei lDl'J. I)elauna\ had ab- Man bought .1 small <oiinti\ I se in 

1 ilaue Re iter was considerabh more trans- sen bed the abstract organisation ol the town ol Ried in I ppci \usiiia. 

: endcnt in its approach than Die Br in hi , ( aibism, but added 1 lie element ol col- According to Kandiuskx. the purchase 

nd was wedded to abstraction. our. lbs adaptation ol (atbist devices was one ol 'Marc's greatest wishes come 

At the time Dei Blatte Reitei w as pub- was to ha\ e an even great ri influence on true". He was even able to keep a dog and 

ished, much ol Mao's concern with Blum Reilei artists than the initial a tame deei then-. But in August ol I ') 1 I. 

bs traction had been spent in a search achieve men l ol Pablo Picasso and at the outbreak ol the war. Mai c ■ vol 111 1- 

or animal symbols. However, his friend- ( ieorge Braque. leered. K.anehnsk\ visited to sa\ Aul 

hip with Kandinsks and theii joint As Marc's art became more abstract, Wiedersehen' but Marc replied 'Adieu . 

nissionarv fervour loi llusstvle demand- he modified Ins pantheistic outlook. A He said 'I know we shall imi see each 

•d something more ol Man than he lullei range ol annual behavioiu was other again'. 

iad developed thus lai in his art. While introduced, in l'M'J '!. and huinauit\ Mao wrote and drew extensiveh at 

')er Blaue Reitei to some extent rcprc- reappeared in hisart. I'he heroic horseol the Iront. While cataclysmic events oc- 

ented a statement of where he had been, earliei years was atnbivaleiith por- curred around him, he- nevertheless theo- 

he real challenge loi Mao was that Iraved. Al times savage, and at other rised on the supposed benefits of the w ar, 

lis essays proposed a future course-. moments nearly human in its |>athos, the including the thought of a spiritual 

Follow ing Man's bm si in 1**1 1 . the I i le ol the horse was an ongoing drama. breakthrough and redemption through 

„ .„, Pa 1 1 ol Marc's changing outlook was suffering. ( J radua 11 v, however, he began 

Three Horses, 1912, mixed media on paper, caused b\ premonitions ol the war. In lo interpret his circumstaiu es in a more 

37.1 ■ 51.7cm. I !) 1 !$. he painted several works revealing latalistic way. Like the animals who had 

An early intimation of the subsequent < i 1 1 1< 1 the pregnant moments preceding become simplv motifs in a larger scheme, 

influence of Delaunay on Mare tan be seen , ,1 . 1 11 , 1 in 1 

. _. ,, . 7 , .. , clesiMic lion 01 the ac lual 1 onllagi atioii. he saw hnnsell at w ai 111 siiuilai tenns. 

in three Horses. Juxtaposed with the . . . 

triangle-mountains are semi-circular, M;m ^apoealvpth image, \ had a re- Indeed, his drawings ol the period often 

overlapping facets which are a quotation ligiotls zeal, loi he wanted the war. Both show animals symbolic ol innocence 

from Delaunay's work of the same year. he and Kandinsk\ desired lo obliterate within .1 tightening web ol Cubist 01 

what lhe\ saw as theii materialistic and I ulurisl loi i e lines. Finally. onl\ death 

degraded culture in order to bring about could bring linn relief: then his own 

Like the Frenchman, who was not always 
thoroughly non-objective and would 
include favourite symbols such as 

airplanes or heavenly orbs. Marc filled his ''. "'.""" "' """ " '" ( '' •""' l )Ulllv ' mnoe e-ncc could be- reslond. One of Ins 

space with his usual theme, the horse. Willing in I'M I at thelronl. Mao said last letters, before his death at Verdun in 

i Large Lenggries Hois,- Paint hit- /. 1 '»()». thai the 'wai was nothing if not a moral l!M(j, concludes on this note: 'whoever 

104.8 ■ 206cm. experience ... a preparation lor a strives for puritv and knowledge, to him 

This is perhaps the firsi uo.k in which breakthrough to a highei spiritual exis- death alwavs comes as a saviour'. 

Marc reveals himself as the great colourist .1111 .1 1 \i 111 

,,, _. ,. . telle e : nisi tin kinel ol event thai was ftan/ Mao conlribuled lo the tor- 
he would become. 1 he application ol paint . .. . 
is virtuoso-like. A light, airy quality, needed loi sweeping the dm and de, a\ .native- vision of abstraction 1a wedding 
conveyed by the thinly applied pigment. awa\. to give us the Inline lo(la\ . all expressionist ic. III lld.l menial l\ re- 
vitalises tin- scene. The painting Remai kabl\ . Man s images of destl lie - ligious outlook to the new pie lolial de- 
foreshadows the ambitious yet abandoned b, ,11, cased one c- the wai began. I'oi him. velopments emanating from franc e. 
colour and paint application of his most 1 1 1 1 1 1 .1 11 1 1 • 

1 1 j 111 km M| e I) woiks made sense onl\ Ixioie the 1 here, lormal innovaiioiis were .it tinii's 
accomplished works and shows Marc 

■ • • , • . • , .11 tua event. Sul iseei ueiil \ . 'construe- an end in lliemseK es I nit in I he hands ol 

beginning to juxtapose primary colours in ' • utum 

a single image. ti\'e pie lines indicative ol the Inline Kandinsk\ and Marc . at bitraiA colour. 

Front torn were called leu - . lines of force, and pictorial structure 

YellowCow, ,1911, 140.6 189.2 cm. \\ s | alr j n | '» 1 ; Mao's vision was were means with which certain deepb 

The antic ioie </«• in re of the Yellow Cow is 1 111 1 .1 i 1 1 .1 111 1 m 

' eiitlieb organised l>\ his sense of the held themes could bi stated. Mare s 

the first and perhaps only case in Marc's . . . . . . . . , . 

„.,..,,„ r • -i ai.u u- aostiaci. a language I.ugel\ evoked aclue\'emeni was e e-eii\e\ treating 
career ol a joyous animal. Although its . ^ 

head is tilted in a way similar to the central horn Kandinsk\. l)elaiina\. and artworks that, through abstract tne- 

horse in Red Horses, it is totally Futurism. I'he abstract mode united the lliocls. evinced his conception ol the 

abandoned to play. The animal's emotion animals with their surrounding environ- overall uuit\ and character of nature. 

perfectly evokes the concept proposed by m( . m whi , ( , ,-,. <hu .■ ,|„. I1H 1, „h .una Fortunatelv he- managed, within a mere 

Kandinsky called 'inner necessity . .. . . \i ■ ■ 1 

Colouristically, the repetition of the s<-,-n e-aiher. Abstraction, m Marc s view , lhre-c--ye-ai period, lo express his pas- 
animal's yellow cast just to the right of the u ,,s •' means ol expressing the- existence sionate and sensuous outlook 111 a burst 
head, the white of the udder in the area ol one c I eative law ol I he universe. I hi is ol beautiful works. Mao is pail ol a line- 
below, and the blue spots in the mountains ,|,,. h,,, M . , s U( , longei shown 111 in- of aitists, stretching from van ( iogh lo 

beyond suggest a unity between the cow ill,.. 11 .1 1 i> .1 1 1 .1 1 1 

\ „ „ ,/ ,. <li\ ichial tei ins ol he-ioisin or p.ttlios hut Ixot hko. w ho 1 1 st \ le as mode .1 nc I ai I 

and nature. Yellow, Marc s symbol ol . . . ' ,.,... 

femininity and sensuality, is shown in '•" 1 "' 1 ' ls «'" aS P (Tl Wlthm '' "Hivci'sal as ecstasy. I hell nil pae t 0.1 sul )se,p„-nl 

Yellow Cow with such intensity that Marc he-Id ' >' l'"< «'s. I hat he-Id. whethei de- artists is not so much formal as h\ 

requires nearly equal doses of red and blue. tellllined l)\ a generative ol destructive example. 

j .11111.11 N I'IKCI ' 1 

William and Mary 
and their House 

The Dutch Royal Collections: 1528-1979 

Herbert Jan Hijmersma 


( uip .md cover, made l>\ Paulus van Vianen in l<>10 when he was 'Kammergoldschmied' 

to the Emperor Rudolf II in P ramie. 

Aii outstanding exhibition has recently 
been inaugurated by Her Majesty the 
Queen of The Netherlands in the Pier- 
pont Morgan Library, New York. Its 
subject is the artistic heritage of the 
present Dutch royal family, with an 
emphasis on the collection of the Stad- 
holder-King, William in 1650 1702 . 
I'he wide variety oi works o! art, never 
before seen together even in The Nether- 
lands, illustrate the dynastic and political 
histoi \ ol the House ol ( )range Nassau. 

In April 1689, Westminster Abbey in 
London was the scene of the only double 
coronation in the history of England: 
William in of Orange Nassau, Stad- 
holder of the Republic of the Seven 
I nited Provinces, and his wile Mary 
Stuart, became King and Queen ol 
Great Britain, England, Scotland, Ire- 
land and their American colonics. 

The new royal couple made their 
homes at Kensington Palace and at 
Hampton Court, rather than in the 
centre ol London, not only because of the 
moie healthx air lor William's afflicted 
lungs, but also because these houses 
recalled for them their country seat of 
I let Loo in William's native land. In The 
Hague William had also inherited the 
Binnenhof, and in the surrounding coun- 
tr\ large estates Honselaarsdijk, Per 
Nieuburch and the Huis ten Bosch. All 
these houses and gardens were predomi- 
nantly French in style clue to the- strong 
French tradition in the family. 

Although the design and decoration of 
these estates befitted royalty, their own- 
ers were no more than princes ol the 
I louse ol Orange Nassau, the highest 
c ivil servants in the Republic, with the 
title of Stadholder. It was not until the 
Congress ol Vienna in 1815 that they be- 
came sovereigns. This arose as the result 
of the special history of their country. 

In the late middle ages the Low Coun- 
tries consisted of an agglomeration ol 
counties and dukedoms, which were 

//ifOwwiiirar.Jaiiuan l')8(l 

I t 


ii ; I'Vf 

i lands, .mil \\ helhi i the < hid niotiv alii »n*. 

: |< u this were i clit^ii ms m politit ,il. die 

-2 t it hi was 1 1 it It pt -in It in <■ .iik! .i ii- 

-. | ii i hi it fi>r seven of I lie |>ro\ iik es. lien lid 

' |)\ |he I It il lsc til ( )l .IMLM- N.lss.lll. I l( >w- 

".' ever, Dutch dislike ol m i\ ere iiml\ was so 
- deei)l\ rooted thai William the Silenl 
.Hid I Vcdi'i ik I lenilt ik. the two iik - 
til the l.uiiiK w ho had pla\ ed Midi an 
important role in the sti limbic l< u inde- 
pendence, were made onl\ Stallholder. 
In this new i epublii . it was ihe ( i\ il 
leaders ol the lewiis w ho had tin 
pt iw i i and wealth, not the ai isti >< ra< \ . 

The j^realesl ol the ( )rani>c leaders. 
Willi, mi in. \> delei mined It > end out e 
,ind Itir all the absolutism ol the Bour- 
bons, especial h I ,ouis \I\ of 1' ram e. I In 
final i lef'eat < 'I his < ipp< meiil net essilated 

A bird's-eye view of the palace Met Loo by Ronieyn de Hooghe, < . 1698. 

Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn 

Self-portrait as a young man, c. 1629. 
Acquired by Stadholdc-r William V in 1768. 

; lilt |c more than svml >< iliealh tied i< > 
r the i ulti nl the 1 lol\ Roman Pmph e. 
z In these eoiinlies and dukedoms t Hies 

sprang up whit h maintained .i parti* u- 

l.ii i elation with theii sovereign lords, 
^ who granted them s|)eeial privileges in 

cm ha me lot more tax. Thus, gradual 1\ . 
% a sti net me arose in whit Ii powei came to 
'- rest with two lar^c groups the demo- 

cratit corporations in the t ilics and the 
-- leudal lords in the country, both linked 
~- to the sovereign power. During the lou r- 
i teen th and fifteenth century the lormerh 

stronu;l\ divided sovereign authority 

( .nne intt i the hands ol the dukes < >l 

Bui^iindv. I he greatest, and (he last. 

til these princes was the Hapsburi; 

Charles \. llnK Rinnan lanperor, loid 

of "the seventeen provinces ol the Nether- 
lands, and Kim; ol Spain. ( )n his abdi- 
cation he left the last two to his sun 


The consequence for the Spailish-boin Long case clock made for William ill by 

Philip ii. was revolution in the Nether- Thomas Tompion, c. 1699. 



The sons oj Stadholder Willem I, Prince of Orange, 

and their cousins the Counts of Nassau, c. 1620. 

the unification ol the disparate power of circumstance The Netherlands owes Sev- 
ille Republic with the much greater and eral great houses, which would never 
more centralh ruled powei of Great have been built in normal Republican 
Britain. I he incidental circumstance conditions. He had Het Loo enlarged to 
dial lie was half Stuart and married to a royal palace to provide him with a 
anothei Stuarl enabled him to become worth) place of residence as a leading 
King of Great Britain. opponent of Louis \iv. 

The new Stadholder-King, now far What were the origins of this Orange 
above the level ol a mere Stadholder, Nassau family . J 1 heir founder was Wil- 
servanl ol the States, assumed a mon- liam I, the Silent, eldest son of William, 
an hie a I at lit tide also in the Netherlands. ( out it ol Nassau .1 member ol the Ger- 
He surrounded hi nisei I with members of man nobility, and Juliana van Stolberg. 
the old nobilitv ol eastern Gelderland from his cousin Rene he inherited, .is 
showering them with favours, parth at well .is some rich Dutch estates, the 
the cost of the British I reasurv. lothis principality of Orange in Prance on 

the condition he should be given 
a Roman Catholic education. He was 
therefore sent from the Protestant Dil- 
lenburg in Germain to the palace of his 
uncle in Brussels, where he entered the 
comi ol Charles v and subsequently 
Philip ll. who nominated him Stad- 
holder of Holland. Later, however, he 
became the leadei ol the Netherlandish 
rebellion but was assassinated in 1 584. 
His second son, Mauri ts, was nominated 
Stallholder b\ the Stales ol I I ol land and 
Xeeland, the Republic ol the Seven 
I niied Provinces having been c reated dc 
I in In bv the I 1 1 ion oil n ei hi in 1579. In 
I nesland. the States chose Williams 
cousin and son-in-law William Lode- 
wijk. Count ol Nassau Diet/., for Stad- 
holder. I here w ere the re lore two courts, 
lb] the two Stallholders, one in The 
Hague and the othei m Lee u warden, the 
i-* - ^- 1 risian i apilal. 

Tulip vase with cypher and bust of ' '" "'"sins were both succeeded b\ 

William in. Delft, c. 1690. iheii brothers Maurits, who had never 

married, by Fredcrik Hendrik, and Wil- 
liam Lodewijk In Ernst Casimir. The 
former built himself European lame as a 
military campaigner and he and his wife 
Amalia van Solms lived in grand style in 
and near The Hague. Marriages were 
arranged for their son William n with 
Henrietta Maria Stuart, and for their 
daughter Albcrtina Agnes with William 
Frederick. Count of Nassau Diet/ in 
Lecuwarden. The Orange Nassau-Stuart 
couple had onl\ one child, William III, 
who married the daughter of James II, 
Man Stuart. This marriage remaining 
c hildless, William nominated as his heir 

Delftware bust of William III, c. 1690. 

William Frederick's grandson, Johan 
William Friso. Thus the title of Prince of 
( )range came to the Frisian Nassau Diet/ 
family. In 1717 Johan William Friso's 
son was nominated Stadholder of all 
seven provinces and finally left Leeu- 
warden for The Hague. He was married 
to Anna of I lanover, and his son William 
\ was the last Stadholder before French 
troops invaded the Republic in 1795 to 
'liberate' it. Alter the deleat of Napoleon 
his son became King of The Nether- 
lands, the- dine I ancestor of the present 
Queen Juliana. 

On the initiative of Queen Juliana's 
daughter. Princess Christina, and her 
husband Mr. Jorge Guillcrnio. a visual- 
isation of this four-century story has been 
realised. ( !lose co-operation between the 
Royal Family, the Pierpont Morgan 
1 abrarv and the Rijksmuseum Paleis Hel 
Loo. has resulted in this magnificent 

Thi < unnuiwm Jdiman 1980 

Armorial tapestry of William III and Mary Stuart, 
made in the workshop of Jerome LeClerc. Brussels, c. 1690. 

/ ■ • i | ., 

exhibition. More than one hundred and 
lilt\ iirms from public and private col- 
lections in The Netherlands and the 
I inted States are mi view, son ie ol which 
have not been exhibited lor more than a 
i enturv. 

Mi ist ol the loans come from the col- 
lection ol the Rijksmuscum Paleis Met 
Loo at Apeldoorn. Alter a thorough 
restoration ol the seventcenth-centurv 
house and warden, this palace will house 
.1 museum dedicated b\ the Dutch gov- 
i i niiieiit to the longstanding partnership 
between the House ol Orange Nassau 
and I he Netherlands. Queen Juliana 
and the private foundation, the Oranje 
Nassau Museum, have given substantial 
In. ins to this new State museum. The 
housing ol such a museum could not be 
better: ii is ihe former country seat of the 
Stadholdcr-King William III, built for 
him in I bo 1 ") aftet designs made in Paris at 
the Academic d'Architecture. In the 
realisation <>l the interior and the gar- 
dens an important role was played l>\ 
Daniel Marot, a French Huguenot who 
lied to Holland alter the Revocation ol 
the Kdic i ol Nantes in 1685. Afterwards 
William ill look Marot with liini to 
Kngland and employed him at Hampton 
Court, creating an interesting triangle 
ol exchange ol artistic ideas between 
France, Kngland and Holland in the 
vears around I 700. 

Marol designed the great pi< lure gal- 
lcr\ at llei Loo where William assembled 
all his favourite paintings. Alter his death 
his I i isian cousin had part ol it auctioned 
in Amsterdam and the rest removed to 
his residence in Leeuwarden. From here 
ihe\ were taken l>\ his son to I he Hague 
in I 7 17. w here his grandson William V, a 
collector, had a new gallery designed in 
! , I. Just outside his Binncnhoi quarters, 
on the liu it en hoi, this gall er\ has recent- 
1\ been restored and is now a nam open to 
the public as it was in the eighteenth 
ecnturv. Ihe collection included Rem- 
brandt's Scl l-jiai hint m n young iiimi, dated 
< . Ki29, which was added to the Stacl- 

ll< ildel ( ( ille( lion ill 1 7(k"i. 

The researches ol Miss S.W.A. 1 )n>s- 
-.Ki- and Professor Ih. 11. Liiiisingh 
S( hetirlcei h,i\e ensured the move- 
nienis and whereabouts ol the Orange 
Nil in possessions are now known, lor 
I he\ have ci mipiled ,ind published a 
three-volume inventory ol all the Orange 
Nassau resident cs and viichts. As a i esiill 
an import ii nl gold cup .ind co\°e i now in 
ihe possession ol the House ol W led. a 
( icrman laniiK i elated to ihe I h uise ol 
'c Nassau, could be traced. I his is 

Fork with William III and Mary in their 

coronal ion robes, by Rienks Bemardus 


the onlv known gold object made by one 
ol the two greatest Dutch masters ol 
Dutch gold and silver work, Paul us van 
\ i.iiitii. champion ol the unconven- 
lioiiiil 'auricular' style. On the bod\ ol 
the cup are embossed scenes ol the story 
ol Diana and Ac I. icon and inside ihe 
cover is a medallion with an embossed 
three-quarter length figure of Heinrich 
J 1 1 1 i i is. Duke ol Brunswick Wolfenbiittel 
Luneburg who commissioned the cup 
from v;m Vianen in 1610. It was in- 
herited by his daughter Sophia Hedwig, 
consort ol brnst ( lasimir ol the I louse ol 
Diet/, and from them passed into the 
collection ol the House of ( hange Nassau. 
A large pari ol the Orange Nassau 
collection was dispersed during a series ol 
sales of the contents of the different 

Silver furniture made by Johann I 
Bartermann of Augsburg, c. 1700 

residence's held shortly alter the French 
invasion of 1 7 1 )."). It is astonishing there- 
lore how much of the former collection 
has been reassembled for the present 

In addition to the Rembrandt Self- 
portrait, there are several other Dutch 
seventeenth-century paintings, for the 
Stallholders were no exception to their 
country's passion lor col lec ling their own 
'little masters'. Portraits and miniatures 
predominate. Among the sculptures is a 
bust ol William the Silent by or alter 
Hendrick ele Kevser, the most important 
native sculptor in The Netherlands in 
ihe seventeenth century. The silver ob- 
jects include a chandelier and two sets ol 
sconces made in London and used by 
William ill at his English palaces, and a 
baby-linen basket, as well as several 
beakers, snuffboxes and cutlery. Of the 
furniture displayed, the most eye-catch- 
ing is a set ol rare silver furniture made 
i . 1700 by Johann I Barter maim of Augs- 
burg. Contemporary with this is a long- 
case clock made in London by Thomas 
Tompion, probably for William til's 
bedchamber at Hampton Court, and, 
from earlier in the seventeenth century, a 
silver-mounted ebony cabinet made in 
Antwerp and set with panels painted by 
Frans Francken ll. Delftware, which 
William and Mary made so popular in 
Kngland, is represented in the exhibition 
with distinction b) two flamboyant tulip 

///, I tmmnwem |.in 

Vledal for the coronation of William III and 
Mary, 1689, by George Bower. 1689. 

vases, one in the loi in ol .1 bust i »l \\ illi.nn 
ill Out' ol thi' ill H timents is < >l e\< ep- 
tional artistic into est : it 1^ . i In in Iroin 
JRembrandt in ('onstantijn 1 1 ii\"t»'t"iis, .1 
in. in ol ureal culture and set retarx t < > 
Staclhokler I'Yederick Heutlrik, written 
on I2januar\ 1 ' > >' ' _ .n .i tiine when he 
was turning ,i\\.i\ limn Ins ili.nii.un 
Baroque stvle towards one nl classical 

balance ami calmer, more inward, 
emotion; il contains the much pu/./led- 
over worth hi wi < < //»< In hhei/t . meaning 
either 'the greatest Ai\i\ most n.dural 
nil i\ ■eineiit < >r "iin >sl innate eiin ition . 

All these intriguing items are lulh 
documcntetl in the illustrated catalogue 
to the exhibition. I Ins also contains 
essays l>\ distinguished Dutch scholars. 
iiu I in I ini; one ilea ling \\ it h Anient a and 
the House o! Orange Nassau, and an- 
other highlighting the Stadholtler-King 
William III as a collector and 'man ol 
taste". Against the stirring historical hack- 
round ol the House ol ( )range Nassau in 
The Nethei lands. Kngland and Amei ica, 
the activities ol the members of the lainiK 
as collectors and patrons ol art, and even 
on occasions as artists, are made manifest 
b\ the magnificent works of art in this 
exhil iitu ni. 

7 he exhibition, ' 1 1 i/liain and Mai y ami t/ieii 
House', is al the Pierpont Morgan Library, 
.Vcu i'ork, from 12 Deeeinhei 1979 until 1:1 
Man// 1980. 

Bust of William III. by Jan Blommendael, 1699, 

Post-Impressionist Prints 

MaryAnne Stevens 



HENRI 1)1 rOI mi sl.I.AI 1 REC. 
La Passagere du 54, colour lithograph, 1895/6. 

1 U (.1 si I. LEPERE 
La Convulescante - Madame Lepere, colour woodcut. 1892. 

T|ln- term 'Post-Impressionism wanted to find a phrase which could the period in the history ol art between 
was coined I >\ Rogci I i \ in 1910. covet this disparate list ol artists rather the Impressionism of the mid- 1870s and 
Ihe occasion was the group cxhi- than to define a distinct and unified the emergence of the new schools of 
bition ,ii the (balton Galleries in historical style. Despite subsequent con- painting, Fauvism, Cubism, Expression- 
London, which included works b\ troversies ovei its meaning, 'Post- ism and Futurism, at the beginning of the 
antic. Gauguin and Matisse. li\ Impressionism' is best used to describe twentieth century. I he art ol this period 

I h. (urn n, I inuin I'lKO 


J *. 4 


HWHI |.lllll.ll\ 1'IHI 

<J~&d Cc'yuie,? e£ &<> ^fo-^rm-t'e 

Les Cigales et les/ourmis, zincograph, plate from Dessins lithographiques, 1889. 

was marked b\ intense experimentation, lar. The reasons lor ihis decline were quality. B\ the mid-1870s, under the 

■ Hid one ol iis most notal)le in. miles- three-lold. I he rapid development dur- new name, 'L'lllustration nouvelle' 

tations was the revival ol the original ing the nineteenth centun ol such adopted in 1868 , the printing had 

print. In contrast to previous periods, mechanical techniques as chromolitho- declined in quality and the published 

prints at this time began to he executed graphy and photogravure made possible wmks now ((insisted predominantly ol 

b\ most i il I lie majoi a i lists, and. as with the manufacture ol more a< i urate and reproductions ol paintings as opposed to 

painting, sculpture and the decorative cheapei reproductions ol original inia- original prints in their own right. 

ails. 1 1 iis development in print-making ges. Ihese new processes brought with B\ 1895, the value of the original print 

li. id international ramifications. them a decline in the status ol the had been re-established. Frederick 

l>\ 1878 the original prim had lallen craftsman-engraver who, ceasing to be a Wedmore, writing in Volume v of The 

into ncglc< i . Henri Delaborde. reporting < reative translator ol an original work < >l Studio declared with evident satisfaction 

mi the French lithographs exhibited at art, became no more than a mere copier that, at the 1895 exhibition of the Royal 

the 1878 Paris Kxposition I'niverselle, of existing paintings and sculptures. Societ) ol Painter-Etchers, there was a 

%adlv declared that 'the lithograph, such There seemed also to be little demand decline in that 'soft, overwhelmingly 

as n is understood and practised todav, l<>r original prints. An exception had elaborate and fussy etching style and a 

has lost ihai | mi 1 1 ai ici i \ wherein la\ its been Cadarts Societe des Aquafortistes trend towards work done on the true 

principal charm. 1 1 has become a simple which started in 1 862 to issue prestigious artistic lines, whether these are the lines 

eproductive process ; il has dest roved its editions of original prints designed by ol the Irank sketcher in etching, with his 

own )(ii\im it'i'tii\ And the position for the artists such as Manet, Fegros and virtues of synthesis, of selection, of ab- 

othei print-media, etching, drv-point, Fantin-Fatour and published in strictly straction . . . or whether they are the 

d-engraving and woodc ul was simi- limited editions on paper ol the highest lines ol the austere original engraver. 


l h, ( imnrjuu in | .iini.i i -. I'lHI) 

Moonlight, colour woodcut, 1 »'((>. 

Likewise, when Clement- J an in and ing or a woodcut eon Id qua lib as a work high-qualit\ Japanese prints. Although 

Andre Mellerio lannehed the l'ai is re- ol art in its own right, as mm h as an oil th<'\ wei'e hrsi introduced into Km ope 

view L'Ksta/npe ct /'.l///r//c two years later. painting, marble bust or pastel, when all and appreciated in the IMbOs, these 

tin a contentedh pronounced thai 'the in its c reation had been closeh prints bee ame the subject ol influential 

current revival ol the prim grows daih controlled 1>\ the a'i list as the means ol scholar 1\ studies on K during the 1 !!<">( Is. 

ever stronger'. expressing the Idea. 1 he integritx ol the Theocli ire Duret. loi ex.unple, prod in ed 

Several factors contributed to this piuii. conceived as an original work ol Ins 'Art japonais' in \HiV2 and Samuel 

reversal. 1 he medium ol the original art, was established in UW!) when Paul Bing losterecl a taste lot -superior pi hits in 

prim received aesthetic justification (iauguin No. 1 and I. mile Bernard his publication 'Le Japon artisticpie' 

from the new Symbolist theories being No. j exhibited two albums of original launched in 1K8K. The appreciation ol 

promulgated after 188b primarily in zincographs Dfwirn litfingrafifiitjitrs; Japanese prints was I'urther facilitated b\ 

Paris. Initially applied to literature, eleven zincographs; Brctotnicricw seven ;i number ol majoi exhibitions durins 

Symbolism claimed thai the value ol a zincographs at the Cafe' 1 Volpini exhi- this decade. One ol the fruits ol this 

work ol art no longer las in its powei bition ol 188° alongside linn Svmbolist interest was the simulation ol Japanese 

accurately to reproduce the external oil paintings. woodcut techniques b\ Henri Ki\ieie 

world, but in its creator's ability to Several artistic develo|)ttients en- a\u\ Auguste Lepere No. 2 in 

express the Idea or Philosophical Truth < ouraged the emergent e of the original while practical application ol this tec h- 

through the most appropriate artistic print at the end of the 1880s. ['here was nique was encouraged b\ 7//. 

medium. A colour lithograph, an etc h- the- growing interest in and exposure to which published a scries of a i lii lis b\ the 

/' < ■■ „ i.inii.ii 




Bretonnertes. zincograph, cover to the album. Bretonnertes, 1889. 

cdit< >i i hi A Japanese i i instrut - 

in wo< kK an iiili in ] 

I he appreciation oi the technical ex- 

ise of Japanese prints was comple- 

d b\ inm >vatii ms in p< ister design 

during the I 1 1 meet die new 

ands nl advei tisei s. Jules ( iheret 

aln. e-handedl\ transii irmed die 

poster t)\ extending; the lithographic 

- to it- maximum i apa< it\ : an 

arresting; visual impact was achieved b\ 

dramatic integration oi text and image 

to ci eate a brilliant dec< irati\ e effec t. 

The re\ ival oi the- original print was also 

developments in photo- 

Mourex pointed out 

that pi ph\ threatened to displace 

whilst, at the 
time, it stimulati d 01 iginal en- 
isco\ er the intrii 

: 'I lilt a- .. .utlli 

it- 1 <w n right. 

New social and economic factors con- 
tributed in the establishment oi the taste 
tor the print. Andre Mellerio. writing in 
1897. considered that the "democrati- 
sat ion of art" and the limitations of living 
space, combined with the desire to find a 
-ate investment for modest savings, ex- 
tended the market tor quality prints 
during the last two decades oi the nine- 
teenth century. On 'democratisation of 
art" lie argued that these two decades 
had -ecu a vast iiu rease in the interest 
shown In the general public in art. 
bringing with it a desire to purchase 
original works. The limited edition print 
provided a supplv of high quality objects 
at model ate pi i< es. The < onstraints i it 
small rooms in -mall apartments meant 
that work- oi art themselves had to be 
smaller. Here again the original print 

A la lieillesse, lithograph. 1886; 
plate I of La Nuit, 1886. 

was the obvious choice; it could either be 
kept in a portfolio in one corner of the 
room or hung, framed, upon the wall-, as 
Henri Ri\ iere proposed with his set ot/. t 
Bretagne published between 
and 1907 No. 13 . 

Contemporary accounts of the revival 
i >f the original print in all its tonus tend to? 
stress the primacy of France. While this is 
true for the woodcut, resurrected by 
Riviere and Lepere and dramatically 
developed by Vallotton, Maurin and 
Laboureur in the 1890s. there were 
in liable exceptions to the dominance of 
France in respect of original etchings: 
Whistler's and Sickert's work in England 
in the first half of the 1880s; in Belgium, 
Elisor's remarkable sets of etchings 
executed from 1886; and Max Klinger in 
Germany. However, when in 1899 the 
German dealer and publisher. Meier- 
Graefe. issued his album of original 
prints. Germinal, which included prints 
by one English artist Brangwyn . tour 
Germans Stremmel, Muller. Lieber- 
niann and Behrens . two Belgians 
Minne and van Rysselberghe . two 
Dutch Toorop and van Gogh and one 
Spaniard Zuloaga . half of the prints 
,< - r< -till executed by French artists. 

Meier-Graefe's album. Germinal, was 
especially representative of the revival of 
the original print in that it included 
example- executed in almost every 
medium: woodcut, wood-engraving, 
etching and monochrome and colour 
lithography. This exploration by artists 
of the entire range i if the print media was 
marked bv two distinct concerns. One 


La Charge, woodcut, 1893. 

The Irish and American Bar, colour lithograph, 1896. 

approach was to return to the primitive 
stage oi to the first principles ol a given 
reproductive medium. In the case oi 
wood-engraving and woodcut, this 
meant the adoption of the Japanese 
technique of cutting along the wood 
plank rather than across its grain. 
Employed by Riviere, Lepere, Munch, 
Otto Eckmann, Lucien Pissarro and 
Felix Vallotton, the technique could 
create three types of visual effect: ver\ 
bold, flat black and white images sn< h as 
\ allotton achieved in his La Charge No. 

The I onnoisseut |\ I'lHil 

7 : two-dimensional, decorative colom 
/ones, hounded b\ < oarse blai k outlines 
to produce the decorative, rathei than 
naturalistic images of the Breton land- 
si ape in Henri Riviere s Paysages bretons 
1890 1891 ; and the positive use of the 
grain al< ing the w< k >d plank which, w hen 
inked in, added textural effects to prints 
such as Munch's Moonlight No. 4 . 
Lepere s La fundi de jacquet 1891 and 
Ya kmdun\ \a< fitiii/ur published m Pan, 
Number 3, 1896 . 

Artists also tried to explore the lull 


La Patisserie, colour lithograph, 18')°: 

plate from the album 

Paysages el Internals published 

by Vollard, 1899. 

possibilities ol each prim medium ai- 
though ibe\ weie alwavs guided b\ the 
prim iple of hoi lest \ to the medium sin li 
that two media could never be contused. 
'A pi mi must < ai i \ within itself the 
stamp ol iis individual charactei . < le- 
clared Bracquemond in Ins book. 'Sin 
la gravurc sin bois el la lithographic 

1 89(i . 'the mark, without am dissimu- 
lation of die i rail. wIik h lias served to 
give ii its birth . . . . In i he < ase of 
lithogruphv. the technical exploitations 
of the medium were heralded in ( Iheret s 
innovators posters executed during the 
1880s. In his poster, An\ liultes (ihaamont 

1889 . lie had not onl\ lulK explored 
textural variet\ bv mixing lithographii 
i h.ilk and lithographii ink but lie had 
also introduced the crachis technique in 
wIik 1 1 lithographii ink is spattered onto 
the stone with a small brush to create 
areas of i losel\ si attered dots. Adopted 
li\ several artists, the full potential ol (his 
lei hniq tie was investigated bv Toulouse- 
Lautrec in. lor example. The Irish and 
American Ha) No. 8 . where he used 
crachis U > con ve\ both surface texture and 
spatial variation. I he versatility ol 
I oulouse-Lautrec s manipulation ol the 
colour lithographii techniques, demon- 
strated in his prim. La Passagere du 54 

No. I . was followed by his (lose assoi i- 
ates, the Nabis. notably Maurice Denis. 
Vuillard and Bonnard. The range oi 
textural variety to be drawn from blai k 
and white lithographic chalk was pur- 
sued m the works ol Fantin-Latour, 




Les Crepuscules ont une douceur, colour lithograph, 1898; plate from the album 

Amour published by Vollard, 1899. 

Shannon, Will Rothenstcin and, al its 189.5 he wrote: '. . . thus do we enjoy in 
finest and most expressive, in Odilon the prooffrom the plate, at first hand, the 
Redon's one hundred and sixty-six plates verve and the energ) of the original con- 
executed between 1 879 and 1899 No. 6 . ception oft he artist's mind, drawn with a 
Etching and dry-point also undei went delicac\ and sureness ol eye and hand 
similai ex|)eriments. To he sine, both akin to that of thejapanese draughtsman'. 
ol diese media had largeh escaped die Once I. hum lied, the revival of the 
inid-nineteenth-centttr) decline ol original print received encouragement 
lithography into .i mere reproductive and support from many institutions, 
medium. In England, both etching and Societies were established to differen- 
dry-point were e nthusiasticall) exer- tiate the painter-engraver from the mere 
i ised in the works of Whistler, Seymour reproductive-engraver, the Roval 
ll.ulen and I. cuius, in German) by Socict) ol Painter-Etchers founded in 
Men/el and Leibl and in Prance the\ London in 1881 , the Societe des Peintres- 
w i 1 1 lostered b\ ( ' s Societe des graveurs in 1889 and the Societe 
Aqualoi listes. However, tin- 1880s saw Corporative des (iraveurs sin bois in 
renewed enthusiasm for these two deli- 189b, both in Paris. To meet the de- 
i ale technicpies. Whistlers return to mauds of the members of these societies, 
etching in Ins sciics ol Venice piuits ol specialist printers emerged to work 
1880 encouraged Strang, Pennell and closet) in the translation ol original 
Su kert to puisne then own experiments designs into finished prints. In Paris, for 
within the medium. In Holland, the example, while Pelletan concentrated on 
encouragement <il etching was central to i aisniu, the qualit) ol book illustration, 
the programme ol l)e Nedclandsche engraving, printing and production in 
last '| ub founded in A nisi cm la in in 188") Ins Editions d' Art. Clot was establishing 
and in < iermanv. (he extreme finesse and his reputation as a printer b\ col la bo rat - 
itilitv ol Max Klinger's etchings ing with Vollard in the production of the 
lostered an nil crest in the medium w hit h lattei s set oik I . \lhiim des Peintres-draveurs 
produced such experimental coloui 189/ . Likewise. Stein and Duchatel 
elt bin die work ol Mullei fo i maintained the high qualit\ ol printing 
example, his colour etching included in in i wo leading publishing firms, 
l ( ) . In Prance, the examples Lenten iei el ( lie, and Ancourt el (lie. 1 1 
ol I ( ii and |ames lissol paved was Stein. [oi example, who was re- 
ihe wa\ loi lies n art I s intensclv-w rough l sponsible for the at t urate translation ol 
plates and Helleu's biilhaniK adept I oulouse-Lautrec's lithographs and lor 
pieci No. 12 . Ii was Helleu's the superior printing of Martv's Estampe 
ett lungs w hit h were praised b\ the critit originate 189li 1895 . In England and 
( J. P. Jacob Hood, when in German v. these demands were met in 

pari by the establishment of pi i\ ate 
pi inting presses such as William Moi 1 is' 
Kelmscott Press and Rickctts and 
Shannon's Vale Press. Sales and com- 
missions for original prints c .une from a 
number of different sources. Specialist 
pi nil-sellers developed, such as Sagot, 
Kellerman and Pellet in Paris. There 
was also the publication of albums of 
original prints. The first in this held was 
L' Estampe originate. Commissioned and 
published by Andre Marty, printed by 
Stein at Am mill et ( lie. this album 
consisted ol a series ill nine volumes, 
appearing quarterly from March 1893 to 
1895. Lai h volume, with the exception 
ol the final one. contained nine plates 
b\ artists working in a variety of styles 
and media. The) included colour litho- 
graphs b\ Lautrec, Bonnard (No. 11 . 
and William Nicholson, woodcuts by 
( hie i ai (I and Lucie n PissaiTO, black and 
white lithographs by Redon and 
Meunier and etchings by Besnard, 
I lei leu. Pennell and M.iurin. A spate of 
similar publications followed in the wake 
ol L" Estampe originate. E Estampe moderne 
was launched in 1897, Vollard's two 
Album des Peintres-graveurs were published 
in 1896 and 1897, and Meier-Graefe's 
(terminal in 1899. In addition, individual 
albums of artists' prints were also pro- 
duced. Shannon published a six-plate 
album of lithographs in 1895, Vuillard 
and Bonnard issued their albums, called 
respectively Paysages et Inteneurs and 
(hiilijiics aspects de la vie de Paris (No. 9 . 
through Vollard in 1899 and Redon, 
throughout the 1880s and 1890s, pro- 
duced his magical lithographs both as 
individual plates and as albums (for 
example. Dans le reve, 1879, and La . Vuit, 
188b . In addition, individual literary 
and artistic re\ lews commissioned origi- 
nal prints from artists to be leafed into 
then issues as hors texte illustrations. In 
Pram e tins practice was adopted by La 
Revm blaneht 1891 1 ( H)| . which com- 
missioned a lithograph from Bonnard in 
1892, followed l>\ prints from Vallotton, 
Vuillard, Toulouse-Lautrec and Denis. 
i: Estampe el PAffiche < 1897 1899 and 
//Image founded in 1896 followed the 
same policy. In England similar patterns 
i il 1 1 hi i mission were adopted b\ The Dial 
and lln Studio, while German) was 
served b\ the review Pan (founded in 
1895 and Belgium b\ Max Elscamp's 
\ uii \ it en Straks founded in 1892 on 
winch he was aided by Henri van de 
\ elde. Finally, books and articles on the 
original print proliferated: Mellcrios 
La Lithographic originalc en couleurs' 

ll„ ( ,mmn-M-m, |anuar\ l'»8(J 





Scene </c Familh\ colour lithograph, lli'li. 

•;c: ; 

Dei'ant les Watteau du Louvre, two-i olour etching, < . 189 ». 


' - »r """ ^ " ' "• - ' ; - ' 


l.e Beau fays </<■ Bretu^ne . «i< hards 

ilu I "rieii\ an crepuscule, 

colour lithograph, 1903. 

modern < niginal pi mi . In I H!)o, Andre 

Mellerio underlined the dillu ulties at- 

lendanl upon the inainlenanee ol high 

< 1 1 i.i 1 1 1 \ m l lie product inn ol the original 

3 print, such thai where piml albums 

1. 1 1 ked c onnnissK his Irom the best ,u I is|s. 

; ,i high i|iialii\ ol printing and a guaran- 

' tee ot a limited edition, the i esults ( ould 

r be in i mi ire than the "banal and In nno- 

: gei let his appearance ol / I'.stomfw inoacrni . 

3 which 'relieved all ol its artistic charactei 

is lelt ,il the level i il i onmiei < ial 

( Inonii (lithographs '. I Ins threat to 

uiialilN m the original piml wascomple- 

meuted b\ an apparent slnti in taste 

towards old mastei prints. I lus move 

was not onh illustrated in the i ise in 

pines achieved b\ old mastei pimls in 

print sales in Paris at the end ol the I >">')( Is 

bnl also m the willingness to purchase 

mi tdern i epi odiu (ions ol old prints. I he 

( 'hah ographie dn louvre was loiinded 

m b">')7 spec ilu all\ lo publish i opies ol 

i ill I mastei pi mis held in that museum's 

( labinel des Ivstampes, and in laigland, 

m I lie same \ ear. I lie Dm el Soi iet\ 

was established to reproduce lat similes 

ol engi a\ lie's by I )in er and his 

contempt u ai ies. 

was published in lM'ir, with a cover l ranee, earlv in lo ( *K. two collaborators While mauv <>i the artists involved in 

designed b\ Bon nan 1 ; Ravmotid Bouvei on /, ' E^tainfir ill'. \//u hi . A. I la inn il and the original pi nil re\ i\ al ol the I MDOs did 

issued two ai I H les in / _' I'.shiuiji, ft /'. |///< In I., de (Hau/.al, lounded the Societe coiitiiuie to execute individual pi. lies. 

on 'Les ( 1 1 a\ em s sin bins an hi de i anil' d 1 ',< hangesentre Amateurs d est am pes ft albums and book illustrations altei I 'HID, 

in l<! ( ) , ) November and Decern bei ; ,\i\t\ < Ial In lies s.a.i . , specific alk to facilitate the scale of th eh activities was reduced. 

Will Rothcnstein's "Some remarks on the exchange ol knowledge and ol prints Indeed, il was not perhaps until the 

artistic lithography" appeared in '///< between connoisseurs and collectors. |!)(>()s that <i similai degree ol at I 

Studio in If!').). As a coda, it is worth Yet, despite the activiu ,\\\i\ en- oc cured, instigated coincide ntalh b\ 

nothing that the enthusiasm lor original thusiasm, there was evidence even before main ol the limes through wliicli iis 

prints could rise io such levels thai in l'HIII oj a lineal to the revival ol the predccessoi had been formed. 


I - 


Geoffrey Ashton 

1. Arthur Atherley, 
125.8 100.1 ( m. 

I In' genius i it Sn I Law rein e has Waterloo Chamber. Generations of bis- galleries across America and Queen 

nol escaped tin casual e\e Visitors to iiiii tins haw Irequcnth preferred Charlotte. Lord Brougham and Vaux, 

Windsor Castle, and there are hundreds Lawrences Masln Lanibton No. 8 to and Castlereagh are amongst his sitters 

nl thousands eat li \ear. i <in ice ,i whole Gainsborough s lilm /in] . Seycral ol his mi view in central London, 

series ol masterpiece-- h\ him in the finest portraits are strategically placed in 1 he fine exhibition at Carlton House 

Hi, I unnnmem laniian l')80 


2. Mrs. Jens Wolff. 
128.2 102.4 cm. 

:' ■ ' |.iim.ii\ I'IKII 

v Mtw \Iaf>uire and her son. 
Diameter : 1 65. 1 cm. 

1. Georgtna. I >n/i . Ipslej . 

later ( onntess Bathurst. 

74.9 62.2 cm. 


5. .U?\s George Stratton. 
blac k and coloured (.balks cm canvas. 91.5 78.7 cm. 

R _ - .mil tighth clingim 

him tin i> which so oflended George n 

at when li( brielh -pied them at the 179; 

t: Roval Acadetm exhibition. Lawrence': 

1 1 in. tiiicd w ith him through- 
>n out his career, especially in pictures o 


v I 


K \ / 1 79'2 No. 1 . w ith his 

\ i nit to he drowned in his 

let's a-> he takes oil ciiervesi oth\ sleeves, oi v 

1 • ( IV. 1 790. gn iw ing old 

Spanish land- with her fancy Luc cap and shawl. 
:i<_Miit\ and dilapidated dog. 

children sue h as the well-known < 

24. ( )ci asionalh . it bareh 

a line sense ol the ridiculous ai 

the portrait of the somewhat sclf- 

j ii issessed // ■ s Bishop 

■J) 1816. win ise pai rot-like 

I). Emma, l.uiiy Hamilton, 
243.8 I..M.11.. 

i. Mi s l'a/u mink ,. f//i /k » sun Frederick . 
lid .mil lil. ic U i li.ilk 'in paper, ill. > _' !_' . m. 

I ..IW I fill (' i ill ell Uses .1 I 11 II I.I N li i .1(1(1 l\ < A I H '1' ! Si I I I ,ll]( I I). 1 1 1 1 I ' ' ( li i| 1 1 1 I I , I I I - lilt III). 1( \ nl /ml, . I// I, , I , 1 1 1 1 1 1 • ( i I I 1 1 . 1 

i HI 111 Kill ,is \\ ell ,is mil i i i |. i .i | hi | in c ; | he ( ( hi It if Ml lull nil the Id I : I he spn taloi llllllllxl nl I In p< n II alt di ,i\\ mi's u it li 

lie i'\li ciiirK | )i it I \ I'll! i i i /.'ill looks up to him W hi hi looking di iW n on I hei i dai k. intense e\ es and dia l a< tei - 

HI 7, em 1)1. He 1 hei 1 leering pet doll ke\ : 111- | i.i i I in l • 1 1 1 I lie l f'lil . I s. it Ion I ( ill lei lines. ;i in I In < ,isi 1 1| 

ag-doll .\/m. (it i Sluiltm ill IJ'ill. i- \ well .is Ins l.itLM-i. in.i'^nili K|ii( ni 1 1 ii- potti.iil ul liiilitml II. lull ol tin 

1 1 ii ml in lie si i.i ken n > nicies I >\ ,i Ini^e ( ,ui\ .ises Law i ein e painted ni,in\ inli- 1 / { ")s. ( oinpai is |,i\ inn alih u n h In 

li i.U .Hid the ei |ii,ill\ lniyi I ml nun li nn n e in. lie wink- • > f 'jn.ii lieaut\, ( .. ■ ■ Italian pot ti.ut di aw mi's. Ihetin\ 1/. 

lopp\ ( 1 ( >'_; ill ,\// \. \l< /;////... '/nl /.mi I: . i < > 1 1 7 ' ' J No, 1 is our <»! die 1'tljn mlu! No. 7 is i>rtltl\ polll.l\ed. 

Ml" i No. ! . sets die I mi olii tin >i ill i il most >atid\ nit; ol these winks, the possihh we. n in: . Iik li In 

his in.ii \ elli his spkidi 1 1 1 .i i i hi i pi isiin hi. sn loot h i nl enl I.k e and < .isii.ilK model- modelled loi 1 .aw i em e s port tail ol 

I nloi innaleh . I .aw 1 1 in e p.nn led lew led hands ( onli astinu u n h the s( .impel ' hi ecu ( 'hai lotte. I mt h< i r\li aoidinai \ 

roup compositions. Apart limn the ol paint in the landsi ape to die ri<dit and hat and enoiinoiis little l>o\ add a 

-.1 til el ille-W In el e\i ltenielil ol ,\// \ I he 111 III \ ol hail 1 i.lle|\ held flow 1 1 I j 111 i< I a I e li H n 1 1 i il 1 1 n I il/a I 1 < I )i pi i - 

Mii'^ni'i mill lii i sun theliest example is the lililioii. I.awieiues drawing- aie l.u I.k I dial I. a 

;roup ol S'/y hiiuiii Ihn ■ lil / '//, lewei than his paintinys and one 1 1| die poitiaii 

II nl 1 Ml )7. painted main ,k hir\ ements ol die esliihition ha- lew m die 

is a j xi k I.i 1 1 1 to a similai "roup li\ heeii lo Initio so nian\ to^ethei. I In exhiliilioii i 

H. Charles William Lamb ton, 
137.2 111.8 cm. 

Iht Connoisseur^ January l ( -J8( 

cale examples. Two of them, including 
,neoi Mrs. George Stratum olY. 1810 (No. 
i . are on canvas and show how com- 
pete Lawrence's image ol his sitter 
icloi'e he added a single brushstroke ol 
Kiint to the portrait. 

Lawrences talent as a landscape pain- 
cr was considerable even il he did lend 
to adopt a rather glutinous palette when 
lepicting clumps ol trees. 'I he lands) api- 
an be an adjunct to the portrait: the 

Sixth Duke oj Devonshire of 1811. sits & 

Ireamily in front ol .i partialh revealed 
misty landsi ape worth) ol Turner ol the 
1830s. Occasionally it can take ovei 
altogether; Lady Hamilton ol 1792 No. 
6 , sits in a woody bower on a glorious 
pink and gr>\ cloak. As the stream runs 
i through the glen to the left, Lach 
Hamilton's hair streams over her shoul- 
der and down her right thigh. As the 
Woodland Muse she is completeh ab- 
■ M)ibed by her setting. 

This metamorphosis does not realh 
•ccur in Lawrence's work aft ei the 1 790s 
ind the personality ol the sitter usuallx 
lominates the canvas with complete 
onviction. John I'hi/t/> hemhle as 
' oriolanus ol 1798 No. 9 . is a par- 
ticularly striking example ol this and 
suggests an aspect ol Lawrence's work 
otherwise absent from the exhibition. 
Lawrence saw Ins portrait ol Kemble as 
Coriolanus, and his othei three huge 
canvases ol the same actor in various 
roles, as at least lilt\ pel cent historx 
pictures. He alwavs wanted t>> be an 
histon painter, foil) iwing the precepts ol 
Reynolds, his mentoi and hero, and 
produced a handful ol su< h works in the 
arl\ years))! his career. He cvcntualh 
decided that practicalitx lied hnn to 
portraiture but tried to instil a Ice] ol the 
historic and grandiloquent into his lai- 
^er and more public works. The portraits 
that now hang in the upper row ol the 
Waterloo Chamber at Windsoi are. ol 
course, the principal examples ol this 
practice. The inlim.D \ ol the exhibition 
tends to reduce then hcroi) qualities and 
bring them into the boudoh : one forgets 
the historic icon in the face >>l the 
strength ol tin- characterisation and the 
virtuoso use ol paint. 

A picture that combines intimacy with The print of the De/fihit Sihyl which is stage performance that leaves one gasp- 
historic pretensions is the portrait ol Mi s. visible in front of her, the figure of Niobe ing for an encore. Can there be anvdou I >l 
Jens II oljf. started in about 1803 but not is her husband's sculpture gallen from that, with Cainsborough and Revnolds, 
exhibited until 1815 No. 2). Just as which she is protected b\ a screen, the Lawrence is one of the supreme triuin- 
Reynolds flattered Mrs. Siddons in his rose over her heart, the Hushed cheek virate ol English portraiture ' 
portrait ol her as the Tragic Muse l>\ and the amazing satin frock all eontri- 

giving her the pose ol Michaelangelo's bute to the image carefully built up bv '/ he exhibition i\ <m at the .\alinnal I' 
Isaiah, Lawrence paints his closest female the artist. (ia Hoy's annexe at /.'» Cm I tan lino 

friend in the pose of the Erxthraen Sibyl as The collection of powerful images in until Mi Maii/i U.IHO. 

9. John Philip Kemble as Coriolanus, 
261.2 177.8 cm 

well .is giving hei the extraordinarih the Lawrence exhibition is almost over- 
long legs ol Michaelangelo's earh Pietii. whelming. Lach picture is ,i brilliant 

///, I utimnwui |.iini.,i\ I'IKII 



John Gloag 

i * ! 


>■ «l y * 

['wo sleeping chairs, carved and gilded with adjustable backs, covered with the original 
crimson brocaded silk. Described in the inventory of the contents of Hani House, 1679. 

urn freed from restrictions imposed by 
: puritan moralists during the Common- 
(- wealth; rigidity of form had melted 
I away, and as decoration was no longer 

- pruned or rationed, chair-makers and 

- upholsterers could again gratify the an- 
cient human love ol ornament and in- 
dulge the desire for comfort. New 
materials and improvements in the 
methods o| upholster) encouraged re- 
laxed postures, and these were also 
temptingly invited by the introduction 
and increasing use ol canework for the 
seats and backs ol (hairs and day-beds. 

Canework was formed l>\ interlaced 
split canes taken from the class ol palms 
known as rattans, imported from the 
Malay Peninsula by the hast India 
Company. The method ol interlacing 
rattans differed from that employed by 
basketmakers who used plaited twigs or 
rushes: rattans were thin and resilient, 
and allowed an open mesh to be formed. 
Originally .1 large mesh was used, but 
I >eloi e the end ol the seventeenth century 
u was replaced by a finer and closer 
mesh. As many chair-makers adopted 
this new craft, the use ol canework grew 
rapidly, despite active opposition from 
upholsterers and manufacturers ol wool- 
len fabrics who regarded it as a major 
lineal to their markets. Bradford, the 
home ol the woollen trade, made stren- 
uous protests, even attempting to have 
cane chair-making suppressed, but eai ic- 
ing had come to stav. and altei the 
(ileal lire ol London in 1666 it was 
pei manently established. Hundreds of 
newly-built houses (or I -oik loners had to 
be furnished, and makers were able to 
satisK much ol that demand l>\ produc- 
ing sets of caned chairs with elbow chairs 
and stools to match. Occasionally 
fashionable woods were used for frames, 

uriiig the hundred wars between gant, some modest and soberly restrain- instead of beech, ash or elm, and an 
nation ol (he monan h\ v>,\. some home-grown, others imported inventory made in 1698 records 'a do/en 

m. J in |t, 1, 11 .mil the accession of from l ranee, while a few were trivial or ofWalnutl tree Cain Chaires , another 

( 1 eoi gr 111. I. nglish manners, clothes, and slighth ridiculous, occasionally exuber- inventory ol the same date includes "2 

I decoi at ion of seat furniture ant. bui never vulgar. At the beginning cain Stooles . . . . I his light, convenient 

i< ed b\ a sequenceol fashions, of this period of change and accomplish- scat furniture kept its popularity for 

ornate ,i\\(\ exlrava- ineni in furniture design, makers had generations, not only in England but in 

//„ Cbw.mi. |.iiiii.ii\ 1980 

.\ltc-i l()(iO .in i iiipli.iii' I'i'-.ik wa- 
made with pi nil. in austei tiv : I lie eti- 

- i ic linxMit (it ( '.uoIimm ( li.i i's re- 
lic, (c,| the populai nun ><1 '»l iimi-sl i .unci! 

- ,_, ,i lr |\ ; ( ,n \ ci s i ml 1,1 in | H 1 1 (I I )\ tin - bleak 

:: , ellsi ilsllip i)| till' ( 4)1111111 H1W c.lllll pi'l I' ><l 
uci c lice lii e\|)l ess llieii ili\ filth ciicss 
and iinpnix e llieii skill, pai in nl.n l\ mi 
die i i estiii", ill i li.iii l>a< k- and mi the 
,ii ( lied sli etc In is between the Inn 
u hilc the <_m.!i fliil up])' mil", < "r\ es i .1 
those legs antii ipated the nhini.ite pei- 
|c( linn ul till i .'In inle Ii 'l in. I lie I), n lev 
,,i l .,u |\\ isl. line ul the lew i n 
de\ ii is dial ( liomwellian tin mis hail 
I, cell allowed hi use. now icappeaied 
(u ( asioiialh mi i he \ ei tic . 1 1 members 
thai Hanked . hail bat ks, though thai 
dei ol.llive de\ i( e killed In iiiollib the 
se\ ci ii\ ul tall i hail v e\ en \\ hen the 
bai ks w ei c iM'iilK ini lined and .idol lied 
with i ipphirj .a aiithns Ii illations and 
sinnons s< ii ills. I .\ ci \ line ol tin ise < hail s 
disi i mi aged ungl at etnl all M ndes ; no 
gentleman ol In ceding and i ei i.iinK no 
lath i mild <h cam ol Ii ninging i hi seals so 
dignihed in t hai ai lei : elabi irate < Ii ithes 
,iiid admirable manners inhibitetl su< h 
lapses ; Pejus in his - pi cat skii I m! i n his 
'white suil w illi sil\ ci I, a c ( oat < mild 
nc\ (i ( < mdest end to sprawl. Si nne de- 
vil es were iiilmdui ed that permitted the 
legitimate sin rendei "I <lii*nily. as with 
the paii o| 'sleeping i ha\ res', tiphol- 
sterctl In i hit r\ -coloured bi ot ade. at 
I lam I louse. I'eii isham. in Snrie\ . the 
icsidcnt e ol die I hike anil 1 )m hess ol 

Chairs from a set of seven with cane seals 
and japanned Frames decorated with 
Chinese motifs. < . 1680-1690. In the blue 

drawing room at Ham House 


the America 1 1 Colonies. A ret old exist sol 
'two do/, armd ( Iain ( 'hairs one largci 
ditto", supplied lot die ( .i unit tl ( ih.imbei 
oflheC'apitol at Williamsburg. Virginia. 
Specialist makers were established in 
I ,i nidi in b\ the i ipening (let ~^\r ol the 
eighteenth i en 1 1 ii \ and pel haps eai liei 
two are nil mil d in 1 70'*. nanieh 
l.dw.ud bailleti. ol Russell Street. 
l)rur\ I and William ( lardnei . ai 
the sign ol 'kin ( !ane ( 'hah . mi the 
soul h side ol St. Paul's ( 'Inn i h :< lardnei 

annoiuu rt\ m an a(\\ ert iseinenl dial he 
'Makelh and scl let 1 1 cane t hairs, i ouches 
and tane sashes at reasonable rates ol 

|)l\ Wood'. 

The North drawing room at Ham House: 

armchair in the foreground with dolphins 

carved on arms and feet. c. 1675. 

III. I nrwnnsrui |. IN I'WI 

^^©rT^v : 

.i.l. K. t..!ii(i<n 

Walnut armchair, with scrolled front legs 

and st retcher and artri supports, and caned 

seat and hack splat panels, c. 1670. 

Vi. Ioim aii.l Ml.. .. \! . . . :, I 

The Assembly at VVanstead House, painted 
hy William Hogarth. Tin- interior decor- 
ation and the ornate gilt furniture are 
attributed to William Kent: the house was 
designed hy Colin Campbell in 1715, and the 
painting of this interior was commissioned 
in 1727 and probably finished in the fourth 
<!<■< ade of the eighteenth century. 

Lauderdale, that was furnished, accord- 
ing to John Evelyn's description, 'like a 
great Prince's'. The frames of (hose 
i hairs were elaborately carved and gilt, 
with a pair ol sportive amorini centred 
on the stretchers that united the front 
legs, .iikI those legs terminated in feet 
representing recumbent sea horses. Iron 
ratchets allowed the high backs to be 
lowered so they became horizontal con- 
tinuations ol the seals. Entries in the 
Royal Accounts record that several such 
sleeping chairs had been supplied to 
( Diaries u. 

During the decade following the 
Restoration, the high-backed uphol- 
stered chair made a notable contribution 
in comfort. Seat and back and roll-over 
arms were padded and stuffed, and the 
back Hanked by shaped wings or lugs 
that formed protective draught- 
excluders. A rare late seventecnth- 
centun example from Chastleton 
House, neai Moreton-in-Marsh, is now 
preset ved with its original upholster) in 
the Victoria and Albert Museum, kepi in 
a Stuck Room and protected l>\ a glass 
case. I hroughout the eighteenth cen- 
tury such comfortable types were known 
as eas\ chairs ; winged or wing chairs is a 
modern term ; a contemporary name was 
Saddle ('heck, for sometimes the wings 
in cheeks resembled the shape ol a 
saddle, like an example illustrated on 
plate 15 of Hepplewhite's 'Guide'. The 
sentimental term, 'grandfather chair', 
was (oined r. 1HH0, and may well have 

Walnut armchair with upholstered seat and 
back in needlework of geometric pattern, 
scroll-over arms and cabriole legs, c. 1710. 

h'tzwilliam. Museum, Cambridge 

The comfortable line of the bended-back 
chair that invites a relaxed posture without 
loss of dignity. A country-made model, with 
a drop-in rush seat, cabriole front legs and 
pad feet. English walnut, c. 1720. 

/ hi < 'onnoLsseur, fanua i 

>een suggested by the title of a popular 
one called 'My Grandfather's Clock', 
omposed in 1878 by Henry Clay Work, 
hat had reached England from America. 
A well-established concession to com- 
ort was the day-bed, a contemporary 
lame for a long upholstered scat, in use 
luring the late sixteenth century and 
firoughout the seventeenth ; a term that 
ater became interchangeable with 
ouch. The day-bed had a slightly in- 
lined head and a long seat supported l>\ 
six or eight legs; .1 basic design that 
survived unchanged, apart from minor 
variations of carved ornament, until the 
mid-eighteenth reiitm \ . 

Chairs dining the puritan period had 
low, rectangular back rests, like the 
broad-seated side (hairs or back stools 
that were introduced late in the sixteenth 
century, a standardised type thai for 
over a hundred years was common 
throughout Europe and England. They 
are often (ailed farthingale chairs; .1 
term probably invented in the nine- 
teenth century for it is not contem- 
porary. Certainly such (hairs were con- 
venient for ladies encumbered by the 
vast, hooped farthingale that was 
fashionable during the latter part <>l 
Elizabeth t's reign, and throughout that 
of J.unes 1. The seats and backs were 
upholstered, the underframing usualh 
lei t plain, and the\ were known as uphol- 
sterers' or imbraudcrers' chairs. I he 
high-backed, impressive types that be- 
came fashionable alter the Restoration 
were often described as French (hairs, 
because like main other modish designs 
they origin. ited in France. Alreach 
French taste was admired and emulated 
111 many European countries; the polic\ 
of Colbert, Louis xiv's great minister, 
was to establish French leadership in the 
dei i irative arts and era Its, for he realised 
that the reputation of French craftsmen 
would eventual!) become a financial 
asset to the state. 

Chairs with tall, slightly inclined ba< ks 
allowed greater comfort for those seated 
without the sacrifice of dignity. Already 
single chairs and elbow chairs were 
losing their former angularity, and by 
the end of the seventeenth-centur) 
Dutch influence, always indulgent to 
ease, became apparent ; the sinuous line 
ol the cabriole leg and the (low of com- 
plementary curves were anticipated, 
though no marked change in the shape of 
chairs occurred until the early eigh- 
teenth century ; then from 1 700 onwards 
severity <>f shape melted into gentle 
eunes that lent new graces t< > every t< irm 

1 i^M 1 * 

Armchair of carved and gilt pinewood, with 
acanthus scrolls on the cresting and below 
the seat rail; upholstered in cut velvet bro- 
cade from Spitalfields manufactory, c. 1730. 
Probably by William Kent, as it closely 
resembles a pair of armchairs he designed 
that were formerly at Devonshire House. 

1 In \\. ( iolln th.ll 

Walnut armchair, upholstered in red velvet. 
The knees of the cabriole legs are decorated 
with lightly carved shells, with scales on the 
lower part and talon-and-ball feet. First 
quarter of the eighteenth century. 
Vi< Inri.i .iii.l All,, .t Museum, London 

of seal furniture without diminishing 
structural stability. 

Chairs ol I he Omen Anne pern >d 
diflered in charactei and comlori Irom 
their immediate predecessors ; I he use ol 
the cabriole leg, not on l\ on < hairs but on 
la I iles, desks and ( abinel stands, I em pled 
some I in n it in e historians to des< ribe the 
In si I luce dei ades of the eighteenth 
centurv .is 'the cabriole period , a con- 
venient though ralhei misleading label. 
The period was one of artistic enlighten- 
ment, partly inspired by comprehension 
ol the significance ol curvilinear design. 
Although their remote ancestn was not 
realised until the Greek Revival later in 
I he eighteenth (en t ill v, the curves ol the 
cabriole leg originated in the lourth and 
fifth centuries before the Christian era 
when they appeared on the lower part of 
the carved marble seats reserved for 
privileged spec tators in ( ireek theatres. 
The unconscious rediscovery ol those 
gracious opposing curves led to fresh 
conceptions of stability for seat iurn it tire. 
( Ihairs < mild now be released from their 
dependence upon underframing; stret- 
chers linking the legs were often dispen- 
sed with, so horizontal elements no long- 
er disrupted the grace ol double curves. 
1 he term cabriole was not generally used 
to describe legs with opposing curves 
until the end of the Victorian period; 
othet terms, such as bandv leg and hock 
leg, probably invented in chair-makers" 
workshops, were employed to denote a 
break on the inside of the knee. 

The revolution in the character and 
comfort of. single and elbow chairs culmi- 
nated in the bended back (hair, derived 
from .in oriental prototype that trans- 
formed the ideas ol English makers. The 
adoption ol the cabriole leg accelerated 
iliis revolution in design, but the in- 
spiration that expanded and established 
lis influence came from a ( model, 
diflerent fiom any European chair, lot 
the back splat was gently curved and the 
cresting rail that resembled the line ol a 
milkmaid's yoke, was upheld by vei deal 
members ol circular set lion. Such chairs 
had been imported by the East India 
Company, and English chair-makers 
adapted the design, smoothing the lines 
of the yoke rail or changing its shape, so it 
became an arched member, continuing 
the elongated curves of the back up- 
rights; sometimes those uprights were 
indented, the inward curve giving them 
a waisted elfect so the open spaces be- 
tween them and the sides of the elon- 
gated vase-shaped back splat were not 
unlike t lie sound holes of a violin and the 

Ihft nimonidir, |.iii.i.ii\ 1'IHIP 

(lie I). ii k i esembled i In- shape 
1 in-i i uineni. I lie desi i i|)ii\ c iiini 

I >.lf k was III ( I >lltelll|>( )| ,11 \ Use 
till III-! I I.I I I 1)1 I III' eighteenth 

iii iii \ and was latei mm ■< I h i i li'M i il )c ,i 
Ii.iii w lien tin apertures 
(I in i 1m ha i k i ,uls also -.i i" 
liapi (il sound holes. 
I ,i\ ' l\ iniei esi in oriental (let oration 
and in name nl began lo inlluenci 
-liorll he Restoration : I ii ii iks on 

( I in i.i ,ind die I .a si 1 1 kIks wcici ollei led 
.ind studied l'( | >\ .K 1 1 mi i 1 1 one Iroin 
\l. ii t in his I /( m iksellei . '.i mi isl e\( elleni 
hook with i ,u e ( mi - . while technical 
ed primal il\ lot the inlor- 
ol furniture makers 
imti i li( all\ . and ol tin 

km >w n w .h ' \ I i ise i il 

■lid Varnishing , h\ John 

Sialki i .uid < ic n "i I'.u k( i I ) 1 1 1 in-; I he 

List (|ii.n lei ol the seventeenth < cntuiA 

,111 Kl It'll II l,i( ( {III I Midlist i \ Was well 

established .md floui ishinsj and was 
|)lol(( led allci I 7D0 l)\ a fifteen pel i eiil 

I i lilt \ i ill |.lp, Milled .111(1 l.i( (|IK I ( ( I 

goods from die I at Last Soon tin term 
- |.i panning was applied genera 11\ lo 
I. ii ( | in i -wi u k and iii painted and \ ,u - 
nished liu nit mi e. \\ w ,i ■ lot i ( h ( ai- 
led die ( hinese laste enjo\ ed inti rinit- 
teiii pi ipnl.ii it \ dining die eai l\ and 
middle \ ears ol the eighleeni II ccntuiA . 
iith disciplined h\ inakei s 
liki I In 'ii i.i ( hippendalc. w ho included 
il d< i" n In ( hinese chairs in die 
i in I siil)se(pienl editions i il Ills 
I )i 1 1 i 1 1 1 1 I )u i ii i' tin opening decades 
'.I t cntuiA tin sinoothh How ing 
Acre accentuated h\ lac- 
tpiei in w ai in ( olours and h\ the ( list reel 
ikIi flat surl.ucsas the 
plat .mi I tin apron helow the front 
seat i ail. oriental un ii lis m acanthus 
Ii n His gleamed in dull g( > I c 1 : hut apart 
tin inn i.i I .md re\ olutioiiaiA 
1 it ( realed liu heuded 
i han l In | H ' ipi ii i ii ii i ol 

l( I ed. 
MeallW llile tin < h. il ,n Hi iii i ,n \ ed 

I I n in hai I been modified. An arr.n 
ol ol n, orned die knees 
' il i ,il ■■ n Ii ,i the ( ahoiu lion, 
the lound, <>\ al oi i inieiil 

thus lea \ i i row ti- 

ed I >\ . In nigh .i si iliiai \ shell w as 

Ireipiein in ex- 

' ill il e. \ I 

i ei oi dignihed S 

l r a \ .i placid ■ ; tin I e e r i u u 

I. is ( i\ ions countenance ol a sat\ r; oi the 

dignit\ ol a lion. Sonn he ley; 

heli iw I he knee would ! 

Mahogany library or reading chair, c. 173"). 

Arms, scat and back art- upholstered in 


■.I ' minute 

represent shagg\ lui or scales, and ter- 
iniii.iie m ,i cloven hoof, the [laws ol a 
In hi. oi die i law s ( 1 1 ,i pi ed.iii 1 1 \ bud. the 
laltei grasping and parth concealing a 
hall. I he arms < >l ellx iw < hairs i ilten 
ended in the carved he. ids ol lions <n 
cables, and this preoo u pat ion with ani- 
mal in avian models persisted through- 
i nil the second cpiartei ol the centur\ . 
During that tune the dimensions ol 
t hairs underwent some minoi changes; 
seals bc< ame wide enough lot tw< i people 
in sit i ( miloi tabh side h\ side, and ihis 
iik reased width suggested main fanciful 
n. lines iii latei generations, sin h as love- 
seat, courting thaii and drunkard's 
chair, the lasl being sullu icnth hroad lo 
allow .i gentleman to rccovei incon- 
spii in nis 1\ Ii ( mi the ellei Is ol (lining too 
l.i\ ishh . A \ ei \ wide seal dial ci inld 
,K i ( niiti ii k hue ii|) to lour people was the 
Darin and Joan (hair, named altei an 
old ( on pic who I inured in a populai song 
i >l t In lit it |(( I ' I he Jo\ s o| I j i\ e 

\i \ i i lorgoi . tin nigh there is no evi- 
dence the M.Mlie W as e\ el ill ( ( >I1- 
temporaiA use. 

Othci spit l.ihsed t\|)es were intro- 
duced, such as shaving (hairs with the 
I i.k k splal i ising ii i Ii n in .i he. id resl : 
i e. id in '4 i hairs with a hook desk and wide 
.u ins. ,il low in;' the i i.k lei losil I.k n ig the 

back with a hook open on the desk, and 
his elbows comfortably supported; also 
i , died libraiA chairs and, more fanci- 
fully, cock-fighting (hairs, for there is 
pit tot i.i 1 evidence dial tin a were used at 
i oi k matt lies, l hough that tna\ not be a 
1 1 mtempoi .u \ term. 

I he introduction of mahogany during 
die third decade ol the eighteenth (ch- 
imin gave chair-makers a warmly- 
coloured material; strong, easih work- 
ed. ,ind know n at first asjamait a Wood, 
bet ause thai island was the main source 
ol supply, and Jamaican merchants in 
addition to handling the indigenous 
liinbei imported Spanish mahogany 
from ( 'uba and Honduras, and shipped 
ii io laigland and the North American 
Colonies. During and alter the 1730s 
mahogam was used concurrenth with 
walnut b\ (haii -makers ; and l>\ the 
middle years ol the century had become 
the lashioi table material lot (lining room 
furniture, though countn makers con- 
tinued to use home-grown woods that 
weie suitable for than frames, such as 
beech, elm. ash. birch, yew and fruit 

w Is like apple and cherr\ . while lime 

and pearwood was favoured bv carvers. 
Before the introduction ol mahogany, 
walnut had been called 'the cabinet- 
maker s tree' and lime 'the carvers tree'. 

During the thirty years between 1730 
and 1 700 chair-makers relied extensively 
on mahogany, and that wood remained 
in lashion loi main generations, well 
into and bevond the Victorian period. 
Chairs of mahogany, made to the design 

Carved mahogany armchair, with broad 
tailed seat, c. 1730. 

Mum uiii Phui(>j>rd|>h I - 


vlahogany chair, one of a set of six, with 

arved cresting rail and pierced splat, 

learly influenced by the designs in 

Chippendale's 'Director', c. 1755-1760. 

I n/uilli.nn Mil , urn I ..mlnxUn 

oi I in mi, is ( Ihippendale .iikI his (i »ii- 
tcmporaries. were shapch and robust: 
llit I >a< k splat pici (id and the Iraine 
emit lied with ornamenl car\ ed in low 
rcl id': cabriole leys still survived in the 
1 7")0s, lint were eventualh replaced b\ 
legs i il si 1 1 i.i i e sci tic »n, slight 1\ tapei ing in 
Iroiil and splavcd at the back. Scpiare 
scats w ci c used instead oi curved oi 
i in nl. ii shapes, the te< hnicpie oi uphol- 
sterx was great 1\ improved, and the 
skilled use ol padding provided soli and 
yielding suriaees, so thai loose seal 
cushions could be discarded. Materials 
covering high-backed eas\ (hairs were 
protected b\ a silk II. ip that hung down 
belli in I w hen the < hair w as n< it in use I mi 
was pulled (ivei to save the ba< k liom 
contact Willi the powdered wigs < >l men 
and the piled up powdered hair and 
greas\ make-up oi women. 

( ihairs in the middle vears ol the cen- 
lur\ were as sturd\ and shapcK as then 
lorerunncrs in the opening decades; a 
lew rare examples had over-elaborate 
backs, such as Chippendale's interpre- 
tation ol Rococo, that he described as 
'Ribband-back', and illustrated in his 
'Director'; but they were exceptional. 
Few have survived, and their rarity was 
due, as the late R. \\ . S\ nionds observed 
in his monograph on Chippendale's 
wi n k. 'to die small number of sets made 
and to then high rale ol desti u< lion 
owing to the i'ragi lit \ ol the splats w Inch, 
being in the It n in <>l a ribbon w ilh the 


Mahogany settee, with pagoda motif on the yoke rail, repeated in the back frets. 

U„ ( unrunweut. faiiu.ii\ IMKII 

Country-made elbow chair in mahogany. 

with triple lancet splat, acknowledging rhe 

prevailing taste for Gothic. 

grain ol the wood in all directions, could 
not withstand an\ undue pressure. 
Chippendale and his contemporaries 
produced Anglic ised versions ol Irench 
and Chinese stvlcs and the\ borrowed 
and adapled ( i< it hit mot lis lar more 
successlulh than such scholarK ama- 
teurs as Horace Wal | )ole. Rural makers 
invented the back with a 
pierced, waisted splat; and modesth 
acknowledged the prevailing I. isle led 
( lot hie in c haii bat ks with splats consist- 
ing ol cc oi joined, elongated lance! arc lies 
in plat e ol Chippendale's complex amal- 
gam 1 1 1 ( lot hit and Roc oc ( i mot i Is. 

During that ccntur\ oi conspicuous 
.K i i niiplislinieiil between 1(>(>0 and 
I 7()(). even trace ol stillness and se\erit\ 
niliei iied In >m the puritan pel it >d van- 
ished. ( '< unit ii l a nt I elegance were united 
l>\ the skill ol Knglish makers; the t <>u- 
\ ulsive antics ol Rt ict >c< i and the va 
eccentricities ed Straw berr\ I 111 I ( i< iiliit 
weie accommodated without an\ sac- 
rifice ol stabilit\ or common sense. 
Chippendale had his business premises 
at b() Si. Mai tin's Lane at the sign ol 
' 1 he ( 'hair . and like < dhei in. 
while touching his hat to prevailing 
lashions, never lorgol thai chairs weie 
intended lor sitting on. 

The 25th Annual Winter Antiques Show, 

New York 

[he lwcnt\ -fillli Annua] \\ unci 
Antiques Show, which benefits the East 
Side lloiisc Settlement lor Immigrants, 
opens tins yeai with one oi the most 
dazzling displays ol antiques in over 
seventy stalls, yet to be seen in all its 

Willi New York State Governoi Hugh 
( !are\ .is its Honoran Chairman this 
year's opening furthermore stands as the 
seasons major fund-raising event with 
ovei thirty -thousand visitors expected to 
attend in nine days from 2b January to 
:i 1'Cbi nai y. 

I he Exhibition's working chairman 
Mai io Buatta. who has piloted the even) 
loi the fourth yeai says, 'It is wonderful 
ih. it in the last lew years we have seen 
the Wintet Anticpies Show turn around 
dramalh ally from strictly a trade fail to 
a majoi fund raising event, with an 
enormous turnout. In ihe old days it used 
to In- a sedan- opening for collectors and 
dealers. Now, with a boom in antique 
buying the general public at large at- 
tends in great numbers . 

Last year's Show raised ovei $150,000 
foi the I .as! Side Settlement wlm h was 
Ion in led iii 1 89 1 by a group of New i ot k 
philanthropists com erned about the 
plight ol immigrants from Europe. I he 
( haril\ benefits from the rental ol spa< e 
to dealers, the preview part) and general 

I In- years opening ( Jala will be high- 
lighted with a spe< taenia) version ol 
I .i mgwi iod ( i.udens at \\ inlet thin 
M iisenin as the < enli epiei e display . 
('../.( riiesi has done .in entrain e gar- 
md Mrs. William Ra\ net and Mi< a 
Ertegun ol mac it. a decorating firm, are 
co-hostess< Mr. Buatta has conceived a 
hand-painted mural which will be car- 
ried out h\ iintiifii -I'm il artist Richard 
Lowell Neas. Other fashionable names 
on the c oinniii lei ar< I .ee Kad/iw ill, 
( Ilemenl E. ('•< mgei . Mis William 
Sat noil, (iloi i.i V'andei bill . Mr. and 
Mrs. Kissinger, a\\<\ Li IK Am him loss. 



Vi i Madison A\ enue al hi Streel 
New York, w 10022 

Bcssarabian rug, mid-nineteenth century, 
,", feel i iiii lies ■ "i feet 7 iin lies. 

/ fu < onnoiufur, [anuai \ 1 980 

1) M. & P. MANHEIM 

Hi East 57th Sued 

New York, ny 10022 

Dei 1>\ por< (lain figure ol lh Syntax til the 

) ork Races, earh nineteenth ■ entui \ 

1 mi ii a draw im; li\ 1 In una s Rowlandson. 


po Box 260 Shunpike Road 
Millbrook, ny 12545 

New York inlaid mahogam Hcpplewhite 
serpent inc sideboard with bell flower inlay, 
i. 1785 1790. 


57 East 57th Street 

New York, ny 10022 

Scottish 'pot-bellied' measure, 

S< ottish pint ( apai it\ , made b\ 

E.k hlan Dallas Cotterell, 1690, marked '128<J' 


Chinese export porcelain plate, arms ol 1 .( 

( I uai li 1 1 ml; As! lev, N ling Cheng, i . 1 i i > 

1022 Lexington Avenue 

New York, ny 10021 

Wooden inlaid box. nineteenth cenlurv, 

1 .ength I 2i UK lies. 


221 I St. James Street 

Philadelphia, Pa. I'lKli 

( Ilex k b\ Eouis ( iimiliirt Titlany, < asework am 

dial In E.k kwoodde l.nest.,. 1882 

The ( wiTO(j!fi/r,Januar\ 1980 


\ I k\ \ \ WD |i ssi. I. 

'■. I. I'll -Mil \\( lllll 

New N*< »i k . , : 

< ir . .1 "i in iti mi-hint i i unmnde wuli p.iiiilii i 
11. i I 77(1 

\l \l.< :< )l M 1 !< VNK.LLN l\( 
III. i.iii, 



'I East 7Ul|i Stleel 

\i w Ymk w 11)021 

Altl llflllri I In W1I.I.1 wt Kl MI. 

/ 1 

painted .mid 'i I '. ii ii lies. 

i'i 1 ,i i )7lh St reel 
\i w Ymk. \i 101)22 
A | i.i ii i il I .in i is xvi i hairs with oi iginal 
j 1 1 1 ii |,.uiii. eighteenth i «-iit iii \ . 
Height: il mi Ins; Width: 21| in< lies; 
I )iametci : 2( I mi lies. 


I "i l.,isi ")7th Street 

New York, ny 10022 

Pel si. in I ,il ,i i/ medallion cai pel . 

12 feet i ini lies ■ 'I feet. 


102.") Park Avenue 

New York, s-s 10028 

( Ii ii ii se expoi i sei \ n e i" ,i ( elain. c. 1 7 ,0. 

deeorated in brilliant enamels cm a 

H nihil 

Photograph: Robert Lorenzson. 

Iliri i wisseui. Jamian !<)«() 

, , 

(,1,( )K(.l AN MA.N( >l< \N I K H I.S. IN( 
lll.i |..i,t i,Ui Stn-i-i 
\>v\ York. \1 HHILM 

( )nc o| a paii "I KriMiM \ "paliuii ' lan< \ i hair- 
japanned in lilac k with '_■,■ -hi de< oration. - IHI 

| Wll.S \N1) NANCY < .1 \/l k 

_>-_>l]') I IrlalH \ 1'l.H i 
Philadelphia. I'.i 1'Ull > 

\i Mii.ii me Mi.iin n,ui\ riiii.i(icipin.i 1'inpii i 

■ ln-sl dI di aw ci •. \\ illi i ai i' i hi l\ m.i| lie ilila\ 


\i win ii inc. 

I'l l.asl lidlll Sti .il 
New Yoik. W ItHIJI 
I IK i\l \s UK I II WD 

Sdlll, i In < mi/H . >ii;lied anil dated //,' ^ 

1 I i'J I 111 III V 

r^;- •: ■■-■ 

HAS I INCS IK )l si. 

|'„,s 1,1 IH I i\. I i. mi illiTJli 

l,ii;llli -rlitll-i i-iilni \ < 'hinrsr am esloi 

m mil pawitimj.. •>" ■ 1" nn la 






1000 Boxwood Conn 
Kingul Prussia, Pa 19400 

/ .<// i I iii 'im ( ngnitl Oil) is I nh ul n . . , l)\ 
John Ruyst h, eoppei engraving, I hire] State. 
I tin Rome I ")0H Ptoleim .17- 23 mi lies. 


1053 Third Avenue 

New York, NY 10021 

English Regcm \ gaming table, ambo) na wood 
i rossbanded with ( alamandre, decorated with 
ebon) and inlaid brass, the feet in gilt bronze, 
. 1815, 36 ■ 17.1 ■ 29 inches. 



A LAX 11.11, 1. 1. Rl'SSIE, INC 

7B1 Fifth Avenue 

New Yolk, NY 10022 

(•old a i ii I enamel small-sword made by Morisset 

and I oussainl loi Rundell and Bridge, and hind 

in ,i inlaid rosewood i lust. London, c. 1 780. 

I 2 l.asi ifith Sin ei 
New York. Nl 

nt'plii in jade di a^' >n \ ase 

•ones ol In ow n mottling, Mint; d\ nasi v. 

I I. 'In .; im ! 


")9 East ")7tll Stieet 

New York, ny 10022 

A pan ol Ojueen Anne walnut 

side i hairs, r . 171"). 


1 1 "in 2nd Avenue 

between 00 (.1st Streets 

New York, ny 10021 

Pail ol Blue and White Chinese seats. , . 1820. 

Height: 18 inches. Shown on a I due and beige 

( Ihinese c ai pet, 9 hit ■ 1 2 feet. 

/ h< < onnou \ew , [anua i \ I 98( ' 


3213 Street, Northwest 

Washington, tx: 20007 

Walnut and pun Low In >\ . William and Mary, 

,. 1700. Height . 2 led 8 in< lies; 

Width: 2 feet 9 in< lies; Depth: 1 loot 8| in< he- 

12 1 Vind Street 
NYw York, ny 10022 
( )UI Sheilield lea nun hine, I7'tll. 
( )\ el all height 2 > me lies 

.- ,» ■ 

o * _ 



1604 Pine Street 

Philadelphia, Pa. 19103 

Chippendale gill-wood looking glass in the 

( 'hinese taste, English, < . 17")"). 

Height . 1)7 ini lies: Width : I I im lies. 


3213 Street, Northwest 

Washington, nc 20007 

Walnut-veneered bookcase bureau, George t, 

first quarter ol the eighteenth century. 

Height : 6 feet <>] inches; Width: 2 feet 1 in< h: 

Depth: 1 loot 7] inches. 


I ">t I Lexington Avenue 

New York, w I00K) 

I, mil Ametuan Cock Midi l>\ J.J. Audubon, 

engra\ ed l>\ \\ . Li /.a is and re tout hed l>\ 

R. Havell, 1829. Framed in old silvet laccjuei 


12 East (>7ih Street 
New York, w 10021 

Dressing table b\ Jules Leleu, with an ed legs 
and bron/.e silver-plated minor, 1928. 
Height : 49 in< lies; Width 1 1 j im lies: 
Diametei : l'U in< lies. 

//„ ( ,mnoi,, m 


Distinctly Decorative 

Korean Chvsls <>/ the ) i Dynast) 

Bidi Jones 

Siai king lady's < lothes chest made of mother-of-pearl inlay in black lacquer 

with while brass decoration, mid nine tec nth century, Kyungsang province. 

I Ins i \ pe of chest was taken l>\ a bride to her new home. 

Ii cpid uiicd liiiiisli whim. in. Isobel Bird Bishop arc unmistakabh and uniqueh Korean in style. Thc\ vary 

in Kiin.i in ll>H t .hil'Iii dght. in .1 crowded from the rustic to the elegant for they were the main furnishing 

. bin c, n is .11 ii I marriage chests. 1'hese. in the houses of all Koreans, from the highest to the humblest in 

i. look so. and are realh handsome, some the land, during the Yi dynast) 1392 1910 . 

olid i In i i ! 1 1" wood, others \ en ee red with maple oi Mud walled and straw than hed, a tvpical house of the i ] 

ipped . 1 1 1 < I hinged with brass, besides d\nast\ was a single-storex dwelling, with sliding doors and 

being oi nan ' i hasps and bi ass pad lot ks windows made ol paper stuck onto a geometrically-patterned 

i I in 1 ihoroughK Korean, are openwork wooden Iraine. I he\ were warmed b\ .in age-old 

loi iii ol i ii ii bi f h x n central he: ting. The heat from the flues of 

handsome wooden storage the sunken kitchen fire ran under the stone and clay floor, 

i i i in appeal .mi e. but \ en ting on the opposite side of t he house. Outdoor shoes were 

/ ■ i mimsstm Januan 1<)H0 


Combination kitchen cupboard and grain chest, pine with 
iron decoration, from Cholla province, late eighteenth century. 

r< moved .il the (I<hii .iikI people slept on bedrolls and sal on 
cushions on the warm, varnished pa pel floor. Frequent Is (lie 
same room was used lot dastime use and loi sleeping, so 
bedding would be rolled up and pnl a\va\ during the da\. 
Women li\cd m seclusion, tending to then man\ household 
tasks, seldom, il ever, leasing then own quarters. IiiiK 
deserving the name 'inside person which is the literal Iran - 
la lion into Korean ol I lie wind 'wile . Men had theii quartet s 
near the hoiit i >l die Innise where guests were received and 
where time would be devoted to scholarship. 

( !h est s were necessaiA to store < lot lies. lood. mone\ . beddmy 
and books; anvthing dial was imi inunediateh wanted oi 
needed to be lo< ked ass as . I he\ stood next du<n to eai h othei . 
lining the walls. As die sides and hut k would normalls ha\e 
been unseen, these were Irequentls made ol inlerioi wood, die 
choice! kinds being resersed loi die liont panelling. Low 
eating tables would be the on 1\ othei I limit ure. 

I he charm ol these i Ik -sis is in theii infinite s ariets . No two 
pieces are cvci quite the same. I he materials, de< oration and 
sl\ le. I el I us ,i bon i the intended use. and a great deal a In nil the 
original ossnei s social post i ion. taste, and the region in w hi< li 
lie lived, lull ol character. the\ are becoming enorinoiisls 
popular in die Western world, where theii lum bona I beaut \ is 
as attract ise todas as it was harmonious in a Yi dvnast\ home. 

Although some aspects o| Korean art. such as the Korvo 
d\nasi\ Mid 1 I'M celadons were well known to the W estern 
world, oiib in the last lew vears base wooden i licsis been 
apprei i.i led and \ allied as col lei tor's items. Ks en now little is 
known about theii histor\ which is a pit\ as dies are die 
pi'odiu tsof a robust loin thousand \ e.u old ( ult ure and in theii 
design and craltsmanship show the beliefs, philosophies .md 
idiosyiK racies ol the era w hi< h the\ were made. 

Korean culture, though sharing some similarities with ( Hiina 
and Japan, its near neighbours, is quite distinct from either. 

Although loi iiiik h ol the \\ ihn.i la sistei 

relationship \sith ( lliina and Ioiil d b\ the 

Japanese the main influence which .1 1 ; 1 1 l\ wa- 

loiiii within, in die lorin ol ( oiiIik ianisni intiodmed b\ , ^ i 

laejo, the lounder ol the ds nasls to i eplai e tl dent 

Buddhism. I Ins religion, whose tenets pun: total 

pattern loi hie. emphasised duties and n i both 

within the lainih and the comniunils . and mn 

was clearls defined. Intended to epitomise tin ( 

virtues ol Irugalitv. sunphi u\ and ecoiioim. 

covered e\'en the design and decorati< hi ol household lui nil mi 

I hese can be sun unci I up as a rejei li< in ol conti is e d oi naineiil 
ami a reliance on the natural beauts < >l die wood as tin 
lea t ure ( il I he design. Decorations were confined li > die loi ks. 
hinges and othei essential strengthening nietalssork. I his rule 
is largels adhered to except in one region; i lusts Irom tin 
Ps ong s ang era. nos\ in North Korea, are olt en largels cos ei ed 
wiih metal work. I he reason gisen is dial in (Ins cold northern 
i eg 1 1 hi there were lew attrai Use woods with w I m h li > \sot k. 
('.ertainls die southern regions produce an abundance (il 
dill i 'rent I i tubers, including paw liana, ginko. el in. pe.u . 
pel sin ii n< hi. lime and chei i \ . I he ext lenie i lilliat ii di Herein e 
bet w ecu sun unci .mil while] ,u < cut nates I he markings. 

Although mosl i hests weie made ol wood, othei materials 
w ei e also used . Bamboo, g I oss n in I he sunt hei n pi os a i ices s\ as 
i il I hi ( in into I hill st rips and used as a l.u ing ot i ut into pliable 
sh\ ers and w i is en into sina. II articles. \h it In a -o I -pear I w as set 
llilo lacquei : red lacquel being resersed loi I'os alts and black 
loi the a i isti ii i ,k \ . ( )\ Ik H n w as soaked, sliced I bin Is . painted 
(in die uiidei sale wiih lolk scenes on a nil background. 1 hen 

si in k ( in It i the prepared w len sin lai e. I hese pre I ts pieces 

\\(i( used bs women. I hi'ee metals were in common use. 
^ el loss In ass. an alios ol coppei and /ini . while In ass. w hu h 
used the same I net a Is bul \s ilh a lughei pro|)ortion ol /.inc a in I 
bl. 1 1 k u ( hi esjiei i.i I Is | ii ipulai in I he earl s s ears ol the ds nasi s . 
jusi assini i i on\ cut ii ins gos rn led the dei oi at ii in i il a piece, 
so I he intended use determined its li u in. loan the ros a I palai e 


Late nineteenth-century lady's headside clol Ins chesl 

made of elm root with white brass hinges in long-life flower 

design, lotus lock plate, Kyungsang pro\ ince. 

popularity during Yi dynasty times. Their manufacture die 
out when it was no longer financially feasible to produce thei 

Cheju, the island oil the southern tip of the peninsula, r< 
m iwned for its winds, rocks and diving women, with an accei 
so strong thai Seoulites say it is incomprehensible, produce 
weighty, rough-hewn chests with massive iron fittings. Froi 
the Seoul area, and Kangwha island, traditional refuge fi 
royalty in times of trouble, come fine, heavy and unusu; 
metalwork. Certain dec orations, notably the temple roof an 
pottery vase designs only appear in this area and north of it. 

( )l ( ourse these comments on categorising chests by use am 
regions are only generalisations. Many other subtle distinc 
lions do exist. A chest from Choi la with two doors above and . 
drop door below can only be differentiated from one Iron 
Chungchon province by the additional bracing metalwork 
and one from Chonju < itv because that has only iron metal 
work, while those from Cholla province usually have a mixtun 
ol brass and iron. Cholla and Cheju blanket chests can be ven 
similar, the ( iheju (bests having heavier iron strappings. Late 
in the dynasty, as people and ideas travelled more freely, copie: 
were made of the more fancied styles and some designs becamt 
i ommon to all areas. 

Blanket chest from Kangwha island, made of pine with black iron 

decorated with swastikas and pottery vase as top half of middle 

hinge, early nineteenth century. 

Mowed the inspiration l<>i aitistrx and craftsmanship and for 
roval use was made die lines! and most beautiful furniture. 
Choice woods and finch worked metalwork wire found in 
a r is tot rats homes, too. but the humble farmei was ton tent with 
i mi 'j 1 1 1 \ I lew n pine and ser\ iceable iron fittings. 

A i I test widi .1 lid hall <>l which lilted up. was used for storing 
coins. I 'snail \ these were made of heav\ wood, often pine, with 
massive locks and helt\ metal brat es. 1 lie forward falling drop 
I ion I ol a blanket < fiesl enabled t lot hing to be stored inside and 
quilts on lop. ( )ne-. two- and thiee-sioi c\ chests had various 
uses. When the\ were intended for storing clothes the depth 
between the bottom ol the dot » and the shelf was quite deep. In 
,i book ( liesi die bottom ol the dooi was almost on a level with 
die shell. Massive, utilitarian chests with the plainest ol iron 
linings belonged in the kitchens opposite the cla\ hearth with 
its inset iron i i< e pots, and held pottery, brass utensils and (bod. 
A square (best with a hinged lop which raised was used loi 
loring i i( e, beans or sesame. An identic a I style being made in 
diminishing sizes. Dozens ol tins drawers made up the chest ol 
,i prat lit ion ei ol ( healing. Called medicine chests eat h 
di awei was labelled with the Chinese charat ters for the dried 
he! b it contained. 

Da liny bat k to the historical Three Kingdoms period before 
Korea w; is united, regional dillerences in tasle and style can be 
I Cholla. a in h farming province, with its capital at 
( ihonju. was I, ii i icd loi Us solid pine blanket (Ik -sis with black 
nun ligci paw' hinges often with a set of drawers inside, and 
i Ik sis with doors in the top and a drop door below. 

igsan-do. the south eastern province was noted loi its 
line carving, es pedal l\ of ilelicateK curved legs and supports 
loi ii i id op li lias a delicate, feminine and refined 
appearance I mm die i \treme Southern tip ol this province, 
i lose io i he model ii town ol ( ihuiigmu. < ome the lamous I ong 

village diesis. Said Io have taken a u'.n lo complete. Stacking ches , ma de of elm wood with bat, swastika, flower and 
these flat -surtaced diesis, mac le of the finest inlaid woods, often butterfly decorations, nineteenth century from Tong Yong village, 
decorated with bats and bull erf lies, en joved great acclaim and Kyongsang province, crane or bat carved base. 

The Connoisseur , January 1980 



Elm wood rice chest from the Seoul area, nineteenth century. 

I Although creations of the five hundred-year Yi dynast y, they 
arc direct descendants ol the artefacts ol the previous Koryo 
(lynasty when boxes, especially ol mother-of-pearl insel into 
acquer, and ox-horn, were made. Wars, hie and vermin have 
icd to the destine tii in of most furniture from the earlv pat t ol 
the era. Little now remains, hut certain trends ol development 
can he deduced. Generally chests became gradualh more 
ornate and colourful. Brass was increasingly used instead ol 
iron and choice woods replaced the plain pine. Before the 
seventeenth centur\ a hinge was used where the fitment on the 
door slid over a pin on the bods ol the < hest. I he i losing scars 
o| the era produced a breakdown in the stri< tei rules ol design. 
Good vibrations lor a (hest were ensured l>\ i he use i >l am ienl 
mystic symbols, betokening virtues and good lortune. Ihev 
were used as the design lor links and lunges, less often .is 
carvings, paintings or inlavs. 

Some ol these symbols have been in continuous use in Korea 
since the third centurv ad and their origins lie even lurthei 
back. Among these arc tin- i loud and lotus designs. ( iloud is 
one of the ten longevity symbols. The others are sun. mountain 
(or bamboo , water stone, pine tree. herb, turtle. ( rane and 
deer. 1 hesc arc frequent 1\ grouped into attractive sylvan 
scenes. A chest base or stand which is straight across the top. 
curving down onh at the edges, also represents a cloud.The 
lotus is often stylised into a striking large central loc k plate 1 1 
has the meaning ol the renewal of life. 

Simplification and stylisat ion often makes the symbols haul 
to recognise. 1 his is ti ue ol the turtle, which often appears as a 
six-sided interlocking pattern. The swastika, a symbol ol 
power, both ol Buddha and the king, when it represents di\ ine 
right and dignitv radiating from the lour arms, becomes an 
interlocking I ret work ol lines. Fc >ur flowers, known as the dour 
Perfect Gentlemen': plum blossom, on hid, < hrvsan them urn. 
and bamboo brought courage, friendship, endurance and 

loyalty. Iwo birds, the ( Miental phoenix, representing 
talitv or the personal symbol of the Kmpn md die i ram . 
whose monogamous lifestyle made u the ideal mb|ec t loi 
carving on newly-weds' I urnit ure. a p W he si 

base carved in swooping curves up; e. oi 

sometimes a bat. Bats, often used in ,i simplified lorin loi 
drawei handles, brought the live kinds of ha ppim it\ . 

wealth, health and main sons and were ivpieallv used on 
women's furniture, as were butterflies a s\ inbol ol leivi 
revealing the Yi dvnastv people's love ol the beaut \ ol naiuie. 
Fish shapes, oc t asionalh used as decorations bul moie usual lv 
seen .is lot ks, also aspired loi main sons. It is also said ilia 
number ol hinges on a < he -si represented the nuinhei ol sons ,i 
man wanted. II this is so then big families must have bei n 
popular. A circle meant unity, and a circle with a wavv line 
hi sec ting it was a Taeguksign, representing die opposing Ion es 
w huh i ontrol our lives: sue h as wet and drv . man ,\\\i\ woman. 
In it and ii »ld, oi light and dai k. 

Felieitv for a c hest was ensured at everv stage ol its 
construction bv appropriate rituals. I he cm ting was accom- 
panied bv a praver to propitiate the Shamanistic forest spirit. 
Alt ei length v seasoning bv submersion in water oi piling earth 
mi top ol it, construe t ion could on lv begin alter a ritual bathing 
i en -mi hi \ and pravers bv the era Its in an and proceeded with 
certain restrictions, such as keeping women mil ol the work- 
shop while wink was in progress. All this was done to lullil 
the beliel in the essential harmonv ol all parts ol life. A e hest 
was more than mere furniture, il had to create the right 
ambience as i l w as an integral part ol the activitv lot which it 
was designed. This hainionv ol man with nature was em- 
phasised I >\ the use ol die natural beautv . the e olotu . grain and 
u i lie pie lea I ures 1 1 1 en h iiinbci as the essential determinants ol 
the final lorin ol the chest. Ornate woods gave dramatic 
emphasis. Persimmon with Us highly-coloured orange and 
lilac k and elm root wood wild its fantastic whoils and loops 
were I a vol i red loi panelling. Grain less pen and lime gave a 
golden lone. \\ oi ic Is were e (It en mixed to obtain spec ial el lei is. 
I tilitarian lurniture. such as kitchen cupboards and com 
i Ins is w ei e made ol elm o i pine, the quintessential \ l d\ nasi \ 
wood, conforming as it did to all the i ules < il ( loiilucian good 

I he actual construction was usuallv undertaken bv the 
village 'small-carpenter", the local blacksmith forging the 
metal parts, although aristocratic m royal households would 
have retained I hen own c raltsmen. I wo basic t ee lmie pies were 
used. Weightv chests such as blanket and coin chests had 
tongue .md groove joints, and linei pieces, clothes and book 
c bests had <i ha rd v\o((d I tame with panelling covering it. Metal 
nails weic never used and glue inlrequcntlv . Bamboo, ginko or 
hardwood pins connected lighl joints. Several substane es were 
used to slam and darken the wood. I'ine and pawlonia wen 
smoke-darkened o vet a rice straw lire. C low sen pig's blood, or 
sesame i nl w as i ul died into the raw wood surface. Beeswax and 
nut oils were used as a final polish. ( 'olour was produc ed bv a 
layei ol lacquci containing red oi blae k stains m red < lav oi 
gravel powder. I he resin, leaves or resin ex trad < il the laccpiei 
tree were i ubbed or painted onto the < hest ,\m\ smoothed w ith 
ginkei tree ashes, i hen deer's horn powdei and.sov a I nan oil. 

Created to produce visual harmonv and an atmo phi 
peace, these chests express a reverence loi natural beautv a 
high level ol i raltsmanship. I he care put into theii 
rellee led ill the pleasure that then simple lines and - 
proportions give to then < on temporal v owners. 

Tin (■■„««„„„«, I.IIIU.IM 1'IHII 

1 One of the naves of the Gare d'Orsay in glass, metalwork and stucco. 


Lynne Thornton 

An ambit ions and exciting programme is 
being planned loi tin- Paris museum oi 
.iii and civilisation oi the nineteenth 
ccntnrv. to open in 1983. lis name: the 
Musee dOrsay. The site: die marvel- 
lonsh pompous railwa\ station built lor 
the 1900 P. ii is I 'niversal Exhibition, the 
Care d Orsav. on the bit bank ol the 
I lir pi esent tenants will soon be 
iih i\ ing i >ui . die .mi tioneers In their new 
s.i In i H mis const rncled mi the site < >i the 
old Mi del 1 )i i null <[\\i\ the Rcnaud- 
I). in, mil theatre to die 1990s skating 
i ink tl 1 - ili < .l.i e. 

' )i i In 1 1 .i- ,i building i >l 

i i.ii n .iih 1 ! isti irical mipi ii i.ini i'. is 

i ill\ \ ii . beaux-Ai (s. the Ii eesti me 

lure and baroque trim- 

mings typical ol the grandiose official 
monuments oi the Third Republic, lis 
internal structure ol metalwork, stucco 
.ind glass, was, however, very avant-garde 
lor iis time. Its most striking features 
are the two great domed naves. In the 
tradition of nineteenth-century railway 
termini in which there were always 
clouds ol escaping steam, thc\ were not 
I in ii tionalh necessary , as Orsa\ was one 
oi the first terminals (bi electric trains. 
Today, the team ol young architects, 
Col hoc, Bardon and 1'liilippnn. will be 
using this magnificent structure, .ii pres- 
ent hidden b\ false roofs, as an essential 
part ol the interior design. One end ol the 
building houses the nine chic, and for 
seven vears unused. Hotel d'( )rsa\ . with 

impressive curved staircases and an opu- 
lent painted and gilded Hall. The old 
hotel restaurant is to become the cafe- 
teria, the bedrooms, the offices of the 
Directorate of French national museums 
and of course the Orsay stall, led by ten 
keepers. The Head Keeper is still to be 
named. The actual transformation work 
is being carried out by an Etablissement 
Public National, an enterprise created 
especially for theoccasion and which will 
be dissolved once the museum is com- 
pleted. Although it is paid for by the 
State, the company is autonomous. This 
me, ins that, avoiding the heavy ma- 
chinery of French administration, it can 
operate more rapidly and efficiently. 
Mr. Michel Laclotte, Head Keeper of 

Ih, < onnoi^eur, Januan 1980 

2 A gilded and painted hall in the old Hotel d'Orsay. 

the Department <>l Paintings at the 
Louvre, has undertaken the onerous l.isk 
ol co-ordinating and directing the 
setting-up ol Orsav. He and his team 
have studied in l>oth Lurope and the 
t nited States new techniques of conser- 
vation and presentation. Although the 
Musee d'()isa\ will be modern, it will 
avoid gadget r\ loi its own sake. Since the 
museum the advantage ol an excep- 
tionally huge surface ol gl.iss, natural 
lighting will be used whenever possible. 
1 he Musee d'( )isa\ will complete the 
'Louvre-( )rsa\ -Beaubourg . The Louvre 
will house even thing from antiquities to 
the first years ol the nineteenth centun ; 
Beaubourg, or the Centre Georges 
Pompidou, to give it its official title, .ill 
aspects ol twentieth-centun creativity. 
Orsa\ will hold painting, sculpture, 
architecture drawings, photographs, 
maquettes and architectural elements . 
graphic and applied arts, from about 
1830 4(1 to 1 ( )K), although the chrono- 
logical division will vary for each section. 
Mr. Laclotte emphasises that it is not to 
be a museum of sociology. There will be 

no ret oust i tut ions ol artist's studios the 
paintings will speak lor themselves but 
there will be some period rooms. 1 his 
will particularly apply when there is a 
(lose relationship between the disci- 
plines. This is obvious in such cases as the 
Aits and ( a alts movement. Art N< niveau 
and the Weiner \\ erkstatte. This diversi- 
fication ol .(] lists talents is one ol the 
reasons uh\ the Keepers at Orsav are 
breaking with tradition. I mil now. 
French museums were extremely de- 
partmentalised. Here. the\ work as ,i 
team and make group decisions. 

Inhibitions on an scale, 
such as the recent one on the Second 
Finpii e. w ill c< mtinue to be held in the 
(hand Palais, wuh die collaboration ol 

the Mllsee d'Olsav's stall. The\ Would 
like to organise exhibitions on the lines ol 
Beaubourgs triptveh. Pans-New York. 
Paris-Berlin, Paris-Moscow, but loi die 
nineteenth and not the twentieth cen- 
tury . Orsa\ w ill have its ow n temporar\ 
exhibitions ol literature, music or the hie 
ol an important personality, enlivened 
li\ films. Photographs, to be borrowed 

from the extensive collection ol the 
Bibliotheque Nationale or the Societe 
1 raneaise de Photographic, will also be 
shown, but only temporarily, owing to 
then fragility. There has been a con- 
siderable emphasis in France recent lv on 
decentralisation and Ois.iv plans to 
collaborate with provincial museums in 
order to hold exhibitions ol artistic lilt 
in such towns as Toulouse and Lyons. 
Besides this, Orsav will become an im- 
portant centre ol documentation and 
I eseai th on the nineteenth centun . 

The Musee d Orsav is not an inde- 
pendent venture, but part ol long-term 
museologic al planning. Oncol the major 
reasons loi its creation is i hat the interest 
in the nineteenth centun has bet nine so 
great that it was essential to have a 
spe< i.ilised museum. Another important 
motive is that the Louvre and the Jeu de 
Pa u me. w it h It mi million visitors a year, 
have i eat lied a dangei i ms s; turalit m 
point in regard to both publit set 
and the conservation ol I hen colli i lions 
All the Impressionists al present housed 
ill the | ell de Pa in ne will be going to the 

//;. ( <>rijnn\Hur, Jam 

i II.! K.nlw.n 

i II x )UARD \ l II.I.ARI). Jardins publics, tempera panels, 1894, recently acquired by the Musee d'Orsay. 

I h ree of the original nine panels were purchased hy the Musee de Luxembourg in 1929, three are in museums in Brussels, 

Cleveland and Houston. The remaining panel disappeared during the Second World War. 

Music d"( )isa\ . leaving 'the building, in wlmh is .ti present little visited, has national Lxhibition. Mans painting: 

the I uilei'ies (iardetis, to In- used loi sculpture and applied arts, and the and sculptures were sent out to pro- 

le niporarv shows. fliere is no question, paintings ol the divisionists, the Nal)is, vineial museums, prefectures, town halls 

howevet. "I removing .ill nineteenth- the Font Aven school, the social realists, and other administrative buildings 

( eiitui v p. i in (nig .mil st ul pi in e from the the symbolists, the Belle K pot pic. I here ( )rsav s stafl are bus\ recovering these 

Louvre. ^ 1 1 u < • .in arbilarv division ol is, too, a section ol foreign artists, which Recent acquisitions b\ the Muset 

1 Hi is obvioiislv not satislaetorv. will be given more importance at Orsav. d'Orsav include two pieces of furnitun 

While Gourbet .tnd the realists land whoalreadv have works bv Jan loorop, designed bv Philip Webb. Willi. in 

Innilv in Orsav's court. Ingres and I , eon I' rederic. James Whistler, Kdward Morris painted and gilded panelling and 

Delacroix, the Neo-t lassies and the Burne-Joiies, Law rence Alma- Tadcma. a 'Peacock' tapestry, William D< 

Romantics, will probablv be divided W inslow Homer. Thomas Lakins and Morgan ceramics, a cabinet designed b) 

between the two museums, depending nihei celebrated names. Manv ol these Krnest (jimson, Hector Guimard furni- 

iin the evolution of an artist's stvle. Some come from the loreign section ol the (me and lutings, a polychrome wood 

peopli imagine that ( )rsa\ will become a Musee de Luxembourg, originallv panel by Paul Gauguin, and two of nin< 

de of at adeinit painting. There will. housed in the Jen de Paume. The French tempera panels p. timed by Ldouard 

how ev ei~. be it rational balance ol ollicia I artists at present in the Palais de Tokvo \ 'uillard lor Alexandre Nathanson. 

,iikI hi. (nine loo. Ibr (he most part, from the Besides these purchases and bequests, the 

A i Di.sidcrahlc ntimbei ol the Inline old Luxembourg. This museum, which museum will count on negotiating loans 

( )i sav exhibits are at present nn view in showed pit tu res bv living artists w as limn such institutions as Sevres, the 

I'alaisde lokvo. formerlv the Musee dispersed when the Musee d'Art Musee des Arts Decoratifs and the 

i Moderne. I he perinaiieni exhi- Moderne was l)iiih .is part of the Mobilier National, who have insufficient 

. hit es infinite pleasure bin ['rocadero complex for the 1937 Inter- room to display all their riches. 

///, ( omiin i | lai 


Nineteenth-century Art 

Antony Thornc roft 

■■RESiflBHI ■ ' 

In [lllU' I ' ) ''' < 'In istic's sold in I. Ion, . I// 

ln!i infill/ ( 'mil \p,mdi -in i . ('nun. all cxol iclllal 

painting In .John 1 i « <1. 1 1« k Lewis toi (,'JJd. 

which was not only an auction record loi the .11 iisi 
Imi I111 ,ui\ Victorian painting. A lew months 
later, m New York, Snthcln Parke Bernet dis- 
posed of, to a private collei tor, l<rhrrg\ h\ I'Vederii 
(Munch for 2.. r ) million dollars, a record price In a 
ver\ large margin loi .1 work In .in American 
artist. The revival in interest in nineteenth- 
i cni 111 \ .111 has taken ,1 siilisi.nn 1,1 1 step upwards. 
Although I lie < 'In 11 1 1 1 sold I1.1 l\\ 11 c its pie-sale 
forecast there were vers good reasons loi the 
exceptional price. 1 1 was regarded .is one 1 il the <H 

lour greatest paintings In this must 1 elebrated ol ,|<>HN FREDERICK LEWIS. 

Amerii .111 landst ape artists. In 11 11 been lost to Midday meal, Cairo, 

,irw foi ovet .1 century, i Inn. suddenly, 11 was Sotheby's, 22 November 1979. 

recognised by a Sothcln's specialist in a children's £75,000, an auction record for 

home in Manchester. (Minn h obvioush regarded a Lewis watercolour. 

11 as .1 1 ii.t 1 01 work loi he had brought 11 to London 

ledii i( k I lei 1 1 ml' . ^i 11 Mi' 

li i\ 1 o| ,1 1 el tain l\ pi ol i olle< li 
011 tine- theie was .1 iiselul / 
I 1 1 ■;.■ 1 1 'ulun 1 1 l>\ Jat tpies Ji ise| ill I 1 

hrmed the grow ing ixipiil.u it\ loi 1 hi 

.(,'_>'_>.( KM I loi .1 (,, nihil b\ Allien Moon I li 

loo, was lie low estimate, bill ll is ,1 tall let .11 ,uli 111 11 

w 01 k, .1111 1 inc In ales 1 lie 1 inde 1 l\ nig si 1 engl li 1 il I lie 

market .1 lew w eeks Lit ei ( Mil istie -.. 111 ,1 

w I111 li w as in il ii eal 1I1 lot its mote modest 1 1 1 

males, sold .1 Musi, 1,111 In Mooie, loi /I'l, 1)011 

'I'hcseare le.isonableprii eslm the best of the good 

set 01 id -rank Vi< It man artists In the same am lion 

Aii/mi/lii l.\ L.iid Leighton went loi /L'1,000, 

1 1 mill 11 tal il\ above foiei.isl, while /In (.limit) 
l>„,\\ I), /ml li\ James Collinsoii did well .11 the 
s.iiih price. 1 1 w as .1 1 11 01 d loi 1 In .11 1 1st .mil w as 
impi H lain 111 suggesting a greatii sophistic. ilion 
among buvers. loi ibis piiiuie, when shown at 
the Ro\ a I Ac. idem \ in \i\ 1 7. so impi essed the Pre- 

111 the eai l\ I !!i it Is in an attempt to build a ol the Impi essionists, Victorian art is still cxt ep- Kaphaelites the\ invited ( 'ollinson to join 

Luropean reputation 1 1 was acquired 1>\ a inn - tionalK cheap. Ma jot paintings li\ the ac know- theii iiumbei 11 ishtstoiiialK impoi l.tnl. 

lliein Membei ol Parliament and disappeared ledged masters Mill. us. Hm ur- Jones, Holman (Mnislie's. too, lias a majoi sale 111 l'ebin.ti\ 

into Lancashire lor a ecu tin v's exile. Hum 1 an si ill he hough 1 I inlet / , ">i 1,1 Hill, with s ■ line paintings u hi< h should a] ipeal to 

lln (Mllirch 11 in lei lined I lie interest ,\\u\ 1 on- w bile win ks l)\ 1 1 nil i on tempi 11 .11 ies outside I In the relat i\ el\ small gi oil | ml ci il lectins piepated to 
lidence in the I'nited States in the ouiput ol pasi Pre-Raphaelite Bmihcrhood, sin h as Landseii . p,,\ ( '■;(!. Ill III 01 more lot Vutotian pictures 
Ai lerican ,11 lists Museums and galleries, whit li i osi 1 paratn eh less 11 1 these inllalionai \ nines | |,,.,,. , m . ,,| , sr hti 1.1IK thoiisanils ol paint- 
have accumulated some of the best ( )ld Mastei ill. 111 the\ did win n painted II is in. I 011K nigs S, ,1 lid i\ 's Belgiavia handles ovet eight 
and Impressionist 1 lain lings, are now aware i if the hist 01 h a I im pot tain e dial is pushing up pt it es thousand 1 tuning mi to the market in this sec t<n 
gaps in 1 hen ili miestii collet lion. Atithoi itath e Vi< tin i.m ,11 1 is eminent 1\ saleable, as the iiumbei e.u h \ eai , 11 msl selling loi ( ' ill! I 01 less and not 
books in the last decade have made Amerii an .11 1 ol new dealeis en lei ing the held suggests loi the win th mm h mine I In m it Idle i.tilge .11 1 nil id 

respectable. I here is a Is nsiderable inteiesl modest K mm rum iiilu anxious to hang soinelhing / i.OOO is mi 11 li st 1 tinge 1 and will grow in 

from patriotic private colleiiors Pi it es are sine to pi<il\ on his walls, lo the \ 11 \ nun h mm e wealths impoi tain e. gi\en die shoilage ol the Imesi. 

remain high although the si .11 1 it\ i il realh glial In si nine 1 ollet loi . Vii lot 1.1 11 .11 1 is immediate l\ When m n ks li\ die most 1 elebi a led appeal lhe\ 

works will ensure that the (Mnirch holds tin- ret old at ' essil > 1 « li hlossoined in die he\da\ ol die show impiessi\e pine rises (Mnislie's sold 

for some time. Vittoiia boom so ii is not sin pi isiiig l)m/i/i,il /mm tin \i\t\t\ Mill. in l<n / Vi.oiio. a 

It is not surprising that the ( Munch ed in dial lln Lit lei i\.i\ sin 1 essoi s in die 1101 ihei 11 ici mil lot die artist, a \ eai ago. as against /li.K'_'"i 

Kngland. the leading Amerii an artists ol tin I a si textile, i.nlw.n . 1 0.1 1 aui\ I ..Hiking milhonaiies six \ eai s eai liei . Othei ,11 lists in 111 h sought altii 

rentiuA looked to Lumpe allet lhe\ hadestab- should lespond to the same kind ol painting. are Atkinson ( himshaw now making ( .'_'(). IMHI 

lished their status at home. Last April Sol heb\ One pinblem is die si ai 1 it\ ol the I mm plus loi good works as against £1,1 "*0 three \ ears 

Parke Bernet sold a still-lite b\ William I 1. 11 mil Vn lm 1,111 paml mgs I he new K wealths . pioiid ol ago; <l I Walls, and wotks 1 1\ I. eai and 

101 / 1 In. '. Ml. a 111 mil lm the artist anil loi .111 thfil lot al mots, wen- delighted to piesenl to sm li Wateihoiise who both set letonls 111 I'I7'I,,| 

American slill-lile. and ilus painting also 1 ame ,,,1 galleries as l'.i iigliam. Mam hesiei ami / 711,(1011 ami / |<'{,0I)0 respet li\ ck Sargent is 

Irom laiglaiid lii Lehman Sotheb\\ will lie Leetls, theii .11 1 1 ollei lions the best nineteenth- also h.n k in lavoiii 

selling another recent find, a painting ol ships b\ a lentiuv paintings are in publit t nllet lions m Mini pmhlematit al is Alma-'l adeina, 

dm 1 1 1 11.1 |i 11 An hi 11 an .11 lisi . William Bradford, abroad. I he 1'n- Raphael lies weie 1 li appte- Solheln 's Belgi a\ ia sold . lm mm 1, mlmv hi\ (inii/n in 

but this time in London, lor with the cheapness of 1 iatetl on the 1 onlinenl and some ol the best wm ks ( )< lobei lm / I J. IK II I, which is a 1 1 the level ol 

ail travel and lln relative strength <>l sterling now appealing in lln salei s 1 ome limn pi it e at hie\ed in the gieat l''unt ant lion of Alma- 
against lhedoll.11 veiidorscan gel a higher price in abroad. Loi example Sothebs's. whit h through ils I atlema's in I'l/', Pines thru weie lln- Inst 
the I ui led Kingdom What is certain is that there Belgiavia salerooms has been eneige tit a IK push- 11 id it at ion thai 1 1 us ,11 list was again fashionable 

ue main important American paintings hanging ing Vii torian ail t cut \c.tis. has two Bui ne- but ia en so Alma- Tadema is still < paialivcK 

unrecognised on this side ol the Alia ntit Jones t oming up lm sale short K . both I mm ovei - 1 hea pel loda\ than when In was active. Lnlike 

1 11 urn ally, all hough lln Amerii an paintings ol seas I In a weie perhaps attrai led In lln | ol die I mpi essionisis 01 ( )ld Masters \'it torian ail is 

the last centuiA owe inueli mme 1 111 mental ^ 10.0110, a, 1 1 paid In Loud lealti s in ( )i lobei a small maikel ai die lop level and wit In nil the 

models than to Lnglish anil Pre-Raphaelite ail lm two gt mat lies In Bui ne-Joiics wlinh win- bmad intei national appeal. ( Jimninn sense sug- 

had relat ivel\ little impact in the I nited States historic,! Ik important I >t vet\ pit liuesipie gesis pin es sin mid go highei I ml Let a use paint- 

it is American interest in niiiiieenth-centuiA Pen 1 \ahiim of Sothebs \. w ho admits thai his ings are being bought lm 1 Inn bash atliattioii 

British painting whit h has tiiiisideiabk 1 sted enthusiasm lm Victoiian ail somelimes tuns tathei than tin llieii impoi lam e in art hisloix. 

nines 111 this sector. 1. 11 example ( Mil isiophei aheatl ol die maikel. thinks that the hit t thai lhe\ theie will alwa\s be siirptises. sin h as the sudden 

t' 01 lies, ol /•!/;/), s ,\ /,;;.,;///,. has I.111I1 up a k- soil! a I the low el end ol their est im.lte suggests all I Vii loi i.lll w alii t olollis w hit ll hit Lolldi ill 

able collection ol Victorian art in the last dec ade immaturit\ a ng 1 ol lee tors which will s, » late Xovembti. Within a week t\ pit .il Aiab 

and exhibited 11 witlek in America. New in must disappear. Olhti Loud 'xptiis lliink the pin es si ems 1»\ Lewis, mil legardetl 111 hi ,\.w 

1111p111t.ini sa les ,,| Victorian pictures in London showed a stmng maikel with .111 e\e lm what etpial ol Millais m even Lainlseei , sold lm let old 

around hall the top lots are likek to he acquired t ollet tors want the atii.n ti\ c and hangable pi it es ol Inst I . !">.()( It) and then / maiiik 

In American enthusiasts. the sale did. however, establish o\ei a do/en bei ause the\ weie pit liiresque lln lie lln 

Set against the exorbitant pi 11 es realised lm artist records al am mm. and il die lop price 1 ■! t on vent lonalst ant laid foi judging w oiks ot ,11 1 but 

contemporary art and some of the lesser paintings / J 1 . Vio lm a typical horsex scene In John it seems to suit the t Innate oldie times 

///, I „iim,ns,i„ |.,n,i.,i\ lilili 

The Arts Reviewed 

GREAT BRITAIN '^\ , * '■' i 

The Art of Hollywood 

30 October 1979-27 January 1980 

Victoria and Albert Museum, 

South Kensington, SVV7 

I low iiiiii 1 1 did ii i nsi ' is ,i (] ucs lion dial critics 
raich ask .iIhiiii exhibitions. Vei u is one ol (lie 
levant t|uestions lhe\ can ask. II given a 
bundle ol staves and ,i piece ol canvas, one < an 
li.udh I niilcl a palate. Winn I with Man 
Banhain and Christophci Firinstone organised 
i In 1 1 in H to the Nation' show about the Festival 
ill Hill. nn .ii the \ H inn. i and Albert Museum in 
I'M, wehada budget ol £\ "),()()() bareh enough 
to bu\ a modest (iuiiiiin cottage in Fast Angh.i. 

I he initial budget ol £:•$(),()()() pitiful enough 
had I urn halved undei one ol those (io vein ment 
e< onoim drives which seen to Ini the arts and 
littli else The organisers of the 'Thirties' show 
c iii i< niK at the Hayward Gallen had £\ 00,000 
to pi a \ wiih enough to bu\ „\m smart house in 
I lampstead. 

Ii is obvious huiii the lavishness with which 

I In Art ol Hollywood' is presented .it the 
Victoria and Albert Museum, that 1 hames 

I ill v isiuii have pi m 1 1 >rd a lot of monev into it, no 
doubt righth seeing ii as useful promotion lot 
i In 1 1 i Ii i i ii en-houi do< umentat \ sn n-s 
'Hollywood whii h sadlv got pushed nil the aw 
by strike ai lion. Kveii sn. tribute must be paid to 
the designers, Patrick Downing and Graham 
( .in si, who have brought to thru task the kind ol 
flamboyant imagination whit h would have made 

them assets to the cinema ilsell ll the\ had been 
ill igncrs in the 1920s oi ills, I hough one would 
have had the nghl to be disappointed il an 
exhibition about design lis subject is 'Fifty years 
nl ail direction had not been singularb well 
di ignccl 

Von ' nn i a 'iii ol Alhambra lover, w hit h not 
niiK lias oriental wallpapei but even a carefulK 
ma i bled w.unsi ot. A brilliant and a m using toui h 
is the huge\ arm ol King Kong plunging 
through i i filing and t lun lung a terrified Fa\ 
V\ ray, one of \\ hose white ton it shoes has fallen on 
to the lln hi 1 longed to knnw whethei the 
designers had pi udciilh pinned it to the floor, but 
did in it ipuir dare to lug it, in i.isr one of the 
waiders inquired what I w as up to. I he pint tit 
• nl the show is a mocked-up cai'K picture 
palate filled with cardboard silhouettes ol an 
,n n In in i in i Iodic I la is and boaters tiitl gentle- 
men keep tilth hats o the t i in an a I In lilm 

I low n i an ex 1 1 at I from I ). \\ ( il ilhth s 

1 1 1 1 with its si upend) >us set- 

h.ini Imaitlrns streaming from lshlai s 

J emple nl I .' i\ i and Laughter; oi the scene at 

Bckha//.ai s least the silenl lilm < aplioli nails: 

I In' hall n\ ri a mile in lei getl aftel tin 

t .hi ' ilden <\.i\ 

I'lu exhibition i sonit "I the bat k- 

giou '.In pit . I). \V. (jriflidi 

I all the t i edit foi the design, l< istt I i 

otted down' ideas Ii u the sels 

.elopes. Walter Hall was in 

i tlesignei. but (oilhth in.inaged so com- 

hi iiami from u edits i ii 

Mary Pickford 

in 'The Taming of the Shrew 1 , 1929. 

Art Director: Nilham Cameron Menzies. 

I m Nn it\ that the show's 'devisers and producers', 
John I lainblev d\»\ I'ati it k I )ow iiing, have onh 
been able to Imd vestiges ol Ins pari a hanin ill 
i redit, a postcard somehoch had saved- He, not 
( .i illn Ii. was responsible fin all those trumpi ling 
plastei elephants atop plastei pillars nl Babylon. 
Some nl the incunabula ol film design, on show 
here, are fascinating : foi example, Geoi ;e \h lies 
designs loi A I rip to the Moon' 1902 . A scene 
tailed 'Honneiu aux Vainqueurs tie la I, une 
shows ,i statin nl aw astronaut in a wizard s hat 
with Ins foot set in triumph on a moon like a 
(lb i ist mas pudding with a ver\ grumpv face. Ii is 
a pleasing thought that somebodv who as a i Inltl 

saw dial fill ight, la lei in I In i ml in \ . have seen tual landing nn the Mm hi on television. ( )ne 
thing the exhibition brings home is how neai in 
time these feats ol earlv movie-making are. even 
though now the films seem so archaic the\ might 
havi been made b\ Galileo. Two photographs 
side-bv-side on the same displa\ board show the 
tlesignei Ben Carre with friends in Paris in I'M 1 
and ai 1 1 ii I < II nude film Festival m 1978. When I 
lust went to Hollywood, which was in the ear 1\ 
l ( i7Hs, Mar\ Piikliiitl was still living oi parth 
living m '1'itkl.iu'; F.dward ( '• Robinson had 
niiK jusi thed; .mil Mervyn LeRoy, who re- 
membered the San Francisco earthquake ol 190b 
and i In it led Robinson in 'Little ( !acsai '. gave us 

dunks. Ii is g I that an intelligent interest is 

being taken now m the pioneers of film design, 
when Hollywood survivors still remembei them 
well. I In Los Angeles Museum of Art, which has 

a g I collection ol eighteenth-century Furopean 

si ulpiure but no department concerned with lln- 
hision nl film-making, should be ashamed that 
this exhibition was first staged at the Victoria and 
Albert Museum. Be\ is Hll.l u i< 

How shoes ami boots were made for walking is the 
si ib] et i of the ( 'raits Council's current exhibition, 
at the 1 iisin uic i il ( lontempoi ai \ Arts, The Mall, 
swi, until GJanuary, and afterwards inuring the 
t tiunti v. 'The Shoe Show' illustrates the history of 
the craft of shoe making since 1 790, and explains 
the snt ial, sensual and psychological implications 
nf sin us with an astonishing varietv • > f footwear. 

Black patent court shoe with white 

grosgrain ribbon and satin bow, c. 1890. 

made by Bauer, London. 



at the 


( .iMiui Book fairs 
Antiquarian Books, Maps, and Prints 
at the Rembrandt Hotel, 
Cromwell Road, London S.W.i. 

( )pposite the I & A 

Thursday January 17th, main. 8 p.m 

Browsers welt owe 

1 h, t onnouieuT, lanu.n \ 1980 


Cross-Currents in European Painting 

17 November 1979-16 March 1980 

Royal Academy of Arts, 

Piccadilly, Wl 

Enjoying the show ?' 
You can't not.' 

I'his overheard exchange will be echoed man\ 
imes before the close of the Royal Academy's 
■xhibition 'Post-Impressionism'. The exhibition 
vorks on many levels; aesthetic hedonists ran 
>ask in the glory of Gauguins and win Goghs; 
lesthetic chauvinists can proclaim tin- virtues oi 
heir own national school, and aesthetic purists 
an separate the Post-impressionists from the true 
Impressionists, Pointillists, Symbolists, Intimists 
and so on. Apart from pleasure, the great benefit 
io be derived from this exhibition is tin oppor- 
tunity it gives to st in I \ and (hart the extra- 

ordinarily complex and fascinating inter- 
relationships that existed between tile fine alls 
in France, Germany, Britain. Belgium, Holland, 
Italy, Norway and Switzerland during the 
Years from 1880. By this date the impact ol 
Impressionism had been wideK felt and loi main 
painters die ultimate point in realism had been 
reached ; a number of solutions were tried in ordci 
lo liberate painting from this apparent impasse 
fhe exhibition is sub-titled 'Cross-Currents in 
European Painting, which is a more accurate 
summary of its intent, and the period covered is 
from 1880 to 1905 in the Frene h sec tion with a lew 
years extra lecwa\ foi die cither national gmup- 
ini.s. In 'What is Post-Impressionism . J ' The 
Connoisseur, Dee ember 1979) 1 attempted i n >t onh 
todefine the term 'Post- Impressionism' but also to 
outline the aims ol the exhibition organisers; to 
this end I quoted Emile Ycrhaercn's statement 
that there was no longer an\ single school, and 
that the artistic movements ol Europe were like 
kaleidoscopic patterns, clashing and muling, 
fusing and separating. Vcrhacreii's perception 
was acute and with onh lairh minoi alterations 
his views could be lifted todav l>\ an\ contem- 
porary critic and epioted as his own, I hat the 
organisers have accepted this kaleidoscopic vicv\ 
and c i ml ii hi tec I it lull em is great h to theii i redit. 
although the\ must have known thai it liable 
to result in a certain amount ol carping on the 

score' of hick ol lllllK Ol absence i it ,1 single 

coherent theme. I o have imposed a lalse sense ol 
tidiness on such a heterogeneous period would 
have been not onh to distent historv, but to 
perpetuate the ignorance that has bedevilled 
earlier studies of the pel iod. 

The Aits Council's exhibition 'Decade 
1890 1900' m 1966 was the first serious official 
acknowledgement in Britain thai the aits ol the 
late- nineteenth ecu tun might be of sufficient 
interest to warrant further stuth . and during the' 
intervening \ ears a considerable amount ol work 
has been done re-assessing the merits ol the New 
English Ait Club, the Glasgow School, die 
Newlyn School, the Camden Town Group and 
others. A sm ii la i proe ess of re-e\ aluation lias also 
been carried out in othei countries in regard to 
their own national schools. This exhibition in 
some ways marks the t elimination ol the national 
approach, and for the first time takes these studies 
a stage further b\ placing all these- seemingh Ice al 
groupings within a wider European context. No 
one is like l\ to dispute the dominance- of the majoi 
figures - Cezanne, Gauguin, van Gogh and 
Sen rat w ho largeh dictated the course painting 

was to lake in the wake i it Impressionism, bill a 
nuuiliei i >l oiliei aitisis emerge lioin the exhi- 
bition as \ei\ significant figures, among them 
Ellsol . Mime h. Sic kei I and Segal) tilli. 


The Castle o/Medan, c. 1880, 

signed, 23 J • 28J, inches. 

• u 



responded to the paintings of shown at les 

A pa 1 1 Ii the obvious triumphs such as i lie v v u i . . , ,i, ,,, i, ,, ,,, , i 

i • X A in mussels, and also to tin pmsci\ Using ol 

wall ol (iauguhis a nel the superb group of van . , ,, ,, , • , ,, ,- , 

1 s ' I hen van Kvsselbcrghe. the hah. ins also re- 

( Jog lis, i he- I Lilian i oon i, the Point ilhsi room and , , . e , u , i . 

s spondee I to di\ lsionism as an liitellec tual cxeie lse 

the Bi ittan\ moms aic outstanding. I la\ nig taken ... , , , . . 

mil quickk adapted ii loi then own purposes, pai i 

pail in the process ol reassessment of Biitish , . , , , i i i i i .; n, . 

i i analytic, pari decorative, w'hich lead logu ally to 

I nun cssie uusl and Post-Impressionist painting, I ., , i , ,, , 

1 i ''"' ( ' ( ' v ''' 'I'inelil ol lilliu islll. 

c aimol c la i m thai these two moms were a revela- 
tion to me personally, though 1 am sure they will 
be in nian\ others; lhe\ hold theii own vers 

c red it ablv, anil I was pleased lo noli- dial ovei a i .mvm j^t iif f Amf f , • '•', 
eniartci ol the British pit lures have been show n in <5tt".~ \ 

file Fine Art Sen iet\ w n hi n the I as I ten years. I he 
moms hung with paintings ol Brittam and the 
Point illist room give- the viewei the chance to make 
I he mi is I i In i i i com pat isons; in the othei rooms 
aitists are grouped I >\ nationality, bin in these 
lhe\ are grouped on subject mallei and tech- 
nique. Even here, though, the\ lend t • • break 
dow n on national hues, Brittam attrai ted Irene h 
and British painters, but apparenth lew others; 
while- Pointillism appealed to the Belgians who J^'- - BBHRIkMI 

LePouldu, 1889, 
- signed and dated, 29 • 36] inches. 

sf The ex hi bit ion is one ol the most impoi tan I in 

T terms ol e hailing ihe- origins of the modern 

movement, and is a must ten anyone who ran 

manage to be in London during the- nexl three 

n ion i lis. Due to its size mh\ complexity, multiple 

\isits ale- the ideal. Foi those deprived ill the 

opportunity to see the exhibition the- catalogue 
published jointh with Weidenfcld cS: Nicholson 
£4.95 paperback; £12.50 hardback is 

wuh infbi mat ion and use-ful cssa\ s b\ the v; u> 

section organisers. Even painting is 
lorty-six oi them in coloui ; howevei die myriad 
LOVISCORINTH. small black and while reproductio 

Portrait of Mutter Rosenhagen, 1899, serve as auk\-memmits. 

oil on board, |> M n . Skii'WII ii 

signed and dated, 24] ■ 30] inches. Dine tor of The Fine Art S 

1 h, Connoisseur, Januan I'ihii 


British Art and Design 

before the War 

!5 October 1979-13 January 1980 

Hayward Gallery, Belgravia Road, ski 

.ins (' inn w i cks. r\ enls 

ll.ll I" ll \ .111(1 em ompass II .ill in (he 

spat ■' "I '"I exhibition even though ili< title 

I lliltil III hi in , .III IllIK , hose llll.U ll.l 

i i Ini. i i bound iii lie ,i (lissatish ing 

III' pilblil has 111 in rnl ' i .ii I h i :i 

nil "ii tcliA ision by ; • A . .in ImIK 

I immii lied 'i 1 1 ii, i .l.i I 

nun Ii ' > thai .in exhib n 

llli till' lll.lssh 1' till. mi l.ll |),|l kl I 

ill' \l I < i illlli ll ( .III S( .ill i-|\ i pile 

I mi iii ii hi this, in ii In < ausc I In In \ c that 

hould hav mote sin i esslulh i i > 1 1 j 1 1 1 id 

hi tin- « cmtrary . bc< ausc 1 would 

nihil n had iii .ill |)un-l\ and siinph . as the 

is lis intriH. with tin- 'visual ai is. 

• hi hitri tine, and design, | n c .< I in < 1 1 in Britain 

h the I'lilK' | hi- di-i ision to plac e these in 

.1 oi ill .up I context was an a n 1 1 ii l mi is 

plan whii 1 1 tailed: (he lop llooi ol the exhibition 

.slihli shows, ,iiiniii»sl nihil dungs, advances 

in engineering and ■ ien< e. the obser\ alion ol 

'" iet\ through puss photos, lellisi publications 

and org. tin ations inh ,n Mass ( )bsei \ ation. 

would all make 14001 1 male 1 ial lot a In 10k 

I he low 11 1 loots ail a lli i"i I 1 11 1 1111 ,ie -in ■ i ■. I ill 

in dis])la\ Hen- the hum -, 11- ,, , 11, is .1 j<>\ in 
behold I In- addition ol .1 fallen on om-sideol the 
main Ho I tin I la\ waul was an insphed nn >\ e . 

Ill e.l \ Mow I oiilid loin sides 1 1| a 

1 ' ' tangli 1 aihei than the usual exhausting /ig/ag- 

llllough pal liliiius. Tin anangeme I 

Profile Head oj Woman. 1933, 
linocut. printed in dark blue. 

I mi 1 11 nl. 11 i .I \i 1 

I In I,. 

1 Ii I ll' 111. I j ll I H ll] 

I lis and tin 

I I In Mod ill \ I etiieul 

Ii d. and 



exhibited at the Royal Academy 1936. 

them vertically (heck b\ jowl in tolds as ihe\ 
x% < > 1 1 1 < 1 In seen as i ml. mis And the small re- 
< lealions ol inteiiois in the Modern Movemenl 
sei lion displ.ix all iln ingeuuil\ nl the Vii loria 
and \lbeil Museum si. ill. si 1 dial one almost 
lot i;ets to examine the obje< Is singlv , taken mil 1 il 
loiitext there are lew Hems which are 111 thein- 
sek is In ealhtakhlg 

I 'he unifying aspect in the arts ol this period is 
die pi ill Ik a I ami soi ial i 1 nisi ieni col si 1 man\ "I its 
■ 11 Hi- an In lei is and designers Whereas William 
Mm 1 1 would have shuddered .11 the prospei 1 nl 
n.i ,-|iiodui ed .11 1, mam oi the leading .11 lists nl 
die 'thirties wen keen in involve themselves in 
iiidustiv and bling hiylu-i aesthetii standards in 

'id publli . e\ en al die cost i il h,i\ ing In 

make < om ptoi nisi -s in t licit wm k Without lmhiil; 
<pni' as lai as die post-Re\ olulioliat \ Russians, 
we I mil lh it ish at lists of the time turning up in tin 
nn 1 iinexpci led areas \n holsoit and Hepworth 
in i' Miles. 1'ipi 1, Paul Nash and Rex Whistlet in 
di igning |)ostets lot Shell. Sutherland. Ravi I ions 
and \asli again in glass and leiamiis. Barnctl 


Coronation Mug by Erie Ravilious, 1937. 

Cyprus, jacquard woven cotton. 
by Marion Dorn, 1936. 

1 - 1 <-■-< 1 11 1.111 m railway posters die 1 xamples arc 
endless I he lai k nl subsidy lm the ails may have 
had somet hi ns; to do with this artists needed the 
money Inn there w as more In 11 than ll had 
bc( ome not on lv res pec table but desirable, largely 
as a 1 esul 1 1 ,| die founding ol die ( 'enl ial Si hi nil ol 
Ails and ("raits and nl Lethabv's philosophy, to 

I '.il In Ipale 111 indilsli \ . 

"Thirties' does not bring in light much new 
research, eithei m die exhibition itsell or in the 
1 a 1.1 1 no ue. but its ret 'oust rut tionsol the Minimum 
I Ial Wells Coates and Tilly Loseh's sleek bath- 
room, as well as die prodigious range nl the 
exhibition, make a visit in the Havward an 
enriching experience 

1 k \M I si \ ( : \l VI II ( IK I ssl 

/ he ' tmnoi i n ui. I.inu.n \ I 981 ' 

Graven images 

The Art of British Wood Engraving 
3 November-2 December 1979 
Scottish Arts Council Gallery, 
19 Charlotte Square, Edinburgh 

'he revival of British wood engraving \\ liirli look 

, I.k i- in 1 1 ii' I it si hli\ wars ol lliis i entur\ was pan 
,| ,i revolution in awai eness i >l llie elici I i il 

iiinting with ink on |>a|)er. I In leaders in this 

noxement were the tx pographcrs who. starling 

irst Willi the exclusive creations ol the Private 

'i esses, so changed the appearance ol the printed 

cttet that in .i lew dei .ides nothing was lell ol the 

lehased I'm ins ol the middle "I the nineteenth 

entury. These workers were not content tnereh 

ii limit I he ii attentions to ts pi igi a pin , I ml est en- 
led thru 1 1 mi epts ol put ilx ol I i to illus- 

rations, bindings, dust w tappers, .mil .ill the 

itllel i in ners ol I k production I lies i illen 

.hi n< I t licit orderh rationalism into iheii own 

i\rs. .is socialists, p.ii ihsts .mil reliels against 

iseless ii adition, 

This exhibition is centred on the w 1 en- 
gravings nl ilns movement, man\ ol whit h wen 

ii iiii.ii il\ inteiii In I .is book illusii.ii n mis I hi- 
images are remarkable, highh individual in 
character, but above .ill expressing the artists 
ideas in the simplest possible shapes. Such pei- images, intended to be hidden in the pages ol 
In ii iks. ill i i ii 1 1 look well in ,ni exhibit ion. ' ii '.in 1 1\ 
not in this one where the ugl\ labelling and j£ 

insensitive arrangement would destmx less 

,i , , i ,i ROBERT GIBBINGS. 

poweilul images. rm tunatclx llie organisei. 

I i ' i i n , i , ,i . Clear Waters* wood engraving. 

I r, in est a C ,il\ in i iressi, collected logetliel. & " 

hugely from Scottish ])ublii collections, so main Raxilious .mil Rexnolds Stone Sume "I the 

lof'themost striking ok these wood engra\ings, thai i ele\ an I lilei at in e is listed in the bibliogi <iph\ at 

It he ilrilii a I rd \ I si I in will be delighted with the the end ol the i a tali igue 

lone ol the images The prints presented b\ Sii The Inst pail ol tin exhibition seems to In 

Rex Nan Kivell ol the Redlern Gallcrx to attempting to give an mil ol Biitish wood 

Aberdeen are not abl\ important. engi a\ ing in the nineteenth i cut in \ . II us 1 1 insists 

I'he catalogue olthe exhibilon. fincK designed ol an ill-ass. n ted selei tioii ol disp.uati una-' 

l>\ James Gardinei Associates. Edinburgh, i on- some lamoiis. otheis n n ial 1 1 adds nothing to t hi 

tains a nselnl and pen epti\ e essa\ on the Model n i enlial pat I ol tin exhibit ion 

Movement in wood engraving I'he inlei-telation I In exhibition is now touiing Siotland at 

between the \ar ions members ol the mo\ en leu I is 1 'aisles until > Januai \ . u goes on to Abeideen. 

iniiiiitK explained, patticulai attention being (ilasgow. Inverness. Si Andrews and Dundee, 

given to |o| 1 1 1 Eat leigh. Robert ( iibbmgs. Ian ending up m June 1 ' !}{(). m New i astle 

(iill, lain Macnab, Gwendolen R.neiat. Ei it Juiin.M. I'lXKt K l n\ 

Alison BrittOn Miunn to then lum tn.n but i i eat i lies with 

then own itlenlilx m.igii vessels. ' I hosr ani- 
mals and plants, those nn llm a I i 1 1 at in i w I in h 
il.iwl ol hop lieivr ol glow ai loss Ik i woik. 
1 1 ■ I a 1 1 ■ lo tin ii i ■ 1 1 \ 1 1 o 1 1 m i ■ 1 1 1 as 1 1 a 1 1 ii . 1 1 1 \ as hie III a 
In dgi I ow I heie is in i sense ol objei I plus del o- 
i at ii hi Shape .mi I image I use w it limit strain. 

Mills w i lies | In n lush 1 . 1 1 1 and i 111 i c ( ieol gi 
Mi IK in the i a I a login loi I In exhibition ol Alison 
Billion's most lei cut wink, organised b\ the 
( a alts ,\d\ isi n \ Committee and at iheii gal lei \ in 
I '_' Waterloo Plat e. I .ondmi s\v| until I '_' Januai \ 
I'tlld Alison Billion winks with simpli materials 
and methods. She uses bull e.nthi nw.ue ol led 
i lax and i oils oi hand builds hei pots lathei than 
l hi ow ing them on a win el , she dei mates I hem b\ 
drawing and panning Willi onlx a lew lolmus 
iiinlei In i standard gla/es. oi b\ i n lax ing i oli nned 
■ lax oi pigment into hnei si i an I nil lines Like the 
"... pots and jugs thai swell, bulge and abruptlx Egxptiati wall paintings m piimitixi I'eiinian 
change direction in a inannei as wittx as it is pots whose infiueiiceshe at knowledges, the icsulls 
alarming. Hei handles arc as expressive as arms are appaicnllx hapha/aid but an siihtlx and 
akimbo Hei ai lei ai is are not mere obiei is sub- skillullx emit ml led. Bkionx I.i t-xvt t i x \ 

Cyprus BC 
7000 Years of History 

( A pi US. Ilkl III. II III I In 

Medllel I. inc. Hi. has ll gl 

,llb|ei I lo (I lli . 1 1 1 1 . 1 1 - 


wi i and bx Ini w i all Ii in m| 

I III]. I'll... Illl Mil \ \ 1 I. Ill 

( hecks ol all kind i aun and w - 

in. II ks oil ( A pi lot i nil hi . I In 

W el e pi oi llli ed i I 111 III', 1 I In ex etl I 111 HI and 

( \ pilol hlslol \ betole llli llilth ol CllI Isl 

,l|hjet t ol '( A III II 111 .Illbltloll lent I i\ I 111 

( ■( IX el Illllellt i il I he Ri'l llli iln ol ( A pi II 
Bl llish Museum ( heal Rllssell Slieel \vi 
It, Man h l'tf',11 I he ob|i i I lalgi Ix ho 
( a pi us Museum in Niiosia. shoxx how nalixi 
i i all - men al isi il I nil I lie dlllei eul i nil ill a I ill- 
Mucin is am I i 1 1 aled an and ai t oin- 
plishei I ail ol iheii ow n I he lii i .ii "il. i hum is 
the pi .I lei X \ e el del 1 1| aled Willi uaix elx and lo 
olll exes olien II II 1 1 nil ollslx dl.lWII lleiol.ltloll 
and the Imelx lashioiied lxmx and miialwmk 
exielleiillx displaxed ill the New Wing Calleix. 
make an inlei esling and woithwhile i shlbllioii 
I he lllusli aled i at.llogiie has been edited bx 

Di V \ ration-Biown. Assistant Keepci in tin 

( ,i eel. and R an I )ep.u I mini ol the Bl ill - 1 1 

Museum Bkidny El t XX i I I X \ 

1 5 *Aj*.: : 

Ringed Bird, jug by Alison Britton 

Terracotta figurine of 'the goddess with 

uplifted arms'. 

Geometric Period ( 1050-950 BC). 

From Morphou, Toumba ton Skourou. 

Gold finger-ring, the bezel decorated with a 

lion relief, bate Bronze Age (1450-1225 BC). 

From Enkomi, an eastern coastal town, then 

in its heyday. 

Iln I immuwiiii |,uiii,m 1'IHII 

ortraits of the East 

: >i i < 1 1 1 . 1 1 Dcpai iinciit (il the Hi ilisli 
exhibitii m ihiiiI I 3 (anuai \ 
l In long and (lis rise tiaditii his ul portrait 
■ in India, China and Japan: it includes 
ul i on i tcsans, at tors, ,11 1 isis, poets, em per- 
il . | H mi is, pi icsis and soldiers, 

I'nlike lli< West. China regarded the ail ol 
I H ii 1 1 aiturc .is subordinate to dial ol landscape 
painting. ( )llcn the subjee l was depicted in .1 
land tape setting and an ollit 1.1I portrait acted 
primaiily as .in accurate likeness stressing the 
siibjcc t's status loi posterity, Bcfoic the seven- 
li 1 nth 1 cut 111 v, Japanese portraiture was, w 1 1 1 1 ,1 
lew exceptions, dominated In Buddhism. 1 he 
vitality and dim tness ol the art ol the latei period 
not hi 'An ul the Floating World' is well 
llted. Realism ol detail was nupi 11 lanl in 
portraits part it ulai l\ (hose ol potentates, 
who wen depicted with .1 great show ol theii 
wealth and magnificence At linns, with more 
ordinaiy people, mine attempt was made to 
projet 1 the ( harat tei ol the sulci , 

I he influence ol Kuropcan ail on that. In si ol 
India and latei ol China and Japan, provides 
some ol the most amusing moments in the exhi- 
bition: topless ladies on an Indian balcony, a 
nervous Knglishman on a Japanese horse, <md a 
use' Oik i n \'k toria with slanting eyes. 

BRIONS. 1 .1 1 \\ I I I VN 


• ■ f ■ I I *te t -*% 


qian \i an (c. 1235-1300). 

A young noble on horseback, 1290. China. 

ink and colours on paper, handscroll. 

Cartoon for stained glass at Holy Trinity 

Church, Sloane Street, Chelsea, 

by Christopher Whall, 1906. 

An exhibition which traces (he artistit develop- 
ment 1 1 1 the 1 in is 1 important stained glass designei 
ol die Ails and Ci.tlis Movement, Christophei 
Whall 1849 1921 , is at the William Morris 
Callery, Lloyd Park, Forest Road. 117 until 3 
February 1980. \\ hall's best known commission 
was the li\ i large windows loi the Lady ( 'ha pel ol 
( doucestei Cathedral, begun in 1897. 

Photography in Printmaking 

( )ne ol the spet tac ulai images which can be seen 
in 'Photography in Printmaking' at the Vii torii 
and Albei I Museum. South Kensington, SW7 until 
ID February is Joe Tilson's Transparency Clip-a- 
main Lips. 1 lie exhibition aims to show how tin 
introduction of Photographic imagery and photo- 
graphic techniques into the traditional processes 
ol printmaking has expanded the possibilities 
offered by tins .11 1 luim. h ( hai is die impac t of 
photography on printmaking from die Inst halfol 
the nineteenth century until the present day, 
concentrating on pi mis made during the last two 
decades. I lie profuse imagery of the modern 
world is bold I \ rendered by such majoi European 
.mil American artists .is Paolozzi, Kitaj, Allen 
Jones. Warhol, Ra use hen berg and Christo. 


Anothei ol the Temple Gallery's interesting 
exhibitions of icons is currently at their premises 
I Yeoman's Row, Brompton Road. sw3) until 
2 February 1980, As well as their recently acquired 
important early icons including one illustrated 
hei e . are some attrac live and less expensive icons 
ol latei pei lods, and a collection ol (losses. 


The Descent into Hell, 

Russian icon, fifteenth century, 

Novgorod School, 31 * 25 cm. 

The Artist and the Kirk 

ol the Sci iiiisli Ku k b\ 

.in .11 list who 1 1. id si an I res pec 1 loi it . the drawing 

in 1 1 ' 1 ight i 1 ml 1 iguing c ollec lion ol 

nd ill aw ings in ' I In Artist .Hid the 

11 in at the N.iln < iallci \ 

i i igh until the i nd 1 il Januai \ 

the iiiigins and 

he I Sc otland and I In li\ c> 1 ,| 

lie every clay relig - 

ii \m 1II11 ii. ited booklet, by 

Kll 1 I its 1 ill S( nlllsll 

at 1 (imp, in 1 11 i\\ Bl 

JAMKS HOWE (1780-1836i. 

Tent preaching at Bothivell n 

pen and ink with colour wash, 

111 15V inches. 


B< >< iks in stock : 

Robaut. L'( )euvre de Corot 5 vols in 4 

& First two supplements. Original 

edition. ^s-Hs.oo. 

Minotaur, Nos 1-7, £625. 

Bryon & Rice. The Birth of Western 

Painting. £65.00. 

Catalogues on Request. 

( allers preferabh by appointment. 


Market Place, 

St. Ives, Cornwall. 

The Connoisseur, [anuan 1 980 



Oeuvres Recues en Paiement des 

Droits de Succession 

11 October 1979-7 January 1980 

Grand Palais, Paris 

\n\oiie .U .ill keen on Picasso's work should nol 
icsitatc to si rape together .i fare to Pans li has 
akcn six years loi the Finaix e Depai I met it to sort 
mi the administrative aspei is ol Pit asso's legai \ 
o the French nation. Although his artist i< legac \ 

PABLO PR:asso. 

Buste de Marin, 1907 

53.5 • 36.3 cm. 

• ? 


Port) ait d'Olga duns unfauteuil, 1917, 

130 88 cm. 



Les Deux Freres, 1906. 
80 • 59 cm. 

Construction : Bouteille d 'anis del Mono 

et cotnpotier ai>ec grappe de raisin, 

1915,36 28 21 cm. 

will continue to keep art historians bus\ loi rathei 
longer, ii in hard to imagine that an\ exhibition 
i on Id bring home more lorcetulh his im porta in v 
h i twcntieth-i enlin v ail 

For the tollowei ol innovation, there are several 
paintings, sketi lies, si ulptures and prints whii h 
confirm the artist's position as a trail blazer. From 
thr i'. uk sculptures, such as \n au bias litis 
1904/6). which seem to pre-empl Henr\ 
(iaudier-Brzeska to the constructions and collages 
ol 1912/3 whose humour and dash anticipate 
Dada, especially Kurt Schwitters, thr earh 
Pic asso i an be seen at the ( band Palais as guru ol 
the avant garde. 

Moir importantly, this selection ol woiks. 

w hii h 1'k asso ki pi ihroiigl i his | 

In >w as a \ i Ming man. In 

the immediate ,u tisi i it . also. 

a I in the ( lie. 1 1 Wat , how In ic< cptivitv bei aim 

in< ii i i atholii and at the sa n i loi 

instance, both <i,u\ /itif ■■'iiiiu ol 

rilll, aie leininisi i ui ol ( le/anne. lb 

fused w lib his intel esl in in 

nu ill ilns urn luus Ii, rs, and 

inaiin skeli h loi the Diiimisi II, , and 

l.'aibn w lin h both anln ipale tin am 

Cubism. Some lati'i paintings, less to 

ing, pa\ homage to more remote and nu! 

able periods. Between I'll 7 and I'll!', tin 

d'Olga dims mi jiiiiliuil lei alls Ingres, while I < upas 

di s pay sans, painted allei l.e Nam, also happens to 

be e\ei uled ill the Pol 1 1 1 1 1 1 1st idiom. 

( >ne ot I lie remarkable aspei is ol Pi< asso is the 
independence and authority ol Ins application 
and style even when he is at his most eclectic. I his 
isiisualK explained aw.n l>\ talk of his prodigious 

facility, so often the in id g ol a set ions artist. 

What the works ol art at tin ( band Palais do show 
however, is ijial Pi< asso's confident and unerring 
vigoui as an image-makei coupled with his 
idefaligable inventiveness as a lei linn i. in in. ike 
hini a lonely and to some extent an an.u hronistic 
giant. 'Fim Hohar i 


fills pi( till e ol a i mil les.ill b\ I'tainan 
ol the colourful and dramatic print in tin exhi- 
bition 'The Age o| I'tamaro. Japanese Pi nils 
i 1780 1800' at the Rijksprentcnkabinct ..I tin 
Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam until 2 Man h 1980. A 
fully illustrated catalogue is a\ ai la I I' 

The ( iiimuiwew Janudiy 19H0 

Norman Adams Ltd. 

S [0 I Road. Knightsbridgc, 1 ondon 
s\\ 3 

Lei 01 589 5266 

Fine 18th-century English Furniture and 

II orks oj Art 

Thos. Agnew & Sons Ltd. 

4 j ( )U! Bond Strict, London wi 
I c\ 01 629617c) 

I'aintings, H'atercolours, Drawings and 
Engravings oj all m hools 

Alexander Gallery 

1 3 I )nki Street, I ondon s\\ 1 

I el 1 1 1 -9 ; : 1 {< <('l i 

I mi 1 "th, 1 S1I1 and 10.1I1 icntury Paintings 


29 31 (it orgc Street. I ondon w ill s 1*1 
I el. 01 186 6 

/ u/r antique Immune, ^hiss, jnuiitm^s , 
hion 1 , obji / (/'i» f 

Asprey & Co. Ltd. 

16s 169 New Bond Street, 
I ondon, w 1 \ u \k 

I el. 01 493 6 ( 
1 ablcs : ( iullcus, 1 i >nd< >n 

I clcx 2S I id 

\ntique alver, jewellery, miniatures, line 
period I uruiture , clock: and watihcs , ohjets 
d'arl ,iii,I I aln 1 ,.<< 

Bentley & Co. Ltd. 

6> New Bond Street, I ondon w 1 "> yni 
I el: 01 629 065 1 032s 
Antique jewels. Antique watches, jewelled 
objects of Art, Russian enamels 

H. Blairman & Sons Ltd. 

1 i 9 Mi Hint Street. 1 ondon \\ 1 -. sun 

: 193 °444 
1 S1I1 icntury Furniture, Regem y I in m line , 
Chinese Mirroi Pictures and II 'orks oj Art 

Blond Fine Art Ltd. 

\ \ S,n k '. illi Street, 1 ondon \\ 1 

I I ■ ■ I 1 

/ in inn //: 1 1 Him y Hi itish painting and 

ulptii 1 .// pi ml ,ni,l ,,'i aphu 

Bluett & Sons Ltd. 

1X I ).i\ n s Street, I ondon \v 1 

I el 1 1 629 4018 \ V)l 

( hit 11', 11 < '.eramu ■ . ,, • \rt , and Islamn 

II orl oj \rl 

Brod Gallery 

. t St James's St net, London sw 1 \ ika 

1-1 S71 

( able* Bn idart I 1 mdon sw 1 

( )ld Masta Paintings and Drawings 

The Bruton Gallery 

High Street, Bruton, Somerset baiooab 

Icl : 074 9S1 220s 

Specialists m European sculpture of the it)ili 
and 20th centuries : Ayrton, Barye, Bourdelle, 
( 'arpctiu.x , Carrie) Belleuse, Dalou, Daumier, 
Dai'id d' Angers, Despiau, F'alguiere, Maillot, 
Moore, Pla-otta, Rodin, Wlerick 


1 4 ( )ld Bond Street, London WI 
I el 01 4') I 7408 

Fine Old Master Paintings, Drawings and 
Prints, Indian and Islamit Art 

Crane Arts 

\2 1 Kings Road, L ondon su 3 

Tel: 01 352 5857 

Parly Naive Paintings. Also young artists with 

irreverent flavour 

Crane Kalman Gallery 

17X Brompton Road, London svv 3 

Tel : 01 5X4 7566 

20th century British and European Masters. 

Younger British artists. (Also unjustly neglected 

painters 1 

Andrew Simon Crosby 

PO Box s 10, Edinburgh 10, Scotland 

1 el : (03 1) 447 81 inn 

( )nental < Carpet books and books on ( Uass 

( '.ollct ting. ( Catalogues free on request. I )ealei in 

I urkoman ( Carpets from the presynthetu period. 

T. Crowther & Son 

2S2 North Laid Road. Lull). mi, 1 ondon 
sw6 1 Nil 

I el 01 38s 1 575 7 

I 'cry fine and extensive stocks oj ( Georgian 
period jui m tm e , carved wood and marble 
1 himucypict es ami at < essories , oak and pine 
room panelling and garden ornaments 

Euston Gallery 

126 i 30 Drummond Street, 1 on (.Ion nw 1 
hi 1.1 3X7 61 34 

i'.x tensive range oj ( )ld ami (Contemporary 
Paintings & Prints, 50 page catalogue ;f>/> 

Fine Art Society 

148 New Bond Street, I ondon Wl 
Tel: 01 629 S 1 16 

British Art oj the iqth and 20th centuries, 
Paintings, Watercolours, Drawings and 
Sculpture and Decorative Arts 

Fischer Fine Arts Ltd. 

;o King Street, St. James's, London swi 
Tel : 01 x jy 3942 

20th century Masters and (Contemporary 
Paintings and Drawings 

Fox Galleries 

5/6 Cork Street, London Wl 
Tel: hi 734 2626 
Cables: Foxart London wi 
Telex : 268048 Extldng 

Fine Paintings British and European i;i 

S. Franses 

71 Knightsbridgc, London swi 
Tel: in 235 ixxx 

Oriental and European Carpets, Tapes 
Works of Art 

Frost & Reed Ltd. 

41 New Bond Street, London Wl 
Lei: 01 62924s; 

iSth iQlh icntury English and Diiith 
Paintings, Contemporary English and \ 
French Paintings 

Fry Gallery 

>x [ermyn Street, St. James's, Londo « 

Tel: 01 493 4496 

Cables: Fryart, London 

English II 'atercolours and Drawings oj 1 

1 Sth and 1 Qtli centuries 

The General Trading Compari 


144 Sloane Street, Sloane Square, 

London swi x 9BI 

Tel : 01 730 041 1 

1 Sth ai)d iQth century English Furniture 

Port clam, Pewter, Prints. Decorating. I 

quality modern China, Crystal and Gift: 

Christopher Gibbs Ltd. 

1 1 X New Bond Street, London Wl Y < 

Tel : 01 629 2008/9 

Old Masters and Works of Art 

Richard Green (Fine Paintings 

44 Dover Street, London Wl 
Tel: 01 493 7997 

1 Sth and iath century English Paintings. 

1 -ih and 1 Sth icntury Dutch, Flemish an 


ijth to iath century European Paintings 

Grey-Harris & Co. 

12 Princess Victoria Street, Clifton, B to 

Tel: Bristol 373 6 5 

.4. leading West oj England repository for 

Jewellery, Old Sheffield and quality Elec: 


Halcyon Days Ltd. 

14 Brook Street, Hanover Square, 
London wi Y 1 aa 

iSth and early tgth century English emu 
Papiei Mache, Fide, Finn, 7 oitotseshe 
Porcelain and mint-. Fine contemporary 
Bilston enamels 

I iarris& Sons 

i; : New Oxford Street, London wcia 

, 01-636 2121 

i- 1 8th century English Furniture and 

) \. Harvey & Co. (Antiques) Ltd. 

( h.ilk Harm Road, 1 ondon \w 1 s \\ 
/ -;// to early n)tli century turuitiur, 
: - and works oj art 

I m Gallery 

rmyn Street, St. |amcs's, London swi 
1 01-493 06SS 

1 Master Paintings and Sculptures in mar hie, 
cc and terracotta 

1 ne Henderson 

,, 4ount Street, London w 1 
1 01-499 2507 
1 tese ami Japanese Paintings lapanese 

• is and prints, Oriental l-.mbroidery 

Innell Ltd. 

ivies Street, Berkeley Square, London 

' • 2NY 

- ! : 01-490 joi 1 

ique and Modern jewellery and Silver , 
hiestu Silver by the Henneh from 1717 

i lmes 

, )ld Bond Street, I ondon w 1 

'I 01 493 1394 

'7/(7)', Antique, lictonan and fine \ lodem 

1 ex 

iorge Horan 
riental Antiques) Ltd. 

• Kensington ( hurt li Street, I ondon wS 
01 937 95 3- 

xppointment to the dorps Diplomatique 
r Oriental ('eranucs, Bronzes, jades, 
tes, (Carvings ett 

ua Antiques 

nd 1 1 . Antique I l\ pel market, 
'Kensington 1 hgli Street, I ondon w S 

'i 937 7435 
h-century English animal painting." 

'an Jacobs 

'like Street. St |.mu s's 
idon sw 1 

01 9?" 3 709 

i cialising in 1 7th 1 entury I )utc li and Flemish 
I Master Paintings 

'exander Juran & Co. 

New Bond Street, I ondon wiY 9DI) 
[1:01 -629 2550 

/ and Antique (Caucasian and ( hiental Rugs 

A. Lee 

; Bruton Place, London wi 
II: 01-629 5000 and 499 6366 
' orks of Art, fine Furniture . Clocks and 

Little Gallery 

5 Kensington Church Walk. London ws 
Tel "l 9?^ s ; ? : 

Tuesday to Saturday 1 1 .1 m to 6 p in. or 
by appointment. 

; S1I1 , 1 Qth and joth 1 entury 1 1 ateri olours and 

London Art Centre 

1 5/16 Royal < )pera Arcade, LI ay market. 
Pall Mall, London sw 1 

I el 01 031 1 -(>-<) 

II hy Pay more ' ,/ _'s tor exquisitely , hand 
carved framed traditional English oil painting" 
on 1 anvas 

D. M. & P. Manheim 
(Peter Manheim) Ltd. 

69 Upper Berkelev, Street, 1'oitm.m 

Square. London w 1 

Tel: 01 723659s 

Member H A DA Specialist in line I'nglish 

Antique Porcelain , Pottery, Delftware and 



6 Albemarle Street. I ondon « 1 \ tin 
I el 01 629 s" 161 

Cables Bondartos 

line impressionist and joth century Paintings, 
Drawings and Sculpture ( irtiphn s and 
Photographs hy leading joth century Artists 

Roy Miles Fine Paintings 

'1 I hike Street. St |.iims\. I ondon sw 1 
I el 01 930 S66s, C ables Miles Art 
1 1 nidon 
Gallery hours Monda\ Indav, 10 a. in 

s p III 

I '/( toi 1,111 Paintinos and < >IJ \ I 

John Mitchell & Sons 

S New Bond Street, I ondon VI 1 
Lei: 01 493 7 5 ft 7 
Old Master Painting" 

Morton Morris & Company 

52 Bui \ Street, St |amcs\. 1 ondon sw 1 > 

Lei 01 930 2N2S 

English paintings and drawing oj tin 1 ~th, 

1 S1I1 and early 1 ail, , euliu h ■ 

Gerald Norman (Fine Art) Ltd 

93 Jermyn Street. St |ames\, 1 ondon. sw 1 
I el 01 930 5 222 

Specialists in 1S1I1, 10th and joth century 
Piiglish watercolour.s Art consultants and 
valuer < 

James R. Ogden & Sons Ltd. 

42 Duke Street, St |ames\. London sw 1 v 


Tel: 01-930 3353 

Specialists in Ancient jewellery, jewellers and 

Silversmiths for four generation" Also at 


Parker Gallery (Estb. 1750) 

2 Albemarle Street. I < n x tin 

Tel 01 i'j 
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Ship Model" and Curio 

David Peel& Co. Ltd. 

2 ( arlos I'l.u e, Mount Strci t. I oiul 
European 1 1 ork" of \it 

Phillips & Harris 

S4 Kensington ( 'hun h Street, I ondon w N 

Lei 01 917 3 1 3 r, 

Selected European, ' >n< ntal furniture and 

Works of Art 

Piccadilly Gallery 

1 6a ( Ork Street, I ondon w 1 

1 el 01 629 2N75 and 01 499 46 (2 
liriti"h I initiative P, unlet", International 
Symbolist , Juoenstil Works Museum quality 
linti"li and ( 'online nlal Dr awing" 

Pitc & Scott Ltd. 

20 24 Eden Grove, I ondon \7 Sin 

111 Ol Cm 

I'elcx 21N57 

Packing and "hipping of fine-art work" 

throughout the world 

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G.T. RatcliffLtd. 

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I'nornioit" Antique Furniture "lock" m 
showroom < oudition in< hiding hu qiter and 
dec orated pice cs 

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I So New Bond St 1 eel. I ondon w n 9 I'D 
Lei: 01 109 ii;7i 

line I uiopciin Arms and . Innour, Islamic and 

II 'oiks ol Art, I arly I'hotogiaphn Material 

Frank T. Sabin Ltd. 

I New Bond Street. I ondon W 1 
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I noli "h Paintings. Wateieolour" and line 
Inti, 111, irian Prints 

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s 7 King Street. St James's. I ondon swi 

Id HI ijjn -s\s 

C tables Spink I ondon sw 1 

Com", Medal" and ( )rder.s. ( hiental Art. 

in oh "1 1 I in 11 1 tin 1 , Paint trio" , I > 1, iwii / 

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i .■ i Mount Stn ft. I i null >n ve n sun 

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line liii[>li*h I a 1 11 1 1 11 1, ami Work-' of . \>t of tin 
1 yth and 1 till centuries 


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■ mi f()(7 / S1I1 ■ 1 >ili 1 1 mm i 

1 1 C ( ■ ( I H ( / I 1 ' 1 ) 1 1 I II 

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. a Be iinl Street. I 1 null >n \V 1 ^ up] 1 

I ■ ! \(J<) 

• lit It 1 I 'auitiug , pi in, ijhilly of tlh 

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1 (X I in impti in Ko.kI, I ondon su \ 
I el: 01 <.*9 N4X 1 
I ik-.v I' >)i 7447 
Mcmhcr* of H A I) A and C l.X.O A 
I o :i loik of line ( '.lunc-c , Continental ana 
English Ponelam and Pottery 

William Walter Antiques Ltd. 

. oikIoii Silver Vaults, ( er\ I ,ine, 
I 1 mile hi. u < 2 \ 1 (.a 
I ■ | i.X n 

S/'. 1 1, 1I1 1 iii antique w/rn and old Sheffield 
plate llnoiisdioni tin woi Id 

Weston Gallery 

Weston I ongvillc, Norwich, Norfolk 
I el : Not u k 1 1 S605J72 

Dutili and English Painting from ijth iqiIi 
letitury Xorwich School and Dutch Romania 

Louise Whitford Gallery 

j \ \ I owndes Street, I ondon s\\ 1 

Tel: -I3.S-3 1 SS 

Late 10.1I1 and early 201I1 century English and 

I uioyion painting* specialising in works of 

Australian ami Middle Eastern interest 

Wildenstein& Co. Ltd. 

1 17 New Bond Street, I ondon u 1 

It] m 1 f)2ij 1 161 >2 

C i.ibles: N.i\ lid, I ondon vx. 1 

1 cle\ 2671 ^^ \.i\ ild ( . 

< >ld Mastei and Impressionist Paintings and 

Williams & Son 

2 ( ir.iftnii Street, London WIX 3 1 h 
Tel: 01 493 S7SI 

I uic I raditional English ami European 
Panning-, from the igth& 20th centuries 

Temple Williams Ltd. 

Haunch <>t Venison Yard. Brook Street, 
London w 1 v 1 Ai 

111 m| (,2>J I4X6 

Vine Regent y Eurniture, ll'orks oj Art , 
1 'aluations 

Winifred Williams 

3 Bury Street, St. James's, Londo ■ 

lei "I 930 4732/0729 
Important 18th century English and 
(Continental Porcelains and Enamel? 
Collectors' pieces of Museum quality] 

W. H. WillsonLtd. 

1 5 King Street, St. [ames's, Londo 

I el : 01 930 (>4(>i, 
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Christopher Wood Gallery 

15 Mono nib Street, I ondon, swi 

I el ■ mi 235 91 4 l/2 

I ictorian paintings, drawings and t/v 
colours, studio pottery, works of art a 

Harriet Wynter Ltd. 

352 Kings Road, London su 3 

I el mi 352 C494 

I elex : 2 1 S79 Harriet 
Antique Scientific Instruments andnei 
hand and Antiquarian Hooks 011 the hi i 
si ience and technology 

Charles Young 

Second floor, Old Bond Street Hi 
Old Bond Street, London \\ i\ 31 
1 el OI-499 I 1 17 e\ 491 3430 

English Paintings 1 Ooo 1 000 
and Old Masters 










French. English. & American Large A Varied Selection 








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mat ion, do< uments or publications on the 
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Box No. 1010 


Wanted to purchase: British 1 9th & 20th Century paintings 

and watercolours by Blinks, de Breanski, Flint, Loder, 

Norton, Levinson, Perugini 

SKT Galleries 

1450 Broadway. New York, NY 10018. (212) 391 0385 


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. ,;,.'! 1 r(i ni) ■ I'll tonal mattei what 0, i'i r 



I 1790. 
? th 57 
th 49^ 


for important American art 

Mary Cassatt. Sketch of Child's Head for "Mother and Child in a Boat." 1908: oil: IS'/i x 15 inches: signed lower right 

Catalogued: Man CassattlA Catalogue Raisonneofthe Oils. Pastels, Watercolors, and Drawings by 
Adclyn lX>hme Breeskin. City of Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press. 1970. page 193: 

Reproduced: Plate 522. 

Reproduced: Man ( assatt by Margaret Breuning. New York: The Hyperion Press. 1944. page 47 
(also in color on dust jacket), as "Girl in a Blue Hat". 


M \ Co-Publishers of The American Art Journal 

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TnocHav . Satiinfai/ Q- VI - V 10 

RARE GLaZED STONEWARE GROUP, Of the Ming dynasty. A.D. 1368-1643. Height: 19% inches. 

Intricately carved wood stand. 




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( The .\atwnal Magazine Company Limited. 
{February 1980. 


February 1980 Volume 203 Number 816 

77 The making of a President? 

Engravings and lithographs of Abraham Lincoln, by Harold Holzer 

92 An endless source of amusement . . . 

Amateur artists in India, by Raymond Head 

102 Fabulous animal frauds 

An exercise in human ingenuity and fraudulence, by Marc Cramer 

109 Abraham Ortel 

Mapmaker of Antwerp, by Simon Pointer 

117 A taste of Paris 

The Brasserie Bo finger and writer's home in Paris, by Lynne Thornton 

125 Gift Horses 

A pocket-sized artefact brings together the genial fellowship of the turf, 
the painstaking exactness of a centuries old craft, and the 
vagaries of twentieth-century fashion, by Erika Speel 

130 Made in England 

Two Hugenot clockmakers working in England, by Michael G. Cox 

136 Jack of all work 

Screens from East and West, by Gillian Walkling 

142 The Arts Reviewed 

149 Books 

Front cover: The Hamburg hydra as depicted in Seba's Thesaurus, 1734. 
The Linnaean Society of London. See: Fabulous animal frauds, page 102. 

Early consideration will be given to MSS. accompanied by suitable photographs. Although due care 
is taken the publishers do not accept responsibility for MSS. or photographs which must be submitted 
at the owner's risk. The Editor's decision is final in all editorial matters. 

i rculation Information 

<ftEAT Britain. Single copy price 12. oo. The 
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Postmaster - send 3579formsto Th<( 'onnoisseur, 
PoBoxBl0120, Des Moines, Iowa 50350. 







,1 A I i i E R S 





An English early 19th century 
mahogany regulator, 
with broken arch dial. 
Circa 1800. 
Height 6' 10". 


alternative entrance at 22 Albemarle Street. London W1 

Telegrams: CulleuS London Asprey S A Geneva. 40 rue du Rhone. Geneva Telex 251 10 

Telephone 28-72 77 


10 Minutes from JFK International Airport 

5 16-569-5565/5 16-569-5574 

CONNOISSEUR February 1980 




24" X 30" 


P.O. Box D 

Dept. C 

Sedona, Arizona • 86336 



Member of The British Antique Dealers' Association 

Fine quality mahogany secretaire 
bookcase circa 1790. Height 93" 



Plymouth 337952 

Mayorcas Ltd. 

Member of the BADA Ltd. 

— » T ;i 

An exceptionally rare and attractive ENGLISH Man's embroidered Night Cap, 
c 1590 with scrolling pattern of leaves, flowerheads and acorns in colourful 
silks and metal threads on ivory linen ground, mainly in buttonhole and plaited 
braid stitches in tones of green, red and ochre In superb state of preservation 
Vide 'Elizabethan Embroidery' by G Wmgfield Digby, pp 85-87, plates 26/27 

38 Jermyn Street, St. James's 

London S.W.I Telephone: 01-629 4195 



A very fine 18th cen tun scarlet lacquer four-fold screen with a[ilt chinoiseriedei oral ion. ( lirca I 7(>u 
Height of panels Jit. 6 in., width of each panel 1 ft. (3 in. 



Also in NEW YORK : MALLETT of LONDON, P.O. Box 396 NY. 10028 Telephone (212) 8769033. Telex : 62580 














Examples from sets of four candlesticks and four tapersticks 
made by Ebenezer Coker early in the reign of George III. 
The C Candlesticks, measuring lO'/t inches in height, are dated 1764; 
the tapersticks, 6V4 inches in height, are dated 1768 and 1770. 

CARRINGTON An Associate of Mappin& Webb 

Now at 

25 Old Bond Street, London W1X 4AU. Telephone: 01-493 6123. 

Important American Art 



1075 Paseo de Peralta Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501 505/982-4631 

Sacred Paint/Ned Jacob 135 pages, 118 illustrations, autographed copy $35 

EDWARD BOREIN 1872 -1945 

Cutting Back a Steer oil 20"x 30" 





^ * K 1 


01 589 4128, 2102 


[ieehive waterpots of tin- K'ang-hsi period arc beautiful, rare and expensive, perhaps several thousand pounds. Copies 
abound, even with marks but they, of course, are virtually worthless The one on the right is right, the one on the left is not! 
I he HADA has experts 111 all fields and you ean trust them to tell you the difference. 

A list of members will be sent free on receipt of a stamped and addressed envelope. 




29-31 george /treet lona< 

tel. Ol -486 0678 


don win 5pr 


e antique furniture 

,0 i 


obietx a art 

An early 19th century Chinese Lac Burgante 
Secretaire a abattant with an overhanging frieze drawer 
above panelled fall flap enclosing a fitted interior above 
a set of drawers, between gilt decorated columns. 

Height 61 in. 155 cm. Width 42 in. 107 cm. 



11th Art and 

Antiques Fair 


From Antiquity 
to Modern Times 

11.00-20.00 hrs. 
Exhibition grounds 

Hall 12 

March 1 to 9.1980 


Art and antique 
experts know why 
they come to the 
West German Art Fair 

Three reasons are decisive: 

1 . Guarantee for quality and 


Over 160 important art dealers are represented 
at the West German Art and Antiques Fair in 
Duesseldorf. A jury, composed of experts from 
museums and the art trade, is there to supervise 
the quality of the goods offered. 

2. The variety and concentration 
of goods in one place 

Works of art, from antiquity to the 20th Century, 
will be presented comprehensively. 

The goods offered: 

Ancient art, excavated pieces, national art from 

abroad, exotica from the Far East. 

Antiques (furniture and handicraft, ceramics, 

glass, gold and silver smith work). 

Paintings, graphics, plastics, icons. 

Tapistry and carpets as collectors' items. 

Clocks, weapons, coins, books. 

Art nouveau, art deco and classical-modern art. 

3. Factual, professional 

For nine days, the West German Art and 
Antiques Fair is a meeting point for art lovers 
from all over the world. Talk with them or stroll in 
peace from stand to stand with their works of art 
from all epochs. 

Sales to everybody. 

Duesseldorfor Messegesellschaft mbH -NOWEA-. Postfach 32 0203, 4000 Duesseldorf 30. 

To International Trade Fair Agencies Ltd.. Standbrook House. 2 Old Bond Street, London W1X 3DB 






CONNOISSEUR February 1980 






"Visiting Apache, Taos" by Leon Gaspard 
Oil on canvas. 8';>" x " 

annual Collectors' Show February 20 through 
March 20, 1980. This year's exhibit is 
represented by such artists as: 

• Thomas Hart Benton • Alessandra Puppo 

• Nicolai Fechin • Pegge Hopper 

• Leon Gaspard • Mark English 

• Emil Carlsen • Fritz Scholder 

• LeRoy Neiman • Bernie Fuchs 

• Ancel Nunn • Paul Pletka 

• A. J. Rudisill • Bart Forbes 

• Jo Sickbert • James Sessions 

Send in for free catalog of show. 

Mis. Hamlin" by Micolai Fechin. Oil on canvas. 20" x 16!' 


Poker Game' bv I f -koy Neiman. Acrylic on board. 48 ; " x 12- , ■'.' 

"Clouds-Moonlight" by Emil Carlsen. 
Oil on canvas. 44" x 37" 


Jack O'Grady Galleries, Inc. 
333 North Michigan Avenue 
Chicago, Illinois 60601 

CONNOISSEUR February 1980 


Andre Harvey Studio • Box 8 • Rockland Road • Rockland, Delaware 19732 • Telephone: (302) 656-7955 


Bronze (cue perdue) 

Life Size: length 26" (66 cm) 

Weight: approximately 25 pounds (1 1.4 kg) 

From an edition of 60 bronzes 

"The Relic" (Armadillo) 

Signature, Foundry Mark, Provenance 
Catalog: five dollars by mail 

Inquire directly by telephone or mail, 
or through selected galleries 





^ne 1 rlanorcslc 

Hitchin2067 tslerljordsh 



STD 0462 2067 


Phillips Hitchin 

A mahogany tripod table of the 
Chippendale period, with "bird cage" 
action, tip up top, bulbous stem, shell 
carving on the knees and claw and ball feet, 
circa 1750. 

From our collection of old English furniture, 
displayed in the eighteen period rooms of a 
Georgian Manor House, only thirty miles from 
London, only one hour by car by the Al, or forty 
minutes from Kings Cross station; trains can be met 
by arrangement. 

Members of the British Antique Dealers' Association. 


Second Annual 




A gathering of the worlds major 
Oriental art dealers and collectors 
in Asia's art centre. 

May 15-18, 1980 

Hotel Furama Inter • Continental 

Hong Kong 

For information on 

exhibiting or attending contact: 

Andamans East International Ltd 

6 On Lan Street, 

10th Floor, Hong Kong 

Telephone: 5-252446 

Cable Address.- ANDAMANS Hong Kong 

Telex: 85213 AGELL HX 

Official Carrier A great was to fly 




International Fine Art Auctioneers 


Second Annual 





A gathering of the world s major 
Oriental art dealers and collectors 
in Asia's art centre. 

May 15-18, 1980 

Hotel Furama Inter • Continental 

Hong Kong 

For information on 

exhibiting or attending contact: 

Andamans East International Ltd 

6 On Lan Street, 

10th Floor, Hong Kong 

Telephone: 5-252446 

Cable Address: ANDAMANS Hong Kong 

Telex: 85213 AGELL HX 

Official Carrier A great was to fly 




International Fine Art Auctioneers 


Forthcoming Sales- February-April 1980 

Phillips London Wl. 

Weekly Sales 

M !,i\ 1 1. mi 

Antique F urn it lire, Rugs, China, 
Class & Objects 

Tuesday 1 1 .1111 

Antique English & Continental 
Furniture, Eastern Carpets & Rugs, 
Bronzes & Works of Art 

■ ,il.i\ Ham 
English iV Continental Ceramics & 
Glass alternating with Chinese & 
Japanese Ceramics & Works of Art 

Antique Silver & Plated Ware 

I;,,-, / •• la spnui 

S pe c i alised Sa l e s 

. . till It'lll Ml . .11 I 1. 1111 

Watei colours 

i\ llli lelu 11.11 \ .11 pin 

<ih I elniMiN .11 I lOpm 

lay lull I i I >i ii.ii \ ,ii 'pin 
Miniatures, fans cV Icons 

Dolls & Dolls Houses 

i ii.ii \ .ii I I ,iin 
Costumes, Lace \ Textiles 

I I I'lll 11,11 \ .1! I ll)|)lll 

Books, MSS. & Maps 

' I' 111 
Oil Paintings 

I i I ii I ',11pm 

Jew, ellery 

Willi. I 


I ,il lO.iin 

I ine I urs 

i HI. II-. .11 I I. Illl 



1,1 rl.lll.m 

Oil Faint ings 


It hnographical Items & Antiquities 

I I Imu.ii' ' III 

Pot lids. Fairings, (.oss & 
( ommemorative China 

Musical Instruments 

ili ii II 

1 ii 'pin 

f )il Paint ings 

nl iiipni 

I- 1 ' 

I i remarks 

Scientific Instruments 

,n II.iiii 


a.n.i.i M 


( Ollcc tors Items 

Arms & A rmour 


Art Nouveau & Decorative Arts 

Books, MSS. <V Maps 

Important Old Master Paintings 
& 1 )i a u, ings 


Wednesday Ulli Man Ii al 12 in.., n 

Photographs & Photogra"phia 
I 1 1 1 1 1 -, . I . i v ill, Man I .ii I I. nn 

Costumes, Face & Textiles 
Monday 17th Man Ii al Ham 

\l.inil,i\ I 7 1 h Man Ii al 2pm 

Oil Paintings 
I ucs(la\ IMlli Man Ii al 2pm 

Clocks & Watches 
Wednesday l!>th March al 12 i n 

Baxter Prints & Stevengraphs 
I lunsday 20lh Man Ii at lO.un 

Fine Furs 
I Iiuim],i\ V|)ih Man Ii al II, nil 

Monday 24th Man Ii al 2pm 

Oil Paintings 
Tuesday 2.">th Man h al I 10pm 

Wednesday 2l.lh Match al 12 n i 

Potlids, Fairings, Goss & 

Commemorative China 
I liursday 27th Man Ii al Hani 

I lunsday 27th Man Ii at I lain 

Musical Instruments 
I uesday 1st Api il al I lam 

19th Century Paintings 
Wednesday 2nd Apt II al 1 2 noon 

Lead Soldiers 
Wednesday !lth Apul al 1 _' noon 

Toys & Models 
M las I 1th April al Mam 

Monday I llli April al 2pm 

I uesday I "uh Apul al I lOpm 

Wednesday Kith Apul al 1 ' noon 

Railways & Railwayana 
I lunsday I7lh \pid al I lam 

Art Nouveau & Decorative Arts 
\l lay 21 si Apt il al 2pm 

Oil Paintings 
In. sday 22nd \pnl 

Uednc day 2 lid \pnl al 12 noon 

Dolls & Dolls Houses 
Wednesday 2 lid \pi il al 2pni 

Miniatures, fans & Icons 
I lunsday 2 llli Apul al lO.un 

Fine Furs 
I lunsday 2 llli \piil al 1 10pm 

Books, MSS. & Maps 
lunsday ."Hli Apul al I lain 

Modern Pictures 
In. sday 2'ith \pnl al I lOpm 

Wednesday IDlh Apul ,u 12 noon 


Glendining c& Co. 

W. dm day nth leluuary 

English & foreign Coins including 
Numismatic Books 

Wednesday I !lh I elnuaiy 

Military & Naval Medals 

Wednesday ".th Man Ii 

t oins 
Wednesday 21. ill Man Ii 

Urdu, day 2 ul \pnl 

Wednesday 10th \pnl 



( lid Mj,i,m 


Phillips Marylebone 

Weekly Sales 

|-i ulay al 10am 

Antique & Modern Furniture, 
Porcelain & Objects 

I'u lures also sold alternate Fridays at 12 tOpm 
View I'hunday 'Jam I itlpm 

lh, ( VcVf/un ' ( entrt has nou mo; al 

/n/in Uaryltbuih lo lilenheim Strut 

Phillips West 2 

Weekly Sales 

I lunsday at 10am 

Antique & Modern Furniture, 
Porcelain & Works of Art 

I leu Wednesday 'lam 7pm 

Phillips & Jollys of Bath 

Monday llli I ebruan 

Antique Furniture, Clocks & Works o 
Monday 1 1 th February 

Monday ISth February 

Silver, Plate & Jewellery 
Monday 2 .".lh Febl nary 

Victorian Furniture 
Monday ltd Man II 

Antique Furniture, Clocks & Workso: 
I I ulay 7th Man 11 

Monday I 7th March 

Monday 2 llli March 

Victorian Furniture 
Monday list March 

Antique Furniture, Clocks & Works os 
Monday I llli Apul 

Monday 21st April 

Victorian Furniture 
Monday 2lsi April 

Silver, Plate & Jewellery 
Monday 2Htll April 

Antique Furniture, Clocks & Works ol 

Phillips in Knowle 

Wednesday Oth February 

Antique Furniture & Bronzes 
|- 1 ulay Mill 1 rl.i ii.ii y 

Collection of Potlids 
Wednesday I !th I ebi uary 

Pewter, Brass & Metalware 
Wednesday 20th I ebruary 

Victorian Furniture 
Wednesday 27th I ebi uai y 

Collectors Items (Toys) 
Wednesday ".th Man Ii 

Fine English & Continental 

Period Furniture 
Wednesday 12th March 

Silver, Plate & Jewellery 
1 inlay 1 llli March 

Objects of Art 
Wednesday IMth Man h 

Paintings, Watercolours & Prints 
Wednesday 2oih March 

I nday 28th March 

Oriental Porcelain & Works of Art 
Wednesday 2nd Apul 

English & Continental Porcelain& Gli 
Wednesday !)th Apul 

English & Continental Furniture 
1 inlay Mill Apul 

Books & Illustrated Works 
Wednesday Hull April 

Art Nouveau& Art Deco 
Wednesday 2 lid April 

Wedm sday 10th Vpril 

Collectors Items 

Forthcoming Sales- February-April 1980 

[■ illips in Exeter 

I sda> 1 Hi) 

| sda\ 2Xth l'Vhruar\ 

| rsda\ I Itli Man li 

hina & Glass 
I rsda> 27th Man h 

I isda\ I Oth April 

>ilver, Plate & Jewellery 
I is.las _' It h April 

■ urniture 

[ lillips in Oxford 

I ,cla\ "'ih IVbiiian 

"urniture, & Household Effects 
■ ,n Sill IVbruai \ 
il \ntique Furniture & Works of Art 
I ,du\ -'I'lli rVbi ii.ii \ 
-urniture, & Household Effects 
i\ 7th Man.ll 

\ntique Furniture & Works of Art 
,s :ih Man h 
Oriental Rugs, Carpets & Textiles 
] sda\ imh Man h 
Furniture, & Household Effects 

i- 1, is mil \piii 

Antique Furniture & Works of Art 

F !.i\ llth April 

Oil Paintings, Watercolours & Prints 
Wla\ l.".th Apnl 

Furniture, & Household Effects 

di _"Mli Apnl 

Furniture, & Household Effects 

J lillips at Hepper House, 

\ Inesdas lull 1 i - 1 1 1 ii.ii s 

English & Continental Ceramics & Glass 
I irsdu\ I llh IVbiuan 

Books, Maps & Prints 
\ dnesdas 27lh 1-Vbi u.n \ 

Antique & Victorian Furniture, 

Bronzes & Objects 
\ dnesdax 27th I i-bi u.n \ 

Clocks, Watches & Barometers 
\dnesda\ 27th |-'rbniais 

Scientific & Optical Instruments 
\ dnesdas .".th Manli 

Silver & Jewellery 
\ dnesdas 12th Man I. ' 

Oil Paintings & Watercolours 
\ dncsda\ I'Mh Man h 

Toys, Costume. Guns, Weapons, 

Militaria & Musical Instruments 
\ dnesdas Mauh 

Antique & Victorian Furniture. 

Bronzes & Objects 
V-dnesdas 2lith Man h 

Oriental Carpets & Rugs 

iir s da\ 10th April 

Books, Maps & Prints 
'■dnesdas Kith Apnl 

Oriental Ceramics, & Works of Art 
'•dnesdas Kith Apnl 

English & Continental Ceramics & Glass 
•dnesdas 10th April 

nntique & Victorian Furniture, 

Bronzes & Objects 
■dnesdas Mhh Apnl 

Clocks, Watches & Barometers 

hillips in Scotland - 

da\ 1st 1 ebi uars 

Oil Paintings 
ida\ Nth 1 i-bi u.n \ 

Oriental Ceramics & Works of Art 

la\ [ "ith Febniars 

Collectors Items & Militaria 

Wcdm-silas Mill, 1 ,-f >i u.n v 

Books, Maps & MSS 
I ndas "nd I 

Silver & Plate 
\\. ■dnesdas 27ih Itlx u.n \ 

I ndas ."Mh I ,-biuais 

Antique Furniture & Pianofortes 

I ihI.iv ."Mil I .-bill. US 

Watercolours & Prints 

I ndas 7th M.iuli 

Oil Paintings 
I ml, i\ I llh Mauh 

British & Continental Ceramics 

\\.-dii.-s,lus I'Mh Man li 

Books, Maps & MSS. 
I ndas 2M M.ii.l, 

Silver & Plate 
\\. ■dn. -m I, in Mull Man li 

Coins, Medals & Medallions 
I nd.i\ .'Slh Man li 

Antique Furniture & Pianofortes 
I ,i.l. ,\ llh Apnl 

Oil Paintings 
1 ndas Mil, \pnl 

Oriental Ceramics & Works of Art 

\\. ■(Ill, 's, I. IS II, III \pill 

Books, Maps& MSS. 
I I [ Mill \pnl 

Silver^ Plate 
1 ii, I. ,s '",ih \pnl 

Ant ique Furniture & Pianofortes 

I II. I. IS 2 Mil \pnl 

Watercolours & Prints 

Phillips in Scotland - 

I I, Ml (I. IS .lh I. ■bill, IIS 

Antique Furniture & Works of Art 

WcIm. d.i\ i ith l ci, in, us 


I li Lis I llh I, I, in. ns 


I Inns, I. is I r I, ■bin. us 

Modern Furniture cV Carpets 
In,' 'lull 1. bin. ns 

Postage Stamps 
I 1 1 til alas 2Sth I .-liuiais 

Silver & Plate 
I Inn lull Man I, 

Antique Furniture & Works of Art 
I I III, Man I, 

Paintings, Watercolours & Prints 
I Inns, I. ,s .'Oth Man li 

Modern Furniture & Carpets 
I Inns, las 27th Man I, 

Art Nouveau .V Art Deco 
linns, I. ,s :,,l \p,i! 

I huisdas HMh \pnl 

Antique Furniture & Works of Art 
I III, is, I. ,s I 7ili \pnl 

Dolls & Models 
1 J Ith Apnl 

Modern Furniture & Carpets 

Phillips in New York 

\,//,s ,// ._' , /■.,/>/ 72ml Sin, I, \, , )„,l 
I ll. 'silas ".ill I clil u.n s 

Furniture & Decorations 

W.dll.-sdas I Ith h'blll.llS 


Inrsdas llh Man I; 

Furniture & Decorations 
Satiiulas Sili Man h 

In. -s, I. is ISlh Man li 

Eastern Rugs 2",tl, Man li 

Fine Furniture 
Saturdas 2!Mh Man li 

Ethnographic Art 
U. dnesdas Oth \pnl 


lursdas I ah \pnl 

Furniture .V Dei orations 
I,., das ' ',,,1 \piil 

Fine Oriental 

Phillips in New York 

.Wm ■// /<l<; \I,i,/iwii I; ,;/«,, \,n,l,,s ',,,1 I ,1,, ii.ii s 

Collectors China 
S.iiin,l,,s 'Mh I ,lau. us 

Important Lalique 
I, I, -silas 1 Mh I .bin. ns 

I 2M I .luu.ns 

Silver & Objects 
I luus, I. ,s .'Nil, I .bin. us 

Urdnrsdas Kith \| ill 


Phillips in Toronto 

ns.las lh I .bin, us 

European Ceramics 

ins, I. is I llh I .bin. us 

Books, Maps & Prints 

li '.Sib I ,■(,,,,. us 

Period & Reproduction Furniture 

& Objects 

ns.las' 'Nil I, ■bin, us 

Clocks & Watches 

nsdas MSili I .-l)i u.n v 

Art Nouveau & Art Deco 

u ,,l,,s nil, Man li 

roys. Costume, Militaria, Musical 

Instruments & Canadiana 

ns, i. is i nh Man h 

Silver & Jewellery 

II ..las 'Oil, Mai. Il 

European & N. American Art 

,, alas _' lh Man II 

Period *< Reproduction Furniture, 
Objects .N; Carpets 

n .las a. I \pnl 

Furopcan Ceramics 

ns.las |0lh \pnl 

Oriental Ceramics & Works of Art 

ns.las llllll \pnl 

Eskimo & Tribal Art 

ns.las I rill \pnl 

Books, Maps & Prints 

a ,d,n .'III, \piil 

Period and Reproduction 

Furniture & Objects 

i', las 'llh \pill 

Art Nouveau & Art Deco 

ns, las ..' llh \pnl 

Clocks & Watches 

Phillips Montreal 

brill, II.- I II 21sl I cblll us 

Furniture, Rugs & Carpets, Clocks 
& Objects of Art 

in s, las'.'! si l.luuais 

Art Nouveau & Art Deco 

uis, las nil, Mai, li 

European & Oriental Ceramics 

& Works of Art 

u, alas nil, Manh 

Silver & Jewels 

ui das | ;ii, Ma,, I, 

Canadian & European Paintings 

ills, 27th Man li 

Books, Maps & Prints 

in alas Ml, Man 11 

Ethnographical Art 

us, las 27l!l Man 11 


Phillips in Geneva 

S,ll, Ihlli > r<» u/f/l,,lllilll 

(J Phillips London 

Tuesday, 12th February, at 11 a.m. 
Good English and Continental Furnituie 

and Works of Art 

A George III marquetry inlaid Pembroke 

A fine early 19th Century 

tortoiseshell Table Cabinet inlaid 

with mother o' pearl, on a stand 

An 18th Centun French marquetry 

Ai limn c 

A pair of 18th Century North Italian 
Commodes with contemporary marble 


Viewing: Friday 8th February, 9 a.m.-4.30 p.m.. Saturday 9th. 9 a.m-12 noon, 

Monday 11th 9 a.m.-4.30 p.m. and Morning of Sale until 10 a.m. 

Illustrated Catalogue £1.25 by post 

l.'... r,,,-,lw.r ;,,r, .,.,,.. i, >>> tJ/.-.w,- mnt'iri nVirictrmhpr Hawkincrs Tel. 01-629 6602 

Phillips London 

Tuesday, 12th February, at 11 a.m. 
<ood English and Continental Furniture 

and Works of Art 

?/;/) An important 
) Century silver-gilt, 
1 nel and rock crystal 
;,, 48 cm. diameter 

'wing: Friday 8th and Monday 11th, 9 a.m.-4.30 p.m., 
rurday 9th, 9 a.m.-12 noon, and Morning of Sale until 
10 a.m. Illustrated Catalogue £1.25 by post. 

(Left) A 19th Century 
( arved ivory and silver 
mounted Kwei . Y> em. 

Wednesday, 27th February at 2 p.m. 
Scientific Instruments 



"tmv ' riM*'iTiit 







{Above) A Newton's child's Globe in a fish skin case 

[Left) A set of field surgeon's Instruments by Maw" 
Son & Thompson 


Viewing: Monday 25th February 9 a.m.-4.30 p.m. and Morning of Sale 

Illustrated Catalogue £1.25 by post 
For further information please contact Christopher Hawkings. Tel. 01-629 6602 

Phillips London 

Thursday, 21st February at 11 a.m. 
Musical Instruments 

Hr * 

A handsome violin b\ ( iharles 

| B Collin-Mezin in Paris. 

Dated 1886 

A fine violin by Auguste 

Sebastien Philippe Bernardel in 

Pans. Circa 1840 

Approximate^ 250 Lots including early Woodwind and plucked 
Instruments and a Grecian Harp by Thomas Dodd, London, 
circa 1820. Also Gold and Silver mounted Hows by James Tubbs, 
Eugene Nicolas. Sartory, W. E. Hill & Sons. R. Weichold and 

J. Thibouville-Lamy 

Viewing: 19th and 20th February, 9 a.m.-4.30 p.m. 

Illustrated Catalogue 54p by post 
For further information please contact Edward Stollar. Tel. 01-629 6602 

Phillips New York 

Saturday, 9th February at 2 p.m. 
Important Lalique 

at 867 Madison Avenue, New York NY 10021 

most important piece ol Lalique glass evei to be auctioned, ["his Che original perfume bottle made In Rene Lalique I'm Coi\ circa 

nrior cire perdue scent bottle (t"i. with 'fish' swimming within the vessel, subsequent l> produced commercially Im I he firm. 

• Laliqut-'s original experiment with pure glass li was during this test 
<i i intense heat that his studio burned to the ground and this bottle was 
aaged b\ Lalique 
vibited: 'I he Louvre, Paris, on loan from Lalique foi 20 years 

\lso including an amber "serpent" vase, a clear serpent vase, a bronze/amber "Petrarque" vase, a deep pink cased glass 
'Poissons" vase, a deep plum glass pendant moulded with wasps with original silk cord and tassels and many others 

Viewing: Three days prior from 10 a.m. - 5 p.m. 

Illustrated Catalogue $10 by post 

For further information please contact Nancy McClelland. Tel: (212) 570 4830. 

Phillips Edinburgh 

Friday, 29th February at 1 1 a.m. | 

Furniture, Clocks, Works of Art, i 

Carpets, Rugs 8c Scientific Instruments 

A late 18th Century Dutch walnut and 
floral marquetry bombe-front Chest oi 
(bur drawers with glazed Cabinet above. 
1 Icierhi 192 cms. 

A late 19th Century mahogany breakfront 
Secretaire Bookcase. Height 244 cms. 

{Left): A late 18th Century Dutch walnut and floral 
marquetry bombe-front Bureau of three drawers. 
I leight 107 cms. 

Viewing: Wednesday 27th and Thursday 
28th February, 9 a.m. to 4.30 p.m. 
Illustrated Catalogue 75p by post 
For further information please contact: 
Paul Roberts. Tel. 031-225 2266 

Phillips Edinburgh 

Friday, 7th March at 1 1 a.m. 
Fine Oil Paintings 

Araham Hulk 

Sipping off the Dutch coast in rough seas. Signed, 
oion canvas, 20 cms X 30.5 cms, and another (see right' 
buhe same hand, a pair 

Sinislas Lepine 

lie Seine at Saint-Ouen. Signed, oil on canvas, 

3 5 cms X 41 cms 

George Lance 

A still life of assorted fruit and drinking 
vessels, on a marble ledge. Signed, oil on 
canvas, 75 cms X 62 cms 

Viewing: Wednesday 5th and Thursday 6th March 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. 

Illustrated catalogue £1 by post 
For further information please contact: Nick Curnow. Tel. 031-225 2266 



Phillips London 

Sales of Collectors 9 Items 

During February — March — April 





Wednesday, 9th April 
Toys and Models 

[Above): A good collection of Meccano and Tootsie 


For further information please contact: David Borthwick 

Wednesday, 19th March 
Baxter Prints and Stevengraphs 

(Above): A rare Stevengraph entitled 'Spanish 1 

Fight' — mint condition 

Catalogue 45p by post 

For further information please contact 

Andrew Hilton 

Wednesday, 5th March 
Collectors Items, including Musical 
Machines, Post and Cigarette Cards 
and Ephemera 

{Abort : A good Edison 'Gem 1 Phonograph 

■/ Catalogue 74p by post 
For further information please contact Susan Arthur 

Wednesday, 16th April 
Railways and Railwayana 

(Above): A brass and steel Model of a 'Fraction Eng 
For further information please contact 
David Borthwick 


Phillips London 

Sales of Collectors' Items 

During February — March — April 


Wednesday, 6th February 

Dolls and Dolls' Houses 

Above): Two good Simon and Halbig bisque head oriental Dolls 

Illustrated Catalogue 84p by post. 

For further information please contact Ann Marrett 

* • 


>?dnesday, 12th March 
iotographs and Photographia 

ne quarter plate Camera "The King's Own' 
nufactured by the London Stereoscopic Company 
trated Catalogue 74p by post 
further information please contact Susan Arthur 

Wednesday, 20th February 
Pot Lids, Fairings, Goss and 
Commemorative China 

An unusual Pot Lid entitled 'Allied Generals' 

Catalogue 45p by post. 

For further information contact Andrew Hilton 

All Collectors' Sales are held at Blcnstock House on Wednesdays at 12 noon 
and may be viewed the day prior and morning of Sale until 1 1 a.m. 
Catalogues available by post two to three weeks prior to Sale date. 

Phillips London 

Friday, 29th February at 1 1 a.m. 
Important English and Continental Silvei 

and Plate 

A good Charles II Porringer and Cover, maker's mark 

K.S with mullets above and below, London, 1676, 

b in. diameter, 32 ozs. 


A George III Coffee Pot probably by John Scofield. 

11 in. high, 29 ozs. & a pair of George III cast Candl 

by William Cafe, 1765 and 1767, 10^ in. high, 41f { 

— i^ 


An IHth-Centun German Broth Howl by Johann 
Mollei. Hamburg, circa 17:->0. 11 in. long, IS ozs. 

A George III provincial Teapot and Stand by Langl? 

Robertson, Newcastle, 1784, 19 ozs. & a pair of Geo! 

Goblets by Aldridge & Green, 1770, 6| in. high, 15 o: 

Viewing: Wednesday 27th and Thursday 28th February 9 a.m.— 4.30 p.m. 

Illustrated Catalogue £2.75 by post 
For further information please contact Eric Smith. Tel. 01-629 6602 




111 March, at u a.m. 27th March, at 1 p.m. 

Art Nouveau and Decorative Arts 

n/.e figural l..imp ..I I.oic I nil. 
oul [ he .; j -,i m hit>|) 

iivving: Tuesday, jih & Wednesday, 5th 
; m. — j.. 30 p.m. 

I hated Catalogue £1 .75 by post 

further information please contact 

<th Baker. Tel: 01-629 6602 

\ < ...IK- I alilr Limp h(|i 111 hinh 

Viewing: Tuesday, 25th & Wednesday, ■_> ( > 1 1 1 

9.30 a.m. -- 4.30 p.m. and Morning of Sale. 
Illustrated Catalogue yjp by post 
for further information please contact 
Graeme McLeish. Tel: 041-332 3386 

Phillips London 

Monday, 17th March at 11 a.m. 
Fine Watercolours and Drawings 

Arthur Rackham 
"The Man in the Wilderness 
Asked Me", signed, pencil, pen 
and ink and coloured washes, 

27 cm. by 19 cm. 

William Turner of Oxford 
Cattli grazing in a highland landscape, signed, pencil and coloured washes heightened with bodycolour, 

44 cm. by 88 cm. 

Entries will be accepted for this Sale until 14th February 

Viewing: Thursday 13th and Friday 14th March, 9 a.m.-4.30 p.m., 
Saturday 15th 9 a.m-12 noon and Morning of Sale until 10 a.m. 

Illustrated Catalogue 74p by post 

t- ,- i • r- • i . t ii t :i t^_i r\-\ cnc\ ccno 

Phillips Knowle 

Wednesday 5th March at 1 1 a.m. 
Fine English Period Furniture 

Above): A set of four Regency parcel gilt 
and jappanned single Chairs 

[Above): A line George II mahogany drop-leaf 
Dining Table 

Friday 11th April at 11 a.m. 
Books 8c Illustrated Works 

Wednesday 19th March at 1 1 a.m. 
Paintings, Drawings 8c Prints 

{Above): Curtis (William): Flora 
Londinensis, combined 1st and 2nd 
editions, 678 hand col. plates, folio 

Above:) A Shorthorn Bull, Artist Unknown, Oils, 
Inscribed, 24 in. X 31 in. 

For further information please contact Mrs Victoria Tones. Tel. 056 45 6151 

Phillips London 

Tuesday, 25th March at 1.30 p.m. 

Fine Jewels 

An important antique riviere necklace, set with 36 brilliant cut diamonds, total 
weight over 50 cts., formerly the property of the Rt. Hon. Stanley Baldwin, Top 
centre: An Art Deco oval brooch thought to be by Boucheron, set with emeralds and 
diamonds of pleasing quality. 54 X 34 mm; Bottom Centre: A circular gold brooch by 
Faberge, the centre set with a peridot bordered by rose diamonds, the outer border 
ol translucent white enamel 

Viewing: Friday 21st and Monday 24th March 9 a.m.- 4.30 p.m. and 

Morning of Sale until 12 noon. 
Illustrated catalogue £2.25 by post 

Phillips Toronto 

Thursday, 20th March, at 7 p.m. 
Canadian & European Paintings & Watercolours 




wiiiiMniiiiiiiiiiiinii n iii 11 iw 

Edgar Hunt. ''Farmyard Scene" A pair. 
Signed and Dated 1949. Oil on board. 29cm x 39cm 

Viewing: Tuesday 18th & Wednesday 19th March, 10 a.m. — 9 p.m. 

Illustrated Catalogue $6 CND by post 

For further information please contact Jack Kerr-Wilson. Tel: 0101 (416) 923 9876 

Phillips London 

Tuesday 1st April at 11 a.m. 
Fine 19th and 20th Century English an] 

Continental Paintings 


Jan van Beers 

""The Young Peas. mi Boy", signed, inscribed 'Paris' and 

dated 1881, on panel, oval, 32 by 26 cm. 

Entries will be accepted for this Sale until 22nd February 

Viewing: Thursday and Friday 27th and 28th March, 9 a.m.-4.30 p.m., 
Saturday 29th March 9 a.m.-12 noon and Monday 31st, 9 a.m.-4.30 p.m. 

Illustrated Catalogue £2.75 by post 

For further information please contact Nicholas Wadham. Tel. 01-629 6602 

The Auction \tear 

Fine An Auctioneers 

V. ■ 


The past year at Phillips has seen a lame increase in the variety of objects sold at auctions in London, also 
in the company's seven auction houses in the regions and live salerooms m Continental Kurope, the I nited States 
and Canada. The Auction Year contains more than (>()() illustrations, main ol them in < olour. 

With individual prices listed from under /JlOO to main thousands, it is a valuable price guide and in 
addition an attractive record for collect! us, covering all branches ol line art and antiques. 

The book includes the Phillips survey ol antiques at auction ID7!) HO based on the views ol 100 specialists 
who were asked to chart the pacemakers ol the pasi year and those which should continue to be a hedge against 
inflation in the coming year. 

The Auction Year v\ ill be published on the 15th January 1! WO, and v\ ill be available at L"). 70 each including 
postage from Jack Murray at Phillips, 7 Blenheim Street, New Bond Street, London W1Y OAS. Tel: 01 (>2!) 0002. 
Telex: 2!)<S8.5.'"). (Cheques should be made payable to Phillips.) 


IK. Blenstoi k House ; Blenheim Sinn, 
v unci Sum, London \\ I \i DAS 
()V!) (,()()_' I'elex ."INN",". 

I VVcsl ..'. Id Salem R.iad, 
I, i \\ ■ IKI leh (II .'.'I "■ III ! 

r 'bone An ti Rooms, Haves Plate 

s, Grove I. I. hi \\\ I ol A 

: 7L'.l.'i,|7 

ii ining & ( i! . IUi - 1 ; t ■ • ■ 1 1 1 1 Stieei 
w ond Street, London \\ I \i OAS 

til ; .mi.") 


'I is& Hussevs.AlphinB k R I I velei I \ J S I II 

'<.' ".Ml II 

il 's& lollvsol Hath Am Hon Rooms 1 I )ld King 
i I!. nli HA I 11)1) lei ().'.' ', IIOOOO 01 l|(i; i 1 

i >s ini Brooks, l!J Park I, ml Stn el 
:ld().\l I |l) lei ■0K(,.", ; 


Phillips ,n K.loule, I he! lid Hon e 
Station Road. Knoule. Solihull \\ Midland I'.'l ! (Ill I 
lei II id I ".Id ".I 

Phillip ,.i Hi ppei Hon .<■. I7.i I asl Paiade 
Leeds LSI M',1 lei ().". !_' I ISOII 

Phillips in Scotland, li."> ( lenii-e Smn 
l.dinlunMi LIU J\\. lei OH .'J.i .'.'(,li 

Phillips m S, otland, 'IS Sam hiehall Stieet. 

( ilasudw ( ,1 U)u lei on ; ;.< ; i«i, 

Phillips \oiuk h, l( Ipie Street \oihm h \KI 11)1' 
lei 000 i I.IOI.'fi 
/ Hi fill '. Ill ill I, i I 


Phillips Son ,\ Wale Im 

Sti7 Madison Avenue. New M.ik. \ N I00.M. 

I S A lei HUH J I J ">7ll IS III |,|, s I 

Phillips Son & N'eale Im 

».'.") Last ; .'11(1 Stieei \,u Voik. \ N. I00JI, 
ISA lei 0101 i J1J ,70 IX I 


Phillips .Son .■. \eal. x \ 

I I 1 III .1- la ( 'He I. '0| I , 
lei 010 I 

Phillips Ward I'll, e I I.I 

7h I laveiipoii Road I aonio ( Intano 

MR.', in i Li nun in, 'i 

Phillips |aiohv Lid . 

ISO | ,, , \.n lei Sheet Monti, -al P( ) , 

( ' la I \J\ Ml lei 0101 ",| I i X |.' ISO 

Phillips Dublin 7 , I lankloit \venm 
Ralhgai. I lul.lin I, 1,1 0001 'I 
(Hi fm si ninth , i 

Phillips \ Diepenhui, hsli. III. 
' .'71' I Ih, I I.ium. 
I Hi fm \inlnli, , i 

Phillips U.,,,1 Pine Ltd 
II ', Island Dnve I lll.m.i I ' 
\s\\ II Mi 1,1 0|0| l,| I 

I Hi fin ', ill, ill. , I 

Phillip- P.os I, \,,ith I an, -ml Hall. 

Mail el Plai e Boston Ma I S \ 
1,1 0101 ii,| 7 '.'7 ol 17, 

I Hi fill n III, III. , I 

Phillips London 

Wednesday, 13th February, at 12 noon 
Automobilia and Aeronautica 

\ Hispano-Suiza dcskpiccc, signed F. Bazin. Cited igi8. 18 yni high. 

Viewing: Tuesda\ 12th, 9 a.m. - - 5 p.m. & Morning oi Sale until 1 1 .30 a.m. 

Illustrated Catalogue Li.jj by post 
)i further ion please contact Jererm Collins or David Crowther. Tel: 01-629 6602 

John Keil 


Member of the British Antique Dealers Association 

An extreme!) fim Set of four George III Adam period giltwood elbow chairs 
in the French taste. Circa 1775. 

10 QUIET STREET • BATH BAi 2JU TEL: BATH (0225) 63176 

CONNOISSEUR February 1980 


Michael Hedgecoe 

Antique Furniture 

The finest quality 

period furniture restored 

with skill and care 

by the most 

experienced craftsmen 

Carriage available throughout the country 
Regular London Collection 

Please write or telephone tor an appointment: 

Burrow HillGreen,Chobham, Surrey 

Telephone Chobham 8206 



l he Dominion Gallery *ith Rodin s Burghei ol I alais and Henry Mooif s 
Upright Motive in front of its building has 1 7 rooms on 4 floors 

Oil on canvas, 36 * 28 inches 

Great European Artists 
19th and 20th Century 

Old Masters 
200 Canadian Artists 



TEL (514) 845-7471 and 845-7833 



Telephone: 01-352 0G44 
01-352 3127 

Cables: jlkemique. LONDON, s.w.3 


Members of The British Antique Dealers' Association Ltd 

From the collection of Sir John Tremayne at Croan Manor. 
A Louis XVI period commode executed in mahogany and still retaining the original ormolu mounts. 
Stamped J. P. Bertrand, mastenn 1775 and established in No. 257 RueDu Faubourg-Samt-Antoine. 

Height 88 cms. 343/4". Width 130 cms. 51 ".Depth 61 cms. 24". 


Beautiful Hotel 

in Newark." 

That's what visitors from abroad 
sav about the Pierre. They 
admire its decor, and the 
architecture that meets the sky 
where Fifth Avenue joins the 
park. But they also respond to 
its truly personal service, and 
cherish its fidelity to the finest 
traditions of the great hotels of 
1 urope. The Pierre. It's a rare 
beauty. And the world never 
has enough of that. For 
reservations and information 
call 212-838-8000. 

1 II III \\ I \l I Rl I I \I \\ YORK, \ 'i 101)20 

.\/iJ//iJ\'( I 

Member Preferred Hotels Association 







French.Englisti.a Continental Large A Varied Selection 








312/337-4052 MON.-SAT. 10-5 


We are interested In purchasing worthwhile ART of all periods. 


^l/C/ LONDON Wi 


handsome group of five silver half pint tankards 

ving finely proportioned bodies and simple 

jroll handles, each one marked on the base, handle 

foot. By the maker S.I.K. (unknown). 
[say Master Fedor Petrov, Hall Inspector Andrei Andreiev, 
>scow, 1778. 3| inches high. 10 ounces troy each. 

^ ( (a'sk n raft 15 ipers 

papers ol individuality lor the dis< erning letter writer, artist and i ratter nan 

ild made 
: . inf [tk tunting 

...•■' I t I I ,!■. 

■ •■„ 

$ 875,000 Edition 

For information on the availabilits 
authentication or registration ol 
other |ac kson sculpture 
please call toll-free, 800-443-4905 
or write 

lb^'h xl9"l.x7V»"w 

The subscription to Harry Jackson's new work 
"Marshal II' was opened on February 7th. 1979 
and sold out on February 22nd, 1 979. The edition 
comprised 1 00 patinaed and 50 painted bronzes. 


"O Box 2M. Dept Mi . ( oclv, Wvnmin^XJ-IH 

Exclusive International Representatives for Harry Jackson 

T. Crowther & Son Ltd. 

282 North End Road, Fulham SW6 1NH. Tel: 01-385 1375/7. Telegrams & Cables: Antiquity Ldn. 

II e are especially interested in 

purchasing fine pieces of 

1 8th Century furniture, bronzes, 

wood and warble Chimueypieces, 

grates, fenders and fur irons. 

renew mi R. ■■■> '■ 
'O, S» •■>-"■■■■ *| 

i \Xt i~ J i vm ihks of \m H 







4 Jew* 4 


oak and pine panelling and 

Garden ( )rnaments to 

supplement the ex/ensin 

stocks at 'ready available 

from our show rooms. 

A very fine and important early 1 8th century octagonal lead tank on its original stone base. 

with each side moulded and decorated with figures, initialled T. M.S. and dated 1707. 

Width over base 8 ft. 3 in., width of tank, 7 ft. 3 in., height on base 3 ft. 1 in., height of tank 2 ft. 6 in. 

CONNOISSEUR February 1980 


155 East 79th Street, New York 10021 
Hours 10-6 and by appointment (212) UN 1 -2222 • 249-0300 

Louis XV/XVI 


style Marquetry 

Commode of 

gilt bronze 



33" high, 

51" wide, 

24%" deep. 







(212) 472-1134 


Antique Silver 
Sheffield Plate 




Antique Jewellery of Edinburgh 

85 ROSl SI Kl IT • IMIONI. 031-225 .W8 

Detailed Editorial Indexes 

for The Connoisseur 

are published three times a year 

at £4.50 each 


Comag, Tavistock Road, West Drayton, Middlesex. 

I i 






c/iare G?iau&fi and Conttnentac cUcw&r. c/luruatmvA. 

XVIIth century German silver gilt 
mounted nautilus shell cup with 
painted decoration, by Paul Solanier, 
Augsburg, circa 1690. Height (to lip 
of cup), 1 1 .875 inches. 

From our collection oj Continental silver. 

Valuations for Probate, Insurance and Division 

Trtrphonr 0I4W f>HI Telegraphic Addreu "Euclast London W.l" 

■ 1 







"The Standard Bearer" 

A. A. Lesrel1839- 1890 

Panel size-18V2"x 1 1 y 4 "— cm. 46.5x28.5 

Outside frame size-25V4"x18V4"- 

cm.64.5 x 46.5 

"In Toronto" 

Fine Paintings by 

recorded artists 

Abbey Altson, Henry Andrews, G. Aureli, Berne Bellecour, 

A de Breanski, E. C. Barnes, F. M. Bennett, Arthur Briscoe, 

F. C. Cachoud, I. Chelminski, Ivan Choultse, Victor Dupre, 

Dietz Edzard, E. Eichinger, S. Eisendeick, Ettore Forti, 

F. Goodall, R.A., Paul Grolleron, William Hemsley, 

Joseph Highmore, G. Holweg, Bernard de Hoog, Arnold Houbraken, 

W. G. F. Jansen, Aston Knight, A. A. Lesrel, H. LeSur, 

Constantin Makovsky, J. E. Meadows, Hans van Meegreren, 

J. Munsch, E. Niemann, Henry H. Parker, E. Parton, 

Philippe Pavy, Bernard Pothast, B. Priestman, R.A., 

James Pyne, Sir Henry Raeburn, Leon Richet, George Romney, 

Ferdinand Roybet, W. Dendy Sadler, J. Scherrewitz, 

E. Semenowsky, Wm. Shayer, J. J. Scherrewitz, Wm. Thornley, 

J. Thors, A. Toulmouche, A. Vickers, R. Watson, and others. 


1 94 Bloor Street West 

(just west of Park Plaza Hotel) 

Toronto M5S 1T8, Canada 

Telephone: 416-921 3522 
Area Code: 416 


In Chinese And Japanese Art 

An exhibition and sale 
February 16 through March 22 

Chaire and chawan of 

Chekiang celadonware 

of the Ming Dynasty 

(1368-1644 A. D.) 

for the Japanese tea ceremony. 





25 East 77th Street 

(west of Madison Avenue) 

New York. New York 10021 

Telephone 879-5733 

Open Monday thru Saturday. 10-5 30 

Members ot The Art and Antiques Dealers 
League ot America. The Appraisers Associa- 
tion ot America and C I N O A 



by Paul Storr 

fS\ am $k «k a ra> <& & m 

A 3-piece tea service and teapot stand 

date George III, 1812. The service also includes 
twelve teaspoons and a pair of sugar tongs. 

Garrard are always interested in 
buying fine antique silver. 


The Crown Jewellers 






anding 17th century European Ivory sculpture of Sr ( ieorge Slaying 
the Dragon 20" w., 12 1 2 <J 25 h, withstand 

An Important Major Auction 

Of European Ivory, Japanese Ivory, Chinese Ivory, Jades, Hardstones, 
Netsukes, Snuff Bottles, Art Deco/Nouveau Sculptures. 

March 22nd and 2 3rd, 1980 at our Galleries in Pontiac, Michigan. 

A Appclln »t ( Election features 127 European 
in. >re than 150 lots of Oriental Ivory, and 

Snuri Bottles, Netsukes, 
Si ulptures I his is one oi the 
private collections in the world today, 


Saturday, Mai d and Sunday, March 23rd, at 

1 2 No i 


825 Woodward Avenue, Pontiac, Michigan 

Cash, check, VISA, Mastercharge or American 


The entire collection will he on view commencing 

Monday, March 3rd, from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. until 

timeoi auction On dayoi auction, exhibition 

hours are 10 a.m. to 12 Noon 

Outstanding Japanese hand painted Ivory K.ihuki Dancers 

A group ot ldrli 17th and 18th century Eun ipean Ivi >rv fnptvi hs 

Highly important large 18th 
century European carved 

1\ < iry sculpture i if Catherine 

theGreai 9l- 2 " w .22"h , 

with stand 

Exclusive preview evening h >r i air < >ut-< it-t( >\vn clients, < >n Friday evening, 
March 2 1st from 7 p.m. to 10 p.m. 

A fully illustrated catalogue complete with estimates and execution hid 
tonus, $12.50 postpaid, overseas $17 50 postpaid 


Kindly call 31 V- 3 38-920 3 In making inquiries, please ask for 'Appelhof ' 


825 Woodward Avenue, Pontiac, Michigan 48053 


connoisseur February 1980 


Sotheby's London 

Thursday, 13th March, 1980, at 2.30pm 


1 700-1 870 

's Audubon, A Chaffinch, Bull Finch and Green Finch on a branch of budding chestnuts, 
!i and black mk, watercolourand bodycolour, inscribed 37. 5 by 27.5cm. 

/ Inquiries about this sale should be addressed to lames Miller 

Sotheby's London 

Monday, 17th March, 1980, at 7 pm 


Simeon Solomon, Sappho and Erriima in the garden, Mytelene, heightened with 

white, signed with monogram and dated 2.64, inscribed on a label on the 

reverse, 33 by 37 em. 

Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones, Bt., A.R. A , The Heart ofthe Rose, 

'The ending of this talc ye sec. The Lover draws anigh the tree, And takes the branch , 

and takes the rose, That love and he so dearly chose' signed with initials and dated 

1889, 96.5 by 131 em. Collection: W. Connal Jnr. 

Exhibited: New Gallery 1893. Exhibited: Liverpool, 1893 

CONNOISSEUR February I'.tSi) 


ti* ;•"■ 

Jean Francois 
Raffaelli oss^im 

Dewey's Arch, 
New York (1899) 

Oil on Canvas, 25V2 x 32 inches 

Signed and inscribed: 

J F Raffaelli, New-York 99 

iJy \ \ I CI 111 10% L J. 1XJ» 743 Fifth Avenue, New York. N.Y. 10022 • (212) 371-677 

Member oj the National Antique and Art Dealers .4\\.« iation of Amerh a 



he Fine .Aits Museums of San Francisco 
18-20 April 1980 

A weekend seminar on 

1 nulish cV Continental Ceramics 

with lectures including: 

John .Austin. 1 lugo Morley-Fletcher, 

Bernard Watne\ 

I "i further information please contact: 
I he Program Office 
■Ms Museums ot San Francisco 
( iolden Gate Park 
(415) 187-9432 


Possibly the largest and 
finest collection in the world 

310 N. Rodeo Dr. 
Beverly Hills, California 

(213) 273 0155 
We purchase Estates and Quality pieces 



Fine George III Antique Silver 

Bright Cut Tea and Coffee 

Service. Date 1799. 

Made by Robert and David Hennell of London 

Weight: 60 ozs. 5 dwts. 



Telephone 01 -242 3248/9 Telegrams WALTER STRONGROOMS London WC2A 1 QS 


From a Private Residence in London 
in December, 1979. 

A Substantial Reward is being offered 
subject to the usual conditions. 

If you have any information on this 
picture please contact: The Art & 
Antiques Squad, New Scotland Yard, 
01-230 2150; or Chelsea Police 
Station, 01-741 6212 or 
Rust and Co. 01-407 8665 


Oil painting on canvas. 

Size: 16 : 2 ■ 14' 4 inches. 

Signed with initials on flag. 

Collection: William Wells of Redleaf, 1848. 

W.Wells of Holme, 1890. 

1st. EarlofIveagh,1927. 

The Hon Ernest Guinness, 1949. 

The Hon Mrs. E. Guinness, 1953. 

Mr. Leavett-Shenley. 

Exhibited: Royal Academy, London, 1876, Xo. 82 
Royal Academy, London, 1952/3 

Literature: John Smith, Vol. VI, 1835, p. 340 

Dr. C. Hofsiede de Groot, Vol VII 1923, 
p.118, No. 471. 



19 EAST 64th STREET, 


ICARUS 1979 


A fine heavy George II Coffee Pot. 


WEIGHT 29 ozs. HEIGHT 10". 


Our London and New York collections feature antique silver of the highest 
quality and always include exceptional and rare pieces of interest to the 

serious collector. 

Our collection of Old Sheffield Plate is also one of the largest in the country. 


LONDON 43 MUSEUM STREET LONDONWC1A 1LYTEL 01-4052712 NEWYORK 1 04 EAST 57th STREET MEW YORK 10022 TEL 0101 -212-75-38920 
Member of the British Ann que Dealers Association and the National Antique and An Dealers Association of America 


of dealers who have the specialized 
knowledge that has made them 
recognized authorities in their various 
fields of art. All members subscribe to a 
code of ethics which states that any 
antique or work of art sold by them 
must be honestly represented as to 
authenticity, provenance and condition. 

Members of the Association are 
available for lectures upon written 
application to the Secretary. 
Write for our membership booklet. 






57 East 57th Street. Nev\ York, N Y 10022 (212)486-9767 

Rare Scottish 

"pot-bellied" measure 

Made by Lachlan Dallas, 

Cotterell #1289 

Capacity, Scots pint 

Height: 9V; inches 


67th Street. New York, New York 10021 

Commode "Colette in EmileJ, '-llmann. 

In macassar wax( d i on a frame of Hungarian 

front legs ai iened b> 6 drawers 

with knobs and keyholes in silvered bronze 

Height: 37" Length: 49'-" Depth: 22'A" 

Association Secretary 

59 East 57th Street 

New York 10022 


781 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10022 (212) 75.1 

Platinum mounted pearl, 

diamond and enamel 

brooch in the form of a koala. 

Signed Ruser. 

American, circa 1945. 

Height: 1'A" 


P.O. Box 504 (Stjf^- 

Merchants Square ^^- (804) 229-6860 

Duke of Gloucester Street Williamsburg, Va. 23185 

English, circa 1780-1790 

Height: 43'/2" Length: 47" 

Depth: 25" closed, 37V2 open 


Established 1898 

49 E. 53rd St. 2nd Fl., New York, N.Y. 10022 
(212) PL 8-1400 

" :©„ -.m: ^ v® 

'./ -f :■ S 

Antique Herez, medallion, field and main border 
in madder, with soft blue and ivory. 7' x IT. 


;C. si 57th Street, New York, NY 10022 (212) 753-2570 

Pair of Louis XVI Chairs, 

having the original 

green paint and now 

covered in tan leather. 

Width: 21 Vi" 

Depth: 20" 

Height: 34" 





15 East 57th Street New York, N.Y. 10022 (2121759-3715 

A superb Persian Heriz carpet measuring 12'3" 

x 9'1" in subtle shades of rust, ivory, 

midnight blue, green, light blue and taupe, 


I 'ine Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 19103 (215) 735-1879 

A fine George I 

faded walnut kneehole desk 

English, circa 1720 

D M t» P 


Antiques Corporation 

46 East 57th Street 
New York, N.Y. 10022 



Rare enamelled saltglaze 

chocolate pot and cover, 

coloured flowers and 

leaves in relief, a 

Chinese boy on either 

side painted in red. 

Circa 1750 

Height: 6'/.'" 


Spring Mill, Conshohocken, Pa. 19428 (215) 828-0205 

Rare Chinese Export porcelain large 

leaf-shaped sauce tureen and stand with 

underglaze blue decoration. 

Circa 1770 

Stand: 11" x 7W Overall height. 5" 

•P.TI 1*1 


A select Association 

of the most 

eminent dealers 

in their field. 


membership booklet 

upon request. 


104 East 57th Street, New York, N Y 10022 (212)753-8920 

Rare Early American silver tea caddy 

New York, circa 1800 by Sayre & Richard 

Height- 7 3 A inches 


SI Last 57th Street New York, NY 10022 (212)753-4368 


Willem Hendrik 

van derWall (1716-1790) 

Bronze Cupid 

Dutch, circa 1755 

Height: (without stand), 

7Vi inches 

Catalogue: European Works 
of Art II, five dollars 





31 East 64th Street, New York, N.Y. 10021 
(212) 744-6165 

Rare Chinese Export tea bowl and saucer in 

blue and white, depicting the Rotterdam riots 

Circa 1690 

Cup: 2 3 A" (7cm.) Saucer: 4 3 /s" (11cm.) 

Vefndy 1 

825 Madison Ave 
New York, N.Y. 
(212) 879-3344 

[ siablishud I906 

A fine pair of 

George I carved 

and gill gesso 

mirrors of 

unusually large size. 

Circa 1725 

Height: 5'2'/2" 

Width: 36'/;" 


59 East 57th Street 

New York, N.Y. 10022 

(212) 355-7620 

An outstanding 
Eighteenth century 
English satinwood 

Pembroke table 
Circa 1790 


595 Madison Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10022 (212) 288-4948 

An unusual Hen x little girls 

in each corner of the variegated red field, 
enclosing a large ivory medallion 6.2 x 4 


v o T e° 

Association Secretary 

59 East 57th Street 

New York 10022 


229 North Royal St., Alexandria, Virginia 22314 
(703) 549-4432 or 548-5675 

A fine Chippendale period 

mahogany pedestal partner's desk 

having two fitted sides. 

English, circa 1760 

Width: 4'8 3 /4" Depth: 36Vi" Height: 31" 


Thursday, February 28th at 10 am 

I .St/i (. Vnn<>\ .Airk'iiniii C 'mmtrv (Jikvn Anne hnehoy 
with C I Forhes com sikvi tiru puce tea set and 
I B C 'miner silver footed howl 

\tith ( iiKHM American /iuIiIi'iKilk iirmc/utii 

J 8th Century Penasyli'iinki painted Pmu'i Ju s( mt/i thistle 


1 8th Century American C 'onntr% Chi/>/>crult(/e slcim (runt desk 

Plug's standard L'/utrgt' to the se/lei is ii commission o/ /0% in addition to t/u' I0"'u premium paul h\ the huyei a\ part oj the purchase (>ii<.< 

Illustrated Catalog $5 00 r>\ mail 

406 EAST 79TH STREET, NEW YORK, NEW YORK • 10021 • (212) 472-1000 • CABLE: PLAZAGAL, NY 

CONNOISSEUR February 1980 



■-'•■ J " 


0. U // // 





01-493 5288 

A fine mid-19th Century French AUBUSSON Carpet 
Size: 18'0" x 12'9" 



Engravings and lithographs of Abraham Lincoln, by Harold Holzer 


Engravings and lithographs provided Americans with a colourful, 
Dmanticised, and sometimes fanciful view of their sixteenth president, 
^braham Lincoln. During the years between Lincoln's first nomination 
1) the presidency in May 1860, and his assassination in April 1865, native 
]rintmakers did a robust business marketing the powerful, though 
iometimes erratic public demand for these pictures. In so doing they 
elped Lincoln win elections, commemorated the major deeds of his 
^ministration, maintained for him popular support throughout an 
npopular, fratricidal war, and helped earn him a permanent, if some- 
what mvthified place in the history and the folklore of the United States. 

INNOISSKUH February 1980 

During this period, ;i number of European print publish- 
ers issued their own portraits of Lincoln. Like those of 
\iiiei'ir;in counterparts they were invariably flatter- 
ing and occasionally inaccurate, in general mirroring' both 
the attributes and the Haws of the products being 
published concurrently in the tinted States. lint so 
insatiable was the popular curiosity about the American 
leader, that demand transcended geographic boundaries 
and encouraged haste, thereby allowing for reduced 
standards of accuracy and taste. Almost any portrayal of 
Lincoln, no matter how poorly-rendered, seemed able to 
win an audience somewhere. And the reason why was 
bot h sent imental and technical. 

Lincoln was ;( political original whose ascent almost 
required pictorial commemoration. As a man of the 
people, it was natural that the so-called pictures for the 

I : K. II. lirown. Abraham 

Lincoln. From a Photograph by Hosier 

Chtcuyo, III i nuts, Mai/ 1SIH), woodcut 

■ / m/ . Height: I .' inches; 
\\ ultli: U inches. This copy belonged to 

i (ieorye H ill mm ( 'urtis, and is one 
oj only two known sun u my copies. 
Linus AW urn u Lincoln Library and 
Museum, hurt Wayne, Indiana. 


people - engravings and lithographs - would fulfil] , 
need. Not surprisingly, the vigorous market in Line ] 
print portraiture filled a great hunger among his follow j 
for inexpensive, vivid and timely pictorial tributes. Tl , 
were more colourful than photographs and more ace*, 
ible than specially -com missioned paintings and sculptll 
And they seemed the perfect marriage of man to medi : 
- simple, unpretentious, homely - especially so in an 1| 
of inferior art and primitive photographic technology. 

What was more, photographs. Lincoln himself oi; 
conceded, were all too true to the original; all hideous, \ 
realism, the ungainly president admitted, w&sexaetlyw • 
I would like to avoid. Well aware that he could best bene 
politically and historically from the judicious publicatii 
of flattering portraiture, Lincoln encouraged artists who- 
ever possible, frequently making himself available a i 
subject to painters - many of whose original works fr<i 
the flesh became models for subsequent engraved all 
lithographed portraits. 

These crude works could glorify by portraying him. 
scenes in which he was unlikely to be posed by tu 
cameramen. For, though he was photographed as often i 
any of his contemporaries, all but a few of his sittings t< 
place in studios, and with rare exceptions, he posed aloi 
lint while Lincoln was not to be photographed with 
wife and family, for example (it was believed that M 
Lincoln, much the shorter and sensitive about t 
disparity, rejected all proposals for such pairings), t 
printmakers did create such domestic scenes through tf 
use of ingenious composites. 

In this way, print portraits parlayed the advantages 
both the life painting (colour and dramatic license) andt 
photograph (mass distribution at a minimal cost), \vh 
eliminating the disadvantages of each: for paintings, th< 
limited audience potential, and for photography, thi 
static, studio-bound vision. For all these reasons pr 
portraits, however distantly removed from origir 
subject (a print could conceivably be based on a painti 
that in turn had been based on a photograph that h 
once been retouched by an artist!) helped fill t 
popular demand for Lincoln pictures. Many Victori 
homes in America were decorated around a central 
displayed engraved or lithographed portrait of Preside 

It seldom mattered that often the real Lincoln bore or 
a slight resemblance to the image on these prints. T 
idealised version was exactly what the customers wante 
and this was exactly what was published. 

Despite these pronounced Haws, the body of Lincc 
work issued by American and European print publish* 
constitute one of the most remarkable artistic as 
commercial enterprises of the last century. First, it mi 
be remembered, many of the prints were created mid 
severe deadline pressure, amidst cut-throat races wi 
competing firms for publishing primacy. Second, ai 
most importantly - and this a little-known fact - Lincc 
proved a highly unstable subject whose occasional, u 
expected cosmetic and political changes-of-paee tested t 

a stir skills, spontaneity, efficiency (and occasionally 
tl integrity) oft lie beleaguered print makers. 

•Vhat made Lincoln pictorially unstable/ Many things. 
Fir distinct crises of an preparedness, in fact, eharae- 
t( sed Lincoln's relationship as subject to the engravers 
a I lithographers. First, lie was chosen the Republican 
c; didate for President in IStiO though most observers 
b ieved he was, at best, a potential contender only for the 
Srond spot on the ticket. When he won the nomination 
a hist overwhelming odds, print publishers joked rue- 
f i v that the sound of discarded lithographic stones and 
e > - ravers" plates (those that had portrayed the an- 
ti'pated nominee, William II. Seward) could be heard 
h fway across the continent. 

Second, Lincoln again confounded the printmakers 
wen, shortly after winning the presidency he began to 
a >w whiskers. 

\ third printmakers' crisis occured when Lincoln issued 
hi Emancipation Proclamation without warning - an 
nt so titanic in historical proportion it demanded 
c nmemoration in pictures. But, as before, Lincoln's 
dcision came as a surprise and compelled the engravers 
ad lithographers to speedily concoct pictorial responses. 

And finally, Lincoln inadvertently set off the biggest 
I nt publishing crisis of all when lie succumbed to an 
a|»assin's bullet in 1 S ( > ."> . The resulting martyrdom to 
viicli he was elevated inspired the most massive publish- 
ill' effort yet - of murder scenes, deathbed portraits, 
fjieral prints and other myth-evoking pictures. In death. 
Incoln became an even more popular subject for print 
1 rtraits than he had been in life. 

The mutually-rewarding relationship between the 
lintmakers and Lincoln began five years before. The 
I nit which most historians regard as the very first ever to 
I rtray Lincoln was probably prepared as a proselytising 
( vice for use by Ins supporters at the IKtiO Republican 
I itional Convention ( I ). 

based on a three-year-old photograph by Chicago 
( meraman Alexander Hesler, the crudely-engraved 
1 >se by E. II. Brown contained no more specific a caption 
tan the ambigious legend, Abraham Lincoln. This 
; ibiguity no doubt reflected the uncertainty of Lincoln's 
plitical stand ma as he entered the convention: no one was 
Me even for which office he would be contending. The 
rown engraving was surely designed to woo support for 
(flier the presidency or vice presidency, whichever 
lantle Lincoln would seek. As it turned out. according to 
; pencilled note scribbled on one of the two surviving 
cpies, they were showered throughout the convention hall 
i 'mediately after Mr. Lincoln's nomination. 

Within a few weeks, Lincoln's unexpected nomination 
Hid created havoc in the print-publishing world. The 
lintmakers, poised to Mood the country with post- 
"livention prints of any nominee - except the little- 

lown Illinois dark horse ■ had to contend with a 
I'irgeoning national demand for Lincoln images instead. 

ardly anyone knew what the new candidate looked like. 
■ id there was great clamouring for his likeness. 

'Fhe famous New ^ ork City lithography firm headed by 
Nathaniel Currier and James M. Ivesquickly issued one 
of the best-known of the campaign prints of IS(i(l 
straightforward bust portrait modelled after a popular 
photograph that had been taken the previous February 
by Mathew B. Brady CM. 

Currier and Ives' rivals soon followed suit, main 
relying on the same Brady model, often disguising it b\ 
reversing it into mirror images of the original (in w Inch 
Lincoln's famous facial mole would invariably appear on 
the wrong cheek). Other printmaking firms spent more 
lavishly on research. Some even commissioned artists to 
travel from the publishing centres of the north east to 
Lincoln's hometown in Springfield, Illinois, in order to 
paint or sketch pictures from the flesh from which original 
campaign prints could be modelled. 

Still others worked at creating engraved and litho- 
graphed portraits as centrepieces for the huge, gaudy 
campaign posters and broadsides which, in the [ire- 
advertising age in which Lincoln waged his presidential 
campaign, proved to be among the most persuasive media 
available to influence voters. 

•2: Nathaniel Currier and .James Merrif 
Ives. I It >n . Abraham Lincoln. 
Republican Candidate for Sixteenth 
President of the tinted States. Sew 
)ork, sin/niter ISt',0, lithograph. Height: 
I .' , inches; \\ idth: ?i , inches. Linus . 1 
Warren Lincoln Library and Museum. 


1 N'NoissKi u February 1US0 

It is Relieved that one such broadside also inspired an 
eleven-year-old girl from Westfield, New York, to send a 
now-famous letter to Lincoln in October I860, complain- 
ing that the portrait made him look too thin, and 
suggesting thai he improve his gaunt appearance by 
growing whiskers. In an equally famous reply, Lincoln 
,l<»kcd that it would be regarded as as illy piece of affectation 
if he were to change his appearance so late in life. Vet only 
a few weeks later, Lincoln was instructing his barber to let 
his whiskers grow. And by late December, he appeared in 
public with a full beard, as newspapers joked: Old Abe is 
puttin ' mi (h)airs! 

1 nfortunately, the printmakers' treatment of Lincoln's 
novel appearance (no previous president had sported a 
beard) left much to be desired. Opting for the least time, 
expense and artwork necessary, most merely drew poorly - 
deh'ned whiskers onto existing prints. The results were 
sometimes laughable. 

( inner and Ives, for instance, updated their famous 
campaign print (-2) by superimposing a beard that made 
Lincoln look far more hirsute thai) he appeared in real life. 
Oilier American printmakers issued bearded Lincoln* 
thai evoked images of backwoods farmers and Talmudie 
scholars. And Kuropean printmakers fared no better. 

I sing the same Brady studio model (.'?), J. \\". Whatlev, 
Hall ( ourt, Walbrook, London, issued a bearded variant 
I f ) that interpreted Lincoln's beard as a thick, woolly fuzz 
much unlike the original. Hut the worst gaffe of all came 
Iron, the studios of London engraver I). J. Hound, who 
issued a print entitled I'res/t/ent Lincoln -also based on 
the Brady photograph (3) - but depicting Lincoln totally 
clean-shaven, a style he discarded before he took office 
(o). Most artists -and audiences believed it preferable to 
guess, however haphazardly, at the appearance of 
Line,, In -, beard-in-progress. To suggest that no beard 
existed at all was considered a cardinal sin. The rarity of 
Hound's print indicates that for this reason it found but a 
small audience, and was soon removed from circulation. 

rn/lit ) 
.'v Matheu Brach . Abraham Lincoln, 

V< ii York, .',', February I Slit I, 


I -I \N Wliatley, Abraham Lincoln. 

President of America Assassinated 
b.\ J W likes booth, \|,nl I Mli. IK(>5. 
I.onilo t/iiH/ni/i/i, .1 Whatlev. 


I ai 
■"> I > ■! Hound President Line, In 

. i iii/nn - 
■' "<) II C.v, 11 tilth :> i iii-lies. 

■ 'i Lincoln 
I anil Mil 

i Lrft i 

<i: Mathew Brady studio. Abraham 
Lincoln, Washington, !>(', late February, 
ISIil, photograph. Tins is one of several 
exposures made shortly after Lincoln 
arrived in Washington, In . to assume 
the presidency. 

(Below left) 

7: (loupil and Company, ('(litems. 

Abraham Lincoln/( President de.s Etats- 

l nis). Paris, London, Berlin, Sew York 

lSt>.', lithograph. Height: 15 niches; 

\\ idtli: SV: inches, signed, bottom: 



H: Louis Prang. Abraham Lincoln, 
Huston, Massachusetts , 1861, lithograph. 
Height: 11 inches; Width: 7' : inches. 
All from the Louis A. Warren Lincoln 
Library and Museum. 


Interestingly, after Lincoln took office, ami throughout 
the first few years of his administration, demand slack- 
ened considerably for print portraits of tl 
executive. The interest that had peaked when 1. 
grew whiskers ebbed during the earb months of the 
American Civil War. In the north, patriots becai 
eager to own |>ort raits of the new militan heroes than of 
deskbound administrators - even ;i [(resident. 

In Europe, meanwhile, several noteworthy Lincoln 
print portraits were being issued. I sing as ;i model 
another Brady studio photograph taken early in ISfil 
when Lincoln first arrived in Washington. I>< to assume 
the presidency ((>). (ioupil and Company issued an I S<»-2 
adaptation that softened the president's features consid- 
erably. Abraham Lincoln/ I > resident ilcs hfafs-l nc 
proved a picture of international significance, issued in 
Paris. London and Berlin by (ioupil. and in New ^ ork as 
well, by M. Knoed. 

Interestingly, the same photograph ((I) had also served 
as a model for a far more realistic lithographic interpre- 
tation by Louis Prang of Boston (N). Prang "preserved tin- 
look of Lincoln's unkempt hair, emphasised the unusual 
size of his nose and the generous breadth of his mouth. 
(ioupil's print, on the other hand, a bbrevia ted the mouth, 
bobbed the nose and straightened (he hair. 

A third Brady studio photograph - this one taken 
February 18(54 in observance of Lincoln's fifty-fifth 
birthday (!)) - served as the model for countless engrav- 
ings and lithographs. Most familiar, perhaps, is the 
portrait which to this day decorates the American five- 
dollar bill. 

An interesting European adaptation was produced as a 
memorial portrait by ( ). May and published by Kduard 
Trewendt (10), probably in mid-18(5f). 


9: Mathew Brady Studio. Abraham 

Lincoln. Washington, lx\ ',) February 

IStjJf , photograph. 

Louis A. Warren Lincoln Library 

and Museum. 


10: (). May. Abraham Lincoln 
President der Vereinigten Staaten von 
Xord-Amerika. Geboren am 18 Februar 
1809. Lrniordetani Ut April 1865, 
Breslau, Germany, c. lSii.'i, engraving. 
Height: /•>' inches; Width: Si , inches. 
This print, based on the Brady photograph 
CD, gave incorrect dates for both Lincoln's 
birth (U February) and death (1~> April). 
Louis A. Warren Lincoln Library 
and Museum. 

X NOISSEUR February 1'JSO 


11: Ferd. Delanney. Lincoln Iteeevant 
[ adieus Comanches, Paris, c. 1 Still , 
engrai ing (published by ( 'h. Chardoti). 
Height: 7 inches; Width: 11 inches. 
Louis A. Warren Lincoln Library 
and Museum. 

H. John II. Parrott. The Abe-iad The 
former place, the changing face. The 
midnight race, and present [dace of 
Honest Abe. Words bv J. P. McRehel, 
Alexandria, Virginia, IHtiS, lithographed 
sheet music cover. Height: 10 inches; 
Width: 7' inches. 

Lincoln Memorial University, Harrogate, 






1 ° 





ffOUl tr 


J J N J J 



ini&NVhi-s , 

1:5 \lc\an<ler II. i\ Kitcliie. 

in' Kiiiancipal hhi 
I'l'oi lamal lull Hi-li in • t he ( al >iih I . \rn 

.'■ i' inches; 

in/hi in M Stanton ; 

St r i , minion I ' . 

' I In \u 1 1) 
I State W illiam 
Sccrctari/ of the 

H Sl/lllll I sill lllll 1/1/ ilhmc 

I'ostniasli r ( n ncral Moiitgomcrj/ 
ij ( a in nil hit a iinl 
liulis / al on a /nil nti in/ hi) 

I in nils />' ( ii r/ii nli r . 

1 11 arii n l.i ncoln hihrarij 

mill Musi /I in 

Hut not all European-published print portraits \\( 
derivative; sonic were wholy original, at least, to t 
extent that no modern student of iconography lias \ 
been able to trace them to known photographic or paint* 
sources. One in particular lias become a uniquely l 
presentative Lincoln print: Lincoln Recevant les Indii 
Comanches (II). engraved by Ferdinand Delanney a 
published in Paris. Though relegated to obscurity t 
generations, it is believed now to be the only contei: 
porary sheet engraving showing Lincoln together with 
American Indian. The milestone meeting portrayed in t 
Delanney engraving actually took place in the Whi 
House in 1863. Hut in America, where the Civil VV 
occupied most of the attention of the printmakers ai 
their public, problems involving the Indians were co 1 
sidered anything but newsworthy. In Europe, where ti 
Indian was always regarded with something akin 
romantic affection, the print was more marketable; hen 
its Parisian origins. 

Hack in America, not all the prints published duringt! 
early years of the Lincoln administration were friendly 
supportive. A sheet music cover issued in the Rel 
stronghold of Alexandria. Virginia, The Abe-iad (L 
depicted Lincoln as a coward, and was intended to evo 


till lories of a controversial incident that had clouded 
Lijcoln's inaugural journey to \\ ashington in early lS(i 1 . 
El oute to the capital. Lincoln had donned a soft plug hat 
U I military cloak to disguise himself as he slipped across 
t lin platform in Baltimore in order to change trains. 
T secrecy had been ordered by Lincoln s bodyguards, 
e till that the president-elect was in grave danger from a 
o lly-organised assassination attempt. Sonic of the 
\ erican and British press assailed Lincoln for the 
it lthfiil passage through Baltimore, and in some illus- 
r ions of the scene, the plug hat and military cloak were 
•e arkably transformed into a scotch cap and cape. 
T 'reafter, whenever a printmaker sought to lampoon 
li president, he simply dressed him in the comical garb. 
,0t surprisingly, the more sympathetic view of Lincoln 
i< limited the printmakers' work designed to mark 

■ u ouneement of Lincoln s emancipation policy. The 
jiiclamation came as a surprise to many observers, 
wecially because it was preceded only a few weeks 
;j lier by a strongly-worded newspaper letter in which 
j coin had implied that emancipation would not be his 

ifinediate policy. 

Nevertheless, when the ileeil was accompli shed, print- 
it: kers at once realised the significance of the order, and 
xnniissioned appropriate pictorials to commemorate it. 
Trough the emancipation proclamation, Lincoln had not 
)iy re-defined the war - to much British acclaim, it 
ned out - but instantlv ascended to liear-in vthic 

proportions by setting in mot ion the liberation of an cut in 
race. Appropriately, many prints of this period port ray e< 
him as a modern Moses, slaves crouched at Ins feel 
symbolic shackles shattered in his wake. Other, 
realistic efforts, devoid of excessive pictorial metaphor 
commemorated instead either the writing of 1 1 1< 
celebrated document or the first reading of it to tin 
president \s cabinet . 

An example of the latter w as Alexander I lay Ritchie > 
engraving, First RciuIiikj of the Fnniiieii>iitu>ii Froilaiiiafion 
lie/ore the ( 'iihinef ( l.'i), based on a paint ing by Francis B. 
Carpenter. The engraving quickly became a best-seller, 
published even as the artist continued to refine the 
original canvas. 

I t: Haskell and Allen. The Lincol 
Family, Boston, Massachnssetfs, 
<■ ISti.'i, lithograph. Height: .' niche: 
Width: 1 ', incites. 
Louis .[. Warren Lincoln Library 
and Museum. 

■').• '• ■' : : ""'."■- -.'-' ."■■ ■■',: '-;'■".'/'■■ .-'■ ■..':-■'■.'. - . " "■■'.■' 


[j'XX'OlSSKl'R February 1980 

Another emancipation print based on a painting cele- 
brated the actual creation of the document, albeit from a 
slightly different, highly symbolic perspective. This was 
Khrgott, Korbriger and Company's President Lincoln 
Writing the Proclamation of Freedom (16), based on a 
canvas by David (i. Blythe. The scene was crowded with 
pictorial symbols a bust of former president Buchanan 
strung by the neck from a bookcase; scales of justice; 
Masonic apparatus; American Hag-motif drapes, to name 
a few - but the resultant impression of unrelieved clutter, 
while inspired legitimately by the German expressionistic 
• I. was so unfamiliar to American audiences that the 
picture tailed to \\ m much popularity. 

Interestingly, despite the strong, continuing appeal of 
emancipation portraiture, Lincoln's campaign for a 
second term as president just two years thereafter, 
inspired only a fraction of the numbers of Lincoln 
campaign prints that had been produced or the first. One 
of the few lithographed posters was Currier and Ives' 
(•rand Sut tonal I'nioii Banner for ISH 1 , (15), showing 
Lincoln with his new running mate, Andrew Johnson. No 
iconographical or political explanation has yet been 
advanced to explain the relative rarity of pictorial 
material published during the second Lincoln campaign. 

.lit the market in general for all Lincoln print portrait- 
u| was revitalised not long - thereafter by the very act that 
jt< ninated Lincoln's life. His murder inspired a flood of 
jir ges of the man who became, in death, bigger than life 
i- distortion fanned with cunning and for profit by the 
ip itmakers. 

lany of their post-assassination pictures suffered from 
|ir prior research, indifferent portraiture, and outright 
fj ery, yet they proved more popular than anything that 
hi I been issued during Lincoln's lifetime. Their immense 
ip. Hilarity for years to come indicated that nothing the 
si eenth president had done in his life <|iiite touched the 
ipplic or enriched the portraitists so much as did his 

Countless engravings and lithographs of Lincoln s 
rder and his dying moments proliferated almost 
■might, most reflecting the haste with which they were 

piduced. II. II. Lloyd's Lincoln's Death Bed (li) was a 
e in point. In the lithograph, witnesses to Lincoln's 
ng breath bear only the slightest resemblance to the 
n they are intended to represent. Furthermore, young 

Td Lincoln, the president's youngest child, is shown 

keeling at his father's bedside, even though he never 

01 'e visited the scene during the vigil. 


( Ijt'jf olnii c I 

\~v. Nathaniel ( 'urrier ami James 
Merritt I ves. ( irand National ' 
Banner tor I S(>4. Liberty, I nion and 
Victory, \en J ork. Sen ) u 
lithograph. Height: 1! niches. 
Width .'< inches. 

(h-ft heloir) 

l(i: Khrgott , Korhriger an<l Coin 
['resident Lincoln, \\ riling llic 
I'i'oclaniatioii of Freedom. January 1 -t 
IK<;:$. Cincinatti, Ohio, 1st;:,. /,, 
Height: ■.'<) inches; Width: .W> tin 
Based <>ii a painting by Daeid (iilmonr 


17: II. II. Lloyd and ( oinpam . 

Lincoln's Death lied. Sen }'<>rh, .Xctr 

York, ISii.'i, lithograph. Height: U niche. 

Width: I 'i niches. 

All train the Loins A Warren Lincoln 

Library and Museum. 

( woissKi i< February VJSt) 

(Abo,, , 

IK: John Sartain. Abraham Lincoln. 

Phlladcl phlll . I'll' nsi/l ', in/in , C . ISIi.'i, 

i nyrai 'in/ lli ■it/I,/- 11 niches; 
Wnllli: ' I incites. lor this print , the haul 
DJ I ni< till, n us sil [ii i ■- i III posed until the 
hull 1/ lif I III III lillll l\ 

Library <// ( onyr, •■ ■ 

I'.i. William Smitli. In Menion of 
Abraham Lincoln I lie Ueward oi the 
Just. Philadelphia, Peniisyli (una, 

I >'/'. / , i m/in i i in/ . lien/lit; .'■, ■'/, i nehes; 
Width I'.' inches. 
I If oj ( mii/ress 

i( ipposit, . left) 
mi Klijah < Middleton. Abraham 

Lincoln ( ' i nci n milt i , Ohm, /v.'.~<. 
ch ruiniil ithiii/rn jih . lleiyllt; !() inches; 

1 \\ arren Lincoln Library 

inn/ Mi 

i ( Ipposile , in/lit I 

•>\: Matlicw Iirad.\ Studio. Abraham 

/ ebrnary 

1 \\ in i a Library 

But this error may have been intentional. Lincol > 
death inspired in its wake widespread interest in 
martyr as husband and father, prompting the publicati 
of innumerable affectionate, if somewhat hnproba!' 
domestic scenes. Haskell and Allen's print. The Linck 
Family < I '/ ) was. in its commendable simplicity, one oft 
least jarring of these. It pictured Lincoln, their sons T 
and Robert, and the First Lady — together even though; 
course, they had never actually so posed as a group. 

Similarly, the assassination cast attention upon the oi 
home Lincoln had ever owned, the simple two-stoi 
structure that still stands in Springfield. Siezing upon t 
symbol and presenting it as Lincoln's hearthstone 
greatness, many printmakers issued views of the una 
inning, clapboard building. One such print purported 
show Lincoln's return home after his successful campaign, 
the presidency in October I860. It did not seem to matter 
the printmaker or his audience that the real Linco 
unlike the man in the lithograph, wore no beard when 
campaigned in I860. Nor, in fact, had he ever tn 
returned home, since he'd never left home in the fi 
place. True to the tradition of the period, Lincoln ne\ 
left Springfield from the time he was nominated ur 
election day some six months later. 

( Mher printmakers' errors were even more pronouncf 
though not always accidental. Some engravers, : 
instance, chose to save time and money by dusting < 
discarded plates portraying famous men of previous er; 

a 1 updating them by inserting Lincoln's head on t lit' 
oier men's bodies. One such composite introduced 
L icoln's countenance onto the somewhat smaller body of 
IViryland politician Frank Blair ( IS). Yet another placed 
I icoln's head where Washington's once had reposed, for 
emorial engravingdepieting Lincoln's rise into heaven 


For years after Lincoln's death, printmakers churned 
at these family scenes, apotheosis pictures, murder and 
dathbed depictions. Great Emancipator allegories and. 
o 'asionally, straightforward portraiture. Their con- 
t vances. so startling to the modern eye. were nietieu- 
lo sly disguised for the nineteenth-century audience. ^ et 
aiong the many hundreds of Lincoln print portraits 
iiued between 1K(>0 and IS(i.") and beyond, some were 
qite good, while nearly all -even the least original and 
n >st blatantly pirated - contributed in some way to the 
t information of an unknown candidate into the most 
t niliar face in the history of his nation. Acknowledging 
i ■ successful mythification of Lincoln requires, too. the 
aknowledgement of the considerably potent role played 
i the primitive print-making industry in shaping public 
oinion and moulding the fragments of politics and 
I >graphy into the pictorial foundation of an enduring 

But what did Lincoln himself think of all the print 
] rtraits produced in his honour - those he lived to see.-' 
- >t surprisingly, he thought of them seldom, for there are 

precious few references to these works to be found in the 
eight volumes of Lincoln's collected writings (more words 
than the Bible or the complete Shakespeare canon). One 
print m particular, however, evoked a rare response that 
indicated that while Lincoln was ever the reluctant and 
diffident critic, he was concerned about the way his image 
was to be preserved for future generations. 

In December IS(>4 a chromolithograph by Elijah ('. 
Middleton of Ohio (^0) was sent to the president for his 
inspection. In a little-known letter to the print maker. 
Lincoln offered his blunt appraisal, along with some useful 
suggestions for its improvement: 

) our picture. . . is in the main, eery good. From a line across 
immediately abore the eye-brows, downward it appears to me 
perfect. Abore such line I think it is not so good - that is, while 
it yiees perhaps a better fore-head, it is not ipiite true to the 
original . If you acre present I could tell yon wherein, but I 
can not well do so on paper. I he next best tlinuj, I suppose, 
would be to care fully study a photograph. 

Apparently, Lincoln's recommendations had their desired 
effect. For the final version of the Middleton chromo- 
lithograph, distributed widely in ISO."), looked remarkably 
like a well-known 1H(>4 photograph KM). The result 
proved untrue to the original asany print portrait published 
<>n either side of the Atlantic to honour America's 
sixteenth president. 

( woissi i i< February lUSii 



itenant-General Kzekial Barton 
1! 1-1855). 

\ iff overhung v\ ith trees, r. 181-'), 
„ Handicatercolour, .'/' , ■ / r (hc7/<\s\ 
/" British took a great interest in natural 
hi try investigations, often bringing back- 
it s and plants to England. Barton 
y ed to favour a restrained use oj colour 
■i 'h here aires nay to a richness that 
i, y captures the lushness oj the 
ft latum. 
S <ik and Son Limited, Loudon. 


Amateur artists in India by Raymond Head 

iVer a long period of neglect the work of ;ire of little artistic merit. but lhe\ can minded man an<l woman sought. I'orall 
Iitish professional artists who painted often supply interesting documentan these feelings were evoked by irregular- 
th Indian scene is at last receiving the details. Fre<niently the\ contain draw- it.\ of outline and form, strong but subtle 
r iignition it deserves. Not nearly so nigs of family groups and scenes from graduations of light ami shade which 
vll known by the art historian ami domestic life; local custom and costumes: threw foreground trees and vegetation 
e lector is the vast output produced by temples and ruined mosques; towns and into silhouette ami revealed the subject 
aiateur artists. In India at the end of the villages, trees and Mowers; nothing was in an ethereal twilight. The stage was 
e.hteenth century and for most of the spared the inquiring brush, for most being set for the Romantic age. 
meteenth there were few who did not subjects were capable of picturesque The same stylistic preoccupations 
a empt to draw. The results are uneven treatment. occur in the amateur artists' views of 
nquality, but there were some excellent The picturesque aesthetic had been India. Indeed so closeb is the theory 
a ists and they deserve wider appreci- developing through the eighteenth ceil applied to the Indian scene thai one can 
a on among collectors. tury and coincided with the development barely recognise that the\ are not of 
Many of these artists were Kast India of the Gothic Revival, Neo-classicb Britain. The predilection for soft lighting 
Cmpany officials, either civil or inili- and the rise of Romanticism. Nature was particularly robs them of colour. Kven 
t y, as well as merchants and bankers deemed imperfect b\ itself. It needed the people can look remarkably Ku ro- 
ad their respective wives and children, the helping hand and the tasteful eye of pean. Nostalgic eyes so far from home 
( nerally the impetus to paint was the discerning connoisseur, onb then could not see India in any other way. 
[ >vided by the need to pass, in pleas- could del ight be ensured. Certain group- ^ et there were some w ho did and one 
•' fashion, the excessive leisure tune in^s were held to be more picturesque of these was Thomas Lougcrofl I 
;d the need to fulfil requests tor in- than others and rustic peasants beside 1X11). Little is know n about his eai 
f'mation from demanding relatives at decaying cottages were especially fav- before his arrival m India in 17S4. It is 
I me. This led to the compilation of oured. Peregrinations to see ruins wen- thought thai he was a friend of Zoff'any 
i-rapbooks, examples of which often yet another source of the delight and and that it was he who gave Lougcrofl 
• pear in the salerooms. I sually the\ gloom, fancy and awe that picturesque- first drawing instruction. Certainly they 

' woissi i k February IUHO 

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>' OISSKI n February 1USO 

Thomas Longcroft (died ISI I ). 
The Jat Singh Observaton . Delhi. 
yrey u ash !■'> ■ It indies, inscribed, 
( Ibservatory in the ancient ( ity of 
Dellii, hn ill h\ Baja Jeyt Sing, drawn 
<>ii the spot I Til.") 

This striking drawing, perraded as it is by 
an atmosphere oj meditation and 
desolation . clearly demonstrates the 
jascination u Inch tins bmldiny heldjor 
him Perhaps lie kneii licckjord's golhic 
noeel '\ athek' published in English in 
I ,St>, n here a similar obsereatory is 
described . 
hyre and llobliouse, London. 

knew each other in Lucknov* but Zoff'any 
soon outshone Longcroft in lame and 
fortune. Longcroft seenrs to have given 
up all hope of becoming a professional 
artist and eventually settled down with 
an Indian wife to the life of an indigo 
planter. lie did not lose his love of 
drawing, for some six hundred drawings 
were sold after his death. Although 
indebted to the work of Thomas Daniell, 
whom he may have met in Lucknow, lie 
nevertheless developed a highly in- 
dividual style. Where Thomas Daniell 
was more decorative and picturesque, 
Longcroft managed to convey the feeling 
of the intense heat and harsh, unyielding 
light which reduces textural variety and 
accentuates form. His bold treatment 
of the Jat Singh observatory is closer 
to the Surrealism of de Chirico than 
eighteenth-century picturesque. 

The Anglo-Indian, military adven- 
turer, Ilvder Young Hearsey (1?S^- 
1840), was another of those highly Ham- 
box ant characters who seem to abound in 

India at this time. Having trained | 
Woolwich he returned to India in 1 
and entered the service of the Sadat 
Khan, the Nawab of Oudh. He si| 
found life there rather dull and joi 
General Peron's army. In IKON he t 
part in a survey to discover the source 
the Ganges and in lSl^, dressed as 
Indian, Hearsey and William Moore 
entered Tibet to trace the sources of 
Sutlej and Indus. They were among 
first Europeans to enter Tibet. \ 
Hearsey recorded his impressions i 
beautiful series of views, which w 
intended to be engraved. Known for 
daring and recklessness something oft 
comes across m the illustration. T 
degree, both Longcroft and Hear 
were able to free themselves from 
confines of picturesque vision. 

This was not the case with most of 
amateur artists and particularly w 
those who had received drawing 
struction in Britain. Drawing was 
important accomplishment and was c 

ed an essentia] part of a person s 
ation. In the army it was especially 
n>>rtant as they needed people who 
:o I draw maps, conduct surveys and 
H kly and accurately' delineate topo- 
r, |i\ . The training they received was 
t thorough and was given by artists of 
hi stature of William Delamotte. Will- 
a Alexander and Paul Sandby. ( >nee in 
]] a they could expect little further help 
>r ncouragement, unless of course they 
ia e into contact with Chinnery ( 1774- 
S!>) or Sir Charles D'Oyly. Bt. (mi- 

nybody with an y artistic am bit ions at 
il would inevitably have found their 
v; into the popular Chinnery milieu at 
) ca or Calcutta. This resulted in many 
C inneryesque drawings but they are 
k e the worse for that. 1 low could they 
n . being influenced by such a colourful 
ill dominating character.' 

: was equally unthinkable that pro- 
le ional or amateur artists would pass 
h nigh Patna without consulting with 

D'Oyly, a company opium agent and him- 
self a capable artist. Ills enthusiasm was 
infectious and his judgement widely 
sought and respected. While there 
1 )'( )y|y set up a lithographic press where 
he and others like Lady Sarah Amherst 
could engrave their drawings. I util 
Chinnery \s furtive departure from India 
in 1845 and the retirement of D'Oyly in 
is.'iS, they provided the artistic stimulus 
generally lacking in India at that tune. 

Civilian and army officer, amateurs 
alike, benefited greatly from their 
guidance. Although unrecorded, both 
Colonel Robert Smith (1787-187,'i) and 
Lieutenant General K/ekial Barton 
(1781—1855) on stylistic evidence would 
seem to have known Chinnery and 
D'Oyly. It is particularly evident in the 
work of Smith whose lively style beauti- 
fully conveys the bustling activity and 
sparkling colour to be found in India. 
His views of the Himalayas smoulders 
with magic and mysticism. Many of 
these officers and civilians were deeply 

Lady Sarah Amherst ( l?ti()- 1 SMS). 
Interior of Sir Charles D'Oyly s pa nit in; 
room at Patna, litltoyra/ih, ISJii. 
I Aid ij Surah irijeoj the (iorernor-deiieral 
Lord Amherst teas one uj many in res irliu 
would conyreyiite at I) Oyly's house to 
continue their artistic studies. 
Eyre and Hohhouse, London. 




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GifNoisSKl K February 1980 

Edward Cheney ( 1803-1884). 

Sivagunga, South India, sepia and 

black ink, inscribed '30th July is-^fi". 

/ i ■ /•"/ incites. 

The profusion oj cegetation and 

topographical detail quite overwhelms tin 

temples (some looking remarkably 

classical) and stuirtcays, obelisks and 

gateways, hut they emerge from the 

i eyetation as naturally as the rucks and 

I n es, ( 'heney's meticulous drau ings are 

stylistically unique in tin whole of the 

Anglo-Indian oeut re. 

Eyre and Hobhouse, London. 

interested in Hindu and Moslem culture, 
sometimes having Indian wives and 
adopting an Indian war of life. Away 
from the provincialism of British life 
some of them became famous for their 
apparent eccentricity, but their interest 
in the customs and culture of India was 
genuine and they were largely responsi- 
ble tor the early researches into Indian 

Lack of European paintings to use as 
models posed problems for the enthusi- 
astic amateur. At the beginning of the 
nineteenth century there were still ex- 
amples of the work of Zoffany, Hodges 
and Thomas Daniel! to be found in some 
homes and institutions. Although often in 
poor condition they were of some help. 
Barton seems to have been influenced by 
the work oi" Hodges. There is the same 
fanciful gloom and slow moving figures 
who linger half-hidden in the dark 
shadows. Halt perceived their enigmatic 
expressions invite questions. India, the 
land of pomp and splendour, riches and 

poverty, was also the home of m\st 
In 1814, on account of his talent a> , 
artist, he accompanied Lady Hood 
General Colin Mackenzie, the fut 
Surveyor, on a tour of the Up- r 
Provinces. They travelled as far as De i 
Dun and Hurdwar on the Ganges a| 
these illustrations probably date frlj 
that time. 

Warren Hastings. Sir Charles Will, 
and Sir William Jones had done mucl | 
draw people's attention to the artistic; 
philosophical treasures of India. Favo 
able comparisons had even been ni; 
with our classical heritage but the k 
and arduous journey prevented it fr 
becoming part of the Grand Tour itin 
ary. There were some visitors thouji 
and one of these was the intrepid Edw; 
Cheney (1801-84). His family had livec 
Rome and it may be that he travelled 
India from there. Between 18^5 and \h 
he visited Ceylon and southern In< 
sketching views in a style of gr< 
Baroque richness. 

niiditions for drawing and painting 
vti not easy ami often meant sonic 
,r ition and physical hardship. Even 
vi able opportunity was taken by the 
i: >r to select views and great prepar- 
iti is were needed in order to capture 
hi i. Picturesque theory demanded the 
(i radiations of the early morning or 
at evening sun, which meant being in 
h -ight place at the right time complete 
vi paints, tents and food. Even then 
h e could be hazards. Many com- 
plied, like Captain Robert Smith 
1' 2-1882) of the dust which was churn- 
id p by the people and animals, and got 
n their water and covered their paper. 
?i ny and Emily Eden, sisters of the 
ii ernor-General Lord Auckland vis- 
t( India in 18.'3t>/?. Inveterate scrib- 
>1 s they both wrote journals and 
k .-hed hundreds of views. They some- 
ii ;s encountered trying conditions. 
)i day they were sketching a temple at 
J] idaban, their breakfast had been laid 
n and they had to employ servants with 

long sticks lo keep the monkeys away 
from the tea and chocolate. Nor would 
the monkeys accept bribes of grain and 
sweetmeats, for one monkey rushed 
down and ran off with Emily's indian 
rubber which is a (/real loss to me she 
wrote, and / hope it disagreed with him. 

Towards the end of the nineteenth 
century the brush was beginning to be 
superceded by the camera. ( M'ticially and 
educationally drawing was losing its 
importance; photographs were easier to 
take and were more accurate. The desire 
and necessity for drawing had greatly 
disappeared, although there were still 
those who continued it as an absorb- 
ing and demanding hobby. Style, as in 
Europe, had broadened; the melancholy 
grandeur of dark browns and greens had 
given way to the colour and brilliance 
which is illuminated by the high sun. 
Imperial India was at its zenith. 

( aptain Robert Smith ( 17!)-,'- lss-J I. 
Uth Regiment. 

(iate of the Old Fort. Delhi, l,lack chalk 
and pencil , signed 'Rob. Smith Jan I s.'i- . 
/ / ■ .'<) incites. 

He has been confused with Colonel Robert 
Smith. After taking part in campaigns in 
Sicily, Ionian Islands, Malta, Spain, 
I ranee and America lie went to the hast; 
Arakan ( IS. .'.'>/. Hi), and Bengal ISJS ■>'..'. 
//c wrote a journal which is noie in the 
Victoria and Albert Museum, Loudon. 
Retired from the army in ISA ' and 1 1 ceil at 
Dirleton, Haddingtonshire and eventually 
settled in Dublin . 
Victoria and Albert Museum, London. 

I r i 

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CNXOISSKI R February l'.tsu 



I he / liiiiilm rg hydra ii as depicted in 
Seba n ' / liesn a ins' , published in I .' 

lines, I he imil mil nl monstrosity 
first seen in Prague n here it /ens 
probably imide to dupe the credulous 
a lin he/iet ed il In he the Dragon id the 
\poculypse . It teas lust seen in Hamburg 
iihere Linnaeus, trarell ing through the 
city, exposed it us n blatant fraud. 
I he 1 .1 ii nueu u Society oj Ixilldoll. 


\ n rnrr/si / n liu inn u i iii/rn nil// u ml ha mi \ Man ( 


Mill), h\ nature, is an artist. No sooner 
lli, in Neolithic man had formed tribal 
communities and had settled into the 
relative security <>i a ca\'e-du ell my exist- 
ence, the first trogiadites began to de- 
corate their private world with visual 
representations of tin- real animals of the 
physical environment and those belong- 
ing to the sphere of imagination - gods 
and demons. 

To the earliest ancestors of modern 
man and to the surprisingly sophisticated 
artists and priests of t he first civilisations 
ot ancient Mesapotainia. fact and fantasx 
were not mutually exclusive categories, 
Imagination and reality, the materially 
real and the ethereal, were liberally 
interwoven to form the fabric of every- 
day life. both religious and secular. 
Fantastic animals such as harpies, grif- 
fins, centaurs, winded hulls and half- 
human, half-animal monstrosities were 
worshipped, placated, and feared in the 
villages and capitals of the ancient world. 
These creatures, usually divine or semi- 
divine, were composites hitsand pieces 
of animal and human anatomy joined 
together to form some sort of demi- 
niortal monster. Kven the most casual 
\ isitor to the British Museum cannot fail 
to take note of the many impressive 
animal-headed and winded gods and 
demons that once adorned the public 
buildings, temples and palaces of the 
Assyro-Bah\ lonians. 

Since no man has ever seen, say, a 
winged horse such as the Babylonian 
Pegasus of Nineveh, the mythical an- 
cestor of the more familiar (> reek mount 
of the hero Bellophron, the psyche sim- 
ply sewed together various parts of 
sundry animals and depicted them in art 
and in myths. These non-existent ani- 
mals were almost always invested with 
supernatural powers and presented a 
grave danger to the mythical hero who 
inevitably overcame them. One such 
terrible creature was the Homeric chim- 
era of the Iliad, a favourite subject of 

later tellers of tall tales. Tin- ten ; 
beast had t he head ol a lion, the 
goat, and the hind legs and tail 
dragon; its ven name has becon 
Knglish noun and denotes a foolish fan- 
tasy or an imagined horror. 

Not content to let imagination cul- 
minate in myth, unscrupulous monster- 
makers began to fabricate their fantastic 
beasts in more than mere stone or pig- 
ments to sate the curiosity of the credu- 
lous and to insure that a tool ami his 
mont'\ would soon part. There was no 
better tune in history than the Middle 
Ages for the perpetration of a hoax, 
especially one that concerned monsters 
and demons, since the people were 
superstitious, ignorant, and exceedingly 
credulous. Monster-makers had a verit- 
able heyday during the sixteenth In the 
eighteenth centuries when hydras, mer- 
maids, dragons, basilisks, and creatures 
eldritch and absurd were presented to 
the public. Some ot these fabulous lakes 
nia\ still be found today in museums. 
attics, and in the private collections of 
t hose w ho enjoy the spirit of a sideshow 
hoax and the occasional masterpiec 
spoof erv produced b\ a slighth but 
delightfully corrupt imagination 

( die morning, in 17^0. a visitor called 
on Albert Seba, an Amsterdam apothe- 
cary and later author of a four volume 
'Thesaurus'. Seba, an enthusiast i« 
lector of curiosities, w as told of a rare and 
bizarre creature in the hands of I )reyeru 
and llambel. merchants in the city ol 
Hamburg. Nearly two metres in length 
the bay-brown monster was a scab 
serpen! possessing onl\ two front feet, 
each Inning four toes armed with long 
claws, a long twisting tail, and, above all, 
si i in heads! Asa man w hose collect ion ot 
dried, stuffed, pickled and otherwise 
preserved animals was known to even 
contemporary enthusiast in Kurope, 
Albert Seba abrupt ley waved-off flu 
as sheer fabrication and phantasmagoria. 

A \ear had passed since his first hear 

(WoissKlK February I'.tsn 

■J hill n us n n i iif 111 1 1 u 1 1 similar 
i lure tin public into 
exhibitions jeaturiny mermaids and freaks 
nl iiiiluii I In mermaid advertised here 
mis displayed at the '(ireal lioom' , 
Spriny (iardens, in London in t?Uft. Such 

biftons and sideshows paced the imy 
for I' I liuruum s yreat mermaid fraud oj 

mermaid first shown in London. 
i >h Sampson Lou . 

/^- o-c~ c^cwo*o*o ~c s ^y 'T^r> y ^ - <T~o* , c^~o-o o o o o o o o , c > '< ?~t >-o— g*~o-o- , ~-< ^-v>-o-o-^ ■*• * 



HEREAS many have IMAGINED that the HISTORY 


nedby the Authors ofVoyages. is fabulous, and only introduced a? the 

i r/i'f) , there is now in Town an Opportunity, tor the Nooihtv, 

■ c. to have an occular Demonllration oi us Reality. 

I :. is curious and furnrifing Nymph, even the Oin en of the Sea - Fifties, 

. in the Year 178.1, in the Gulph of Stancluo, on Board oi a 

M rchant-Man called the Good. Luck, Captain Forucr. Itisex.cti;, three feci 

i-i Length, and in Form like a Woman from the Head down to tin I >wcr Pan 

and half a Fifh from ill unwatd-, and l.-ct .i ; this 

doment ^ when alive, (landing in the fame Poiition as when it riles a'. 

'•• n Wind and Water, in otder to make relound the r.cighbouiing 

1 of the Archipelago wuh her fwect odious Voice. 



.1 Phen m'-non of the Feathered Creation, of exquifite Plumage, of 
which Nature never before produced the like. Arid 



ed, very handfome, and extraord.narily fwtft of root •. was 
ree Legs only. Iteming not in want of the fourth: and wliat is 
I as no Place in the Shoulder lor it. The \\ hole to be feen at the 


Week, between the Hours of 9 in the Morning 
and 6 in the Evening. 

Admittance One Shilling each. 

Vivant Ret e> R 


ing the story of the preserved hydra 
Hamburg when Seba received anotl 
visitor, the Reverend M. F. Eibsen 
the duchy of Bremen, who also me 
tioned a strange creature he had seen 
that city. The seven-headed monster, 
said, was for sale for the tidy sum 
Kl.O(K) florins. Albert Seba's euriosi 
was aroused by the minister's story ai 
he requested that Eibsen send him 
drawing of the ancient animal. He th< 
also wrote to Joliann Friedrich Natorp 
fellow collector living in Hamburg, ai 
requested that he, too, should forwan 
drawing. The two illustrations depict' 
the same creature - a beast with sevi 
dome-like heads ami a singularly retar 
ed expression - thereby convincing ti 
apothecary of the diabolical monste; 

The Hamburg hydra had once hadi 
place on a church altar in Prague until 
was stolen by the Konigsmark fain 
during the plundering of the city in 164 
Thereafter the strange creature came 
Hamburg by way of a Count Bjelke w 
had inherited the dubious treasure, 
part of the collection of Burgomasf 
Joliann Anderson, the Kingof Denmai 
Fredrick IV, had bid .SO, 000 thalers 
the many-headed monster, but later til 
price began to fall drastically and S 
1735, one year after the publication 
Seba's book containing Natorp's cole 
illustration, the seven-headed freak w 
being offered for a mere -2.000 thalers. 

At this time a young biologist w 
passing through Hamburg and hearing 
the ancient monster, one unseen sir 
the Greek hero Hercules slew the hyd 
of Lerna as the second of his twel 
labours, came to examine the exti 
ordinary serpent. 

However, unfortunately for those w 
sought to profit from the sale of t 
hydra, the visitor was none other th 
Carl Linnaeus, the first great systemi 
of botany and zoology. I pon first glar 
the young scientist cried out, (treat G< 
who never put more than one clear brain 
one of thy created bodies! Taking t 
monster in his hands Linnaeus saw t 
Hamburg hydra for what it really was 
fraud. The mythical monster was I 
product of a skilled and devious ti 
idermist, but not Satan the Devil. T 
body was artificially contrived a 
covered with pasted-on snake skins, a 
the heads, jaws, and feet of the infer! 
dragon belonged to that most whimsi 
of predators, the weasel. This absi 
marriage of mismatched animal pa 
had probably been fabricated by I 

iii ks of Prague where il was passed (ill 
tsl e Apoealyptie Dragon to inspire the 
,n , with the power of the l,<>r<| and. 
,|) c all. to terrorise and deceive the 

:ri ulous. 

ie already devaluated price <>l the 
iv 'a dropped to an all-time low. and 
ic lg on sound advice Linnaeus quickly 
>u ued his adventures in annual tax- 
»n|nv elsewhere. Sadly, the Hamburg 
i\ 'a was never to he seen again as if 
in ig its seven heads in shame. 

ith the coming of the nineteenth 
e ury the public lost none of their long- 
ti ding fascination with bizarre alu- 
ms';, freaks, and monsters from bygone 
g|i. London became the earthly para- 
[ii of every sideshow hoaxer from both 
;k;s of the Atlantic ocean. Fortunes 
:r<t and small were being made in the 
v bition of bearded ladies, two-headed 
h Iren, giant sea serpents, and that 
i sistible piece de resistance of all swind- 
er-the mermaid. During the latter half 
f he eighteenth century a veritable 
mimaid craze swept across Europe with 
/ilon as its centre. It was here that the 
eds of the greatest mermaid shenani- 
:a in history were sown. 

ish -tailed water gods were not in- 
'eted by crafty showmen, but merely 
■xloited by tricksters who gave the 
>aing public that which they w ished to 
e< Oannes, sometimes called Ka, was 
hjGod of the Waters in the Babylonian 
latheon who was adopted from the 
^radians and later known in the (ireek 
«ld as Poseidon. Tales of fishy females 
ccnessing voluptuous charms were to be 
omiI throughout the Orient and. not 
u >risingly. in maritime nations whose 
e weary sailors must have found a 
Msure of comfort and consolation in 
viiied-for visions of mermaids who sat 
mocks languorously combing their long 
Dt.s. By the eighteenth and nineteenth 
eturies thorough-going mermaid fac- 

tories had been set up ill Indonesia and 
Japan to supply credulous seamen and 
tourist s w it 1 1 unique sea nymphs from the 
ill V stern his La r Last 

No doubt Captain Hades of the Ameri- 
can vessel , The I .ion , w as t he very si irt i it 
man unscrupulous con-men dream of 
meeting. Passing through Batavia the 
Captain was told of a curious creatine 
caught m the northern seas of China. 
This exceedingly rare specimen, about 
three feet in length, possessed the head, 
arms, and torso of a woman and the tail 
and fins of a fish. And for the privilege of 
owning this most sacred of Neptune's 
treasures the good Captain paid the sum 
of ."),()()() Spanish dollars. 

Beaming with pride and the antici- 
pation of exhibiting his great Hud, Cap- 
tain Hades and The Lion pulled into the 
Thames to confront the flabbergasted 
customs officials with the preposterous 
monstrosity. I ncertain about the mer- 
maid's right to go ashore duty-free, 
she was placed in temporary safekeeping 
m the baggage warehouse of the Hast 
India Company until Sir Everard Home, 
President of the Royal College of Sur- 
geons, could come to examine what was 
most likely to be the ugliest patient of his 
medical career. I lav nig little time for the 
sultry charms of Hades mermaid Sir 
Hverard asked William (lift. Curator of 
the lluntenaii Museum, to examine the 
desiccated creature. < ►pening the tin case 
in which it was kept wrapped in silk, (lift 
had no trouble in exposing the mermaid 
for what it was: an audacious fraud in 
which the entire body of a fish belonging 
to the salmon genus had been sewn onto 
the shaven body of an orang-outang, 
especially fitted with the jaw sand teeth 
i >f a large babi ion. 

I ndaiinted by the findings of science 
the Captain continued to believe in the 
genuineness of his simian-salmon mer- 
maid and exhibited the uglv little w retch 

I lid mi ) ( ii pin i a I 

put mi ills pi 'n// in I tS ! ! in Si 

St ii i t . I, initio)/ . I It r 

/ton the creature teas displu 

puhlic nt flint turn-. 
I'liotoi/ru p/i : Sampson I. on 

( Hottoin) Tieentij years Inter tin en 
came into the hands of I'. I .Hnmiun 
exploited its potential interest to tin puhlir 
u ith nu i ni/i'n ions ruse to trick tin editors 
o/ Weir ) ark's major newspapers into 
giving a hit of free puhl nil ij 

Y'XOISSEI K February I'.iSii 

fin Royal 

■ it i tli 

s Inch 

Sh \l 

' ;iii /is 

,W til II 

ill the Turf Coffee-house in St. James's 
Street td a <lail \ crowd of lour hundred 
credulous souls whose- glimpse at the 
desiccated deformity left them a shilling 
poorer a ml none the wiser. Yel Captain 
Hades who had allegedly sold the ship's 
cargo, the property of a Mr. Ellery, to 
raise the money to purchase the mermaid 
for exhibition in In-J-2. never lost faith in 
its authenticity For when he died he 
possessed no other property and the sole 
inheritance of the Captain's son con- 
sisted ot the worlds most expensive 
tinned salmon. 

Less enthusiastic than his late father. 
( aptain Hades son sold the mermaid to a 
Mr Kimball who took the creature to 
New Norktoshow to the undisputed king 
ot hoaxers, showman and entrepreneur 
extraordinaire - Phineas Taylor Bar- 
iiiim. the man who summarised his 
exceptional career with the motto There's 
a sucker born etery minute. Barnum knew 

"I thing w hen he saw it. and the 
fejee Mermaid, as he christened it. was 
to prove to he a gold mine merely 
awaiting exploitation 

Having acquired the shrunken mon- 
strosity in 1844, Hani ii m set out to arouse 

uriosity of the paying public and 

lure them into parting with their !• 
earned money to examine this 
unglamorous of sea sirens Barnui 
tongue-in-cheek master of deceit, li 
the value of publicity and set out o 
ingenious campaign to draw attentii | 
the mermaid. He began by arrangin i 
letters and communications to be se 
newspapers in New York in w hi< 
paragraph about a Dr. Griffin of 
Lyceum of Natural History in Loi 
who had just arrived from Pernamb 
South America was included amongst 
dail\ news, crop reports, and polil 
gossip. The reports made mention 
remarkable specimen from the F 
Islamls. purchased at a very high pi 
and duly bound for London and the et 
hands of scientists. At weekly inter 
similar letters mailed from diffei 
places arrived in New York telling 
same tale. Eventually a letter pos 
from Washington begged the editor 
catch a glimpse of the extraordin 
treasure before the good Dr. < 
sailed for England. These mysl 
letters, of course, were the handiwor 
P. T. Barnum who simply sent then 
friends in different cities to mail on 
da\ of the letter's date. 






\ i'rtj It arc 


I '.he 

Mounted by ROSS C. JOBE T«xid«rmj»l ol Saull Sie. Marie. Onl. 

; ortly after the Washington letter 
i nailed none other 1 1 1a 1 1 Dr. (irifrin of 

• ambueo registered at a swank hotel 
hiladelphia where he played the role 

e perfect gentleman lor a tew days. 
r • to paying the lull he offered the 
1 ord a special treat in thanks for the 
,i esy he had received as a guest en 
i to London. Dr. (iriftin. actually an 
l ioyee and confederate oi Harnum 
jtjed Lyman, flabbergasted the poor 
i lord with so rare a sight as a genuine 
i naid. The landlord had among his 
i( ds a number of influential new s- 
i ■]■ editors, and after much heseeeh- 
^the dignified and recalcitrant Dr. 
r:in finally gave in to allow the press 
i ew the mermaid. 

eanwhile Harnum was busy at work 

• ng ten thousand pamphlets printed 
i stored away for later use, / then 
ltd respectively on the editors of the New 
ex Herald, he wrote in Ins autobio- 
r;>hv. <///</ tiro of the Sunday papers, and 
nered to each the free use <>/ a mermaid 
u with a leell-ieritten description , for 
<<e papers of the eiisuiny Sunday. I 
ijmted each alitor that I had hoped to use 
dcul in shim ini) the hejee Mermaid, hut 

sine/' Mr. (iriffin hail announced that as 
aili nt for tin Lyceum oj \atural History, he 
could not permit it to he exhibited in 
America, mij chance seemed duhious ami 
therefore he teas icelcoine In tin use oj the 
cm/rai i in/ and description . the thro mer 
maids made their appearance in the three 
different papers mi the mommy oj Sunday . 
/ i" .//;/// IS \ .'. Luch editor supposed he u as 
ipctuij his readers an exclusive treat in the 
mermaid fine, hut u lieu they came to 
discover that I had played the same i/aii/e 
tilth the three different papers, they pro- 
nounced it a scaly I rule 

Having availed himself of the best tree 
publicity New York had to offer. Har- 
num and his mermaid had now aroused 
enough public interest to exhibit the 
creature at the (oncert Hall on Hroad- 
\\ a \ I lie show was such a success that 
the sober American Museum ol Natural 
History in New ^1 oik w as delighted to lie 
the ne\t in line to extract *£e> cents each 
from the pay mg public lor the privilege 
of stealing a peek at the creature Han nun 
described as an uyly. tlrted-up, hind, 
loolciuy, and iliminiitii e specimen A 
flag. •") t ineties m length with a bright 
image oi a mermaid, blew in the wind 

abi »ve the Miiseui 

dow ii at the request of I >r < ■ I'lftin w ho 

fell that such a ga I nit ol 

taste alld not III k( I the 

I ,y ceiiui 111 I In- I e|i e Men 

u;h exhibited h >r uea r 
I* I Ha 

exit with an i 
in dignified cash 

Hamulus fraud w as l>\ i iea 

first or the last fake mermaid to hi 

in public In litfil a scrag 

lish -tailed freak, a thing i >l 

and artificial parts, was exhibited 

Hritish Museum. People a : 

and sidling annual frauds of a 

winged cat s. In >n ed rabbits i 

and even a Fur-liearmg t n 

fabricated, often nigeii 

chased by the gullible 

inherent l\ out ragei niso 

not of Hying felines or i 

( >f all the annual frauds in history 
and t here have certainly b< en many 
I he story of the Pig -faced lady is undotib 
ledly the most out sin|, asses 

all other fabrications in sheet' audacity 
The so-called Pig-faced lady was ex- 
hibited to I he good people ol Loudon in 

( NoiSSKI I; February 

< lit Ian i The Jackalope, us depicted on an 
American post-card , is a nearly extinct 
untie red species of rabbit I found) a I most 
crclttsti elij nu tin high plains of \\ yominy. 
Apparently some people still fall for the 
ruse and belie i e that the ho run I rabbit can 
it in in i in n ■ h a tun ii roices. liurnum was not 
such a bud psychologist uffer ull . 
Vhotoyruph Sampson I. on . 

I liitjltl i I In ( 'umbrtdye ( entuur, only 
sunn '»" centimetres m heiyht anil length, 
n as Hindi In/ (ieojfrey Hopkins of the Sub- 
Department oj \ cliri iiarij . 1 1 into in ij ut 
I umbridye I nieersity as u inuscot for the 
\ i ti ruiiiry Society. It is not hul f-mun hulj- 
t, but tin marriaye <>J a macaque 
'/ mid ii day. It n as made in /.'"/_'. 
Vhotoyruph Sampson I. on . 

IH'iii, on the occasion of Queen \ ictorias 
coronation, in a booth at the Hyde Park 
lair Lxhibited as a monstrosity of the 
human species from the deserts oj Arabia, 
the Pig-faced lady was not a tragically 
deformed woman, but a blatant animal 
fraud. Lord George Sanger, the great 
circus showman of yesteryear, saw the 
horrible creature as a small boy, and it is 
through Ins autobiography that we learn 
of the fantastic hoax. 

His Lordship has revealed that the 
Pig- faced lady, who was addressed as 
Miss Stevens, was in fact a brown bear' 
The animal was closely shaved so that 
the white skin underneath resembled 
that of a human being. The Pig-faeed 
lady was then dressed in a cap, poke 
bonnet, shawl, and a long flowing dress. 
The bear was strapped into a chair and 
sat in front of the crowd at a table which 
had been covered with a drapery, thus 
concealing the lower portions of Miss 
Stevens anatomy and the small boy 
under the table whose job it was to make 
the beast talk. Once the spectators had 
assembled to see the plump pale mon- 
strosity the showman would appear, pull 
aside the curtains hiding the exhibit, and 

address the naive customers as follov. | 
call your attention, Indies andgentlemei -, 
the greatest wonder of the world! Behold 
marvel! Madame Stcrens, the Tig-fu\ 
lady, who is now in her eighteenth ye< 
believe that is correct Miss/. These wi 
from the unblushing charlatan cued 
hidden boy to prod the bear with a st 
thus forcing the creature to utter a gru 
As you see, the show man would contin 
the young lady understands what is s 
perfectly, though the peculiar formatioi 
her purs has deprived her of the powei 
littering human speech in return. 

Poor Miss Stevens was forced to a 
wer another series of questions as a pi, 
was passed around for what was eupl 
mistically referred to as contributio 
Lord Sanger wrote that when the P 
faced lady was asked to express | 
thanks for the donations the boy 
cidentally prodded her too hard caus 
the bear to give a vicious roar. This sh 
and others of its class, wrote Sanger, w 
stopped by the authorities ut the followt 
Cumbertrell fair, and the Pig-faced It, 
became only u memory, lots of people,, 
their dying day, believing that such a pers\ 
really existed. 

* i : *i 


Abraham Oriel, mapmaker of Antwerp, by Simon / 

If he economic ascendancy gained by Antwerp in the 
nldle of the sixteenth century proved fertile ground ten- 
th 'development of a close-knit group of intellectuals, the 
vtirs following the capture of the cit\ by the Spanish 
uder the Duke of Parma, and the consequent rapid 
de-line in prosperity, could have provided adequate 

reasons for the collapse of the port's academic and ai 
life. An intense loyalt\ to the city, expressed so fn 
by theinhabitantsdiiringtheyearsofturmoil. led 
these individuals to respond enthusiastically to 
challenges, few more successfully than the cartographer, 
antiquarian, humanist and scholar. Abraham Ortel. 

after a irooilent of /•'»'<»" by (inieeiardini 

Oriel's native eitu of Antwerp, enyraved by Iran: lloyenbery in I... 

apparent prosperity, pol.tieal eases had by now robbed Antwerp of its role as the .prates, eeononne mar, 

Despite its 
in Europe. 






XOISS1 L'H February 1980 

/// /.>?? Ortel embarked on a tour of Italy 
a ith .Inns I loe) uugel , u ho font a rded many 
nj his ilisiui cries to liraun anil 
doyen berg in ( 'oloynefor inclusion m the 
Civitates Orbis Terrarum. Here the two 
men inspect the antiquities at ( ' iimne . 

One need look no further for testimony 
<>f Ortel's tremendous range of ac- 
quaintances than to his Album Amicorum, 
which he kept meticulously between 
1574 and 1596, and which is the most 
prestigious collection of sixteenth-cen- 
tury autographs in existence. Now- 
housed in Pembroke College, Cam- 
bridge, it represents every facet of life 
in Antwerp with dedications from the 
most eminent humanists, doctors of law, 
physicians, antiquarians, painters, such 
as Peter Brueghel, engravers, including 
Franz Hogenberg, who was responsible 
for the finest maps in Ortel's most 
lasting work, Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, 
travellers, authors, reformers, poets and 
merchants. Kvidence constantly em- 
erges of the bond between Ortel and 
these brilliant men, whose attitude is 
largely summarised by Nicholas de 
Rhetinger who wrote: If we call Nature 
the mother of the Universe, who will deny, 
Ortel, that you are the father.'. Flattering 
descriptions such as this are frequently 
accompanied by drawings, anagrams or 

poems; and, while Ortel collected t 
autographs so avidly that he vvoi 
sometimes send the book abroad I'm 
friend to make an entry (as with Je 
Crato who wrote his poem in Brest au, 
his room, and on his bed) there can be 
doubt of the willingness of contempt 
ary intellectuals to testify to the ested 
in which their friend was he! 
Although Abraham Ortel (or Wortels 
the latinised form of his name, Ortelii 
is more commonly but less appropriate 
used) is most renowned for his wor 
atlas first published in 1570 and sub* 
quently reprinted into the second decac 
of the seventeenth century, his interes- 
were as diverse as were his a 
quaintances; in no way should his The 
trum Orbis Terrarum be viewed in tl 
narrow sense of a geographical atla 
since it is a testimony of its author's wk|j 
knowledge of culture, history and ant) 1 
quity. Like his printer. Christopha 
Plantin, his work was disrupted by tl 
years of turmoil which culminated in tl 
'Spanish Fury' of 157(i, but he turne 

.■;;■■■■: ' . 



B "i 

I la 

;se into his most productive period, 

•ivelling in the Low Countries (1575), 

igland ;tn<l Ireland (1577) and (ier- 

niy and Italy ( 157S) where he acquired 

i Formation which was later to form the 

sis of works such as Synonymiu Geo- 

iphica of 1578 and Itinerarnim per 

nnullas Galliac Belgicae partes of 1584. 

Despite military action throughout 

trope - the French Wars of Religion 

ust have made the collection of in- 

rmation as hazardous as did the Revolt 

the Netherlands nearer home - Ortel 

ined enough knowledge in the 1570s to 

oduce impressive historical works in 

e two following decades, most notably 

rmenclator Ptolemaicus' in 1584 and 

J. Caesar Omnia quae extant in 1595. 

e frequently travelled in the company 

i colleagues with whom he would dis- 

i ss the implication of European dis- 

• series; Joris Hoefnagel, for example, 

is his companion in Italy in 1577, on 

i peditions amply recorded in views 

tngraved by Franz Hogenberg) showing 

l|e friends inspecting sites of natural or 

anti(|iiariaii interest. or, in one case 
watching the lire at the Doge s 1 'a lace in 
\ enice in l.~>77. Tin- partnership was to 
result in some of the tines) copper-plate 
views in the monumental (and ultimately 
six volume) Civifafes Orlos Terra rum 
which may aptly be described as a 
companion book of city views (first 
published in l57'-2) to Oriel's master- 
piece, the Theutrum. Other expeditions 
equally indicate his inquisitive nature, 
not least that with .1. Vivian which 
resulted in Itinerarnim per nonuullas 
Galliae lielgieae .... while his earlier 
presence at the Druids' Stone in Poitiers 
(on which he was to engrave his name) in 
the company of (ierard Mercator and 
Franz Hogenberg marked the beginning 
of two friendships which wore to have a 
profound affect on his later career. 

Ortel's intense interest in the ancient 
world began with his relationship with 
Hubert (ioltzius, the pupil of the anti- 
quarian Lambert Lombard, who was 
later to produce magnificent works on 
numismatics in collaboration with the 

Ortel's riete of 'The Northern Regions 
prm ides a pointed reminder of the 
limitation of knowledge about the regions 
a est of Ireland, which here include a small 
island named Brazil. Ilogenherg's 
representations of mythological creatures 
were intended as serious attempts to depict 
the dangers of the northern lands. 




m ' km 

(NNOISSEI K February ID8U 

'itugt of the 

st edition 
I heal !'ii ■ ample, maps oj 

ble it Inch 

brothers Laurin, in Bruges. Ortel soon 
formed, in liis home in Antwerp, a superb 
collection of antiques, coins and medals 
which wen- described in the 1573 work 
in Dearumqae capita ex vetustis 
iiiii/usinatihiis . . . ex museo .1. Ortelii. 
Indeed, while each map in the Theatrum 
was based on the most recent information 
available in Antwerp, the Parergon, a 
collection of historical maps first publish- 
ed in I."")?!) reflects the author's ex- 
haustive study of the ancient world, 
while the medallion motif's most likely 
reflect items of his own collection. 

( h'tel's associations with foreign carto- 
graphers were surprisingly uncom- 
petitive, and the story that Mercator 
himself delayed the publication of his 
atlas so that his young protege could 
claim the glory for producing the first 
consistent atlas containing post-Ptole- 
maic geographical knowledge is now 
disproved; in tact. Mercator was no- 
w here near ready to publish his atlas by 
1 .")?(). ( )rtel was constantly corresponding 
with cartographers ami scholars in Eng- 

land, notably John Dee, Richard Hak 
luyt, Humphrey Luyd (who forwarde 
two maps of Britain before his death i 
1568) and William Camden, who Ortt 
persuaded to write the Britannia. In th 
same way as Georg Braun. the editor < 
the Civitates, Ortel encouraged criticisi 
and comments on his work, and constant 
ly appealed for new information. Hi, 
early years m Antwerp undoubtedly 
benefited from the use of the port b 
Spanish mariners who provided inform 
ation on the remoter parts of Charles V 
expanding empire; moreover, his caree 
as a colourist and seller of maps (moun 
ted on linen) took him to Frankfurt am 
other major cities which attracted in 
ternational travellers and scholars. 

Despite its immense cost - Mas 
Rooses stated it to be the most expensiv 
book of the sixteenth century, at thirt; 
florins - the Theatrum Orbis Terrarut 
was the most prestigious atlas of its time 
consulted almost without question b; 
authorities well into the seventeent 
centurv. In the vears between 1570 am 

; 2 over forty editions were published, 
i, luding two in Dutch, five in (ierman. 
L in French, four in Spanish, two in 
| |ian, and one (in 160(5) in Knglish. 
( jasionally confidence in ( )rtel s know- 

I ge was misplaced as with his depiction 
( the southern tip of Africa, which was 
i fact more accurately depicted in 
( staldi's 1564 map of the continent: for 
t • most part, however, Ortel displayed 
j -at ability in his choice of sources, of 
\ it'll no less than eighty-seven were 
i ntioned in his tirst edition of 1570. If 
t s number had grown to one hundred 
i 1 eighty-three by 1 60S. Ortel re- 

lined cautious in delineating areas as 
t unexplored, and although he felt he 

II enough information to provide a between New Guinea and Terra 
i straits, he was careful to add a caption 
yplaining that no-one was certain 
a ether the two formed an entity. 

)rtel had already gained considerable 
eperience by 1570, having produced a 
rignificent eight-sheet world map in 
jiS4, a map of Egypt in 1565, and a two- 

sheel map of Asia in 1567. It was only 
with the appearance of the Theutrum. 
however, that his reputation was as- 
sured. Within the first year the work had 
been reprinted lour times, and he was 
praised for 'collecting together, and re- 
ducing to one comodious volume maps 
which had previously (as in the case oi 
Lafreri's collection) been related items 
bound loosely intoone volume. Mereator 
publicly complimented Ortel on the rare 
and elegance with which the project was 
compiled, and contemporaries tor- 
warded their own researches for publi- 
cation in the subsequent editions of the 
atlas. While the first edition contained 
seventy maps on fifty-three sheets, by 
157!) five additamenta had been added, 
each containing a further seventeen to 
twenty-three maps; eager for total ac- 
curacy. Ortel dispensed with outdated 
plates, most notably (in I5S7) that of the 
Americas which showed the southern 
part of the continent with an unfamiliar 
bulge, and Chile as the name of a town. 
While his friendship with Mereator led to 

In l. r >S? a revised map of the \eie World 
i/iii i the continent a more correct shape, 
while the naming oj ( 'hile as a region 
(instead oj a town, which it had been in 
the 1 ■'»?(! rersion) was just one of mamj 
detailed alterations. 

"■ ■- v-rriy^^^^iMm^rji^La:a^^»M^>^ 

i T i arnrrra i r i , -r ■•■-*■• ■■--'-■ - • * '■ m^ma 

the view i it' I lie Americas as 

ist relial)le source 

I lie reports from 

'Hers. ( )n the world map the 

I In- w est of an 

South America . win 

i to the west and I 

abound w it Inn 
avels of Anthonv 
it ad\ 'cut 1 1 ra 


Ivan the I king- 

|i ol Abyssinia - 

i mtineiit - 

lakes, nil 

ml: There tire 


usel panel 

r descent was 

■ 'searches had 

led Oi e the current ruler as 

I )a\ id li wh< isc ancestors had 

I European explorers en- 

l)ii Ions w ealt li. 

-I degree 
of kn ueli a 

mud, required 
I tot li i In I 57.'5 ( Irtel w as 

created < ipher to the King", and 

isition under Philip 1 1 implied a 
unquest iniied orthodoxv and 
I lie I Iapshurf> throne; to retain 
: iosil ion < ti'tel. like ( hristopher 
Plan til imed Printer to the 

King", needed In show the utmost diplo- 
id assistance from Spain 
naturally declined as ji result of the 
inilitan expenditure, while 
Spanish Fury in Antwerp in 157(5 put an 
end to PI; xpansion . and cause* I 

inter s property w Inch 
( )i tel est iniated at ten thousand florins. 
.lined close, how ever, 
and Plant ins confidence in t he carto- 
grapl ned substantial enough for 

oduce .i Spanish edit ion of the 
own risk 
te < btel's cant ion, the polit ical 
le eas\ -gohi{> re 
Parma threw sus- 
ii with such a wide r«i nge oi 
il her Leonard 
and I ■ .laii ill van Met en 

iles Pihle. and a 
fen eiit Pri itestant oth Ween arres- 

ted mi suspii heretical 

hooks in I .>.'{.">. \ an Meteren had later 
heen res| : ihew s educa- 

tion, and the nervous Spanish authorities 
would naturalh In 

such a prominent citizen when looking 
for heresy and subversion. In I586 0rtel 

was disarmed by the commissaries lie- 
cause of his contact with Peter Heyns. a 
fervent (alvuiist. Two years later, how- 
ever, letters from the authorities com- 
mented that lie had always been obser- 
ved to be a Catholic. Indeed, while ( )rtel 
was affiliated (like Plantin, whose pub- 
on of heretical works placed him 
under more suspicion) to the enigmatic 
tily of Love sect of Henry Niclaes, 
his attitude to the dissension is best 
represented in letters to close relatives; 
speaking of Lipsius. the great humanist , 
he says: / do not know whether he is the 
adherent of the Pope or a Calvinist, but if he 
lias rtirs to hear, he will lie neither one side 
nor the other, for sins are committed on both 
Nowhere is the independence of 
Antwerp more fully asserted; when des- 
cribing the great events of the wars. Ortel 
remained non com m ital, representing an 
approach wholly opposed to the narrow 
alignments which caused the disruption 
and destruction of Antwerp's position as 
the economic mart of the world. 

The relations between Plantin and 
Ortel reflected the mixing of business 
and intellectual interests in Antwerp, 
and Ortel frequently inscribed his name 
in editions presented to his printer in his 
fine humanist hand, a custom he con- 
tinued when writing in the 1595 Latin 
edition of the Theatrum a tribute to Jan 
Moretus, Plantin's son-in-law: Optima, 
sihii/iu 1 amieissimo Do. lo. Moreto, compa- 
tri sun rarissimo. auctor benevolentii ergo 
D.I). The Moretus collection, now 
housed in Plantin's magnificent work- 
shop in Antwerp, reflects the strength of 
the ties between Ortel and the Plantin 
family. The respect m which he was held 
is clear from the painting by Rubens 
(rather than his pupils) of the carto- 
grapher among humanists and scholars, 
painted between I (}S() and 1(536. 

While great care was taken both by 
Ortel and by Plantin in producing the 
Theatrum and the other works, financial 
questions frequently arose, as is clear 
in hi i a letter writ ten ( I? November 1586) 
by Ortel to his nephew Emmanuel van 
Meteren. I'll is reflects the financial prob- 
lems nf some Antwerp printers, and 
suggests that authors frequently had to 
pay printers to have their works 
published, sometimes receiving free 
copies of their works: When Plantin hud 
printed m// 'Synonymia' he sent twenty- 
fire copies to my house, for which I 
thanked him very much. What he will do 
now with mi/ 'Thesaurus' (which he is now 

printing) time alone will fell. Plantin w; 
notorious for over-stressing the pecui 
arv difficulties which confronted hin 
and Ortel was apparently content I 
accept somewhat loose arrangement 
regarding the publication of his wor 
his confidence in Plantin's expertise 
typified in a letter from the printer 
1587 to Friar Vincentius, the translator ( 
the Spanish edition of the Theatrum, i 
which the printer asked his assistant tob 
careful that mistakes did not arise fror 
confused handwriting- was never mi; 

The chorus of eulogies within th 
Album Amicorum and the corresponded 
of Ortel give a rounded picture of hi 
social standing, but it is his friend am 
biographer Francois Sweertius win 
provides a portrait of the man: Ortel u:a 
tall, with an easy and gracious manner; h 
had blue eyes, his beard was fair, the sam 
colour as his hair, which showed up tk 
whiteness of his skin and beauty of his face 
Of a pleasant disposition, he had a vara 
and affable way of conversing - he spok 
Dutch, French, Herman, Spanish ant 
Latin fluently, and had some knowledge q 
Greek. Serious without being pedantic, hi', 
conduct constantly reflected his eminentl 
Christian education. Ortel's reputation 
although enhanced by, and indeed foun 
ded on the Theatrum Orbis Terrarum 
ultimately depended on his zest font 
acquiring information and knowledge, | 
about both contemporary discoveries,] 
and about the ancient world. He de- 
veloped the potential of his promising 
early career as a map colourist in thef 
influential Guild of St. Luke in Antwerp] 
(of which Rubens was later to become a! 
Master) at the age of twenty to the full, 
producing travel books and atlases in II 
forms not previously known. His Thea- |i 
train proved so popular that 
appeared (at twice the price) i 
colour, while the abridged Epitom 
Terrarum provided an eager public with 
smaller maps based on the Theatrum; his 
originality is most apparent in his selec- 
tion of regions; for example his map of 
China, which first appeared in Ad- 
ditamentum III of 1584, and was based on 
information provided by Ludovico Geor- 
gio, a Jesuit missionary, was the first 
map of that country ever to appear ina 
European atlas. Enthusiastic and inspir- 
ing. Ortel's devotion to the ideal of 
intellectual perfection in Antwerp con- 
tinued even after political and economic 
circumstances had conspired to shift the 
balance of power away from the Spanish 
Provinces to Amsterdam. 


lis I hea-a 
it soon I 
in hand- 1 ^ 
<mc Orbis f 


The Brasserie Bofinger and a writer's home in Paris, by Lynne Thornton 

OMMSSKIH February 1980 


Boh'nger's is one of those traditional restaurants Cvhieh make one happy to be ill Paris. 
Seated on button-backed leather banquettes amongst potted palms and long-aproned 
waiters pushing heavy silver-salvered chariots, one eats onion soup, snails, f'oie gras, 
pigs' trotters, eassoulet and ehoucroute, followed by pear charlotte and ile flottante. 
The brasserie, 5 rue de la Bastille, was originally a little bistrot opened in 1864 by 
Frederiek Bofinger, an Alsatian from Colmar. He gradually bought up the little shops 
around him and, in 1900, transformed them into the present brasserie. He covered the 
free-standing iron pillars with tortoiseshell-coloured toh peinte, put large mirrored 

panels and brass railings above the banquettes, and installed a splendid domed stained 
glass roof by Rover. Decorated with wisteria, fruit and roses, it covers the main room. 
once a courtyard. One of the side rooms is decorated with oval panels of views seen b\ 
night and by day in coloured marquetry and mother-o'-pearl. They are the work of 
Panzani, a cabinet-maker m the Faubourg St. Antoine, who was the uncle of the founder 
of the famous pasta company. Bofingers was originally gas- lit - electricity not having 
been installed until around 1905 - and the original burners can still be seen. The 
brasserie can seat up to three hundred and fifty people. The curved staircase with its 

IXNOISSKI H February HiSn 


floral forged iron bannister leads up to further dining rooms, one of which was decorated 
by Ilansi. His real name was Jean-Jacques Waltz, and, like Bofinger, he came from 
Cohnar. Ilansi was famous for his illustrated patriotic books and engravings whose 
theme was the return of Alsace to France and the protestation of the Alsatians against 
(ierman oppression. His original wall murals have now been relined and mounted as 
paintings. Bofinger's shop sign, a boy carrying a beer tankard and a pretzel followed by 
a little girl in a mob cap, was also designed by I Iansi. In the old days Bofinger's used to 
be open day and night and was one of the traditional places for after the theatre suppers. 

After the Second World War, however, it became rather run down. All those years of 
cigar and cigarette smoke had left such a thick coating of nicotine on the manpietrx 
|>anels that they were practically invisible, the waiters were ancient and the brass 
railings dimmed. In 1968 the remaining members of the Bofinger family sold the 
brasserie to Monsieur and Madame Isidore I rti/verea. They spruced up the interior, 
changed the waiters and the menu but left untouched all the l!M>Os" fittings, which give 
the Brasserie Bofinger itsoriginality and charm. 

CNNOISSKl'H Febnmry 1'JSll 


Five flights of stairs lead to the top of an eighteenth-century house on the left hank of the 
Seine. The attic, once the sleeping quarters of fifteen servants, criss-crossed with heavy 
beams, has been transformed into an apartment that is both attractive and comfortable. 
Isaure de Saint-Pierre, novelist and journalist , works a good deal at home: she writes in 
a hide-away under the eaves which is quiet without being too remote. The kitchen is 
open-plan, thus making conversation with her friends possible when they do the 
cooking. There is no formal dining room but a plain rustic table, chairs and sideboard, 
which set off the richness of the two eighteenth-century Dutch marquetry pieces in the 

main room. These originally came from the Hotel Maille, where the mother of the 
Marquis <le Sade once lived, and were passed down to Isaure de Saint-Pierre through 
the female members of the Maille family. Madame de Saint-Pierre does not like homes 
in which the objects are displayed as though in a museum, so that she often brings out 
different pieces or changes their places. It is more interesting for her friends to discover 
new things and stimulating to her imagination as a writer, as this mixture in her flat of 
traditional, modern, erotic or exotic, helps to evoke a mood. Nineteenth-century black 
and white licentious engravings hang next to contemporary paintings given by the artists 

CixxoisSKlR February 1980 


themselves. In niches, on tables or on the walls," Kashmir bronzes, a statue of a sacred 
dancer from South India, a tanka from the Ladak border, Javanese shadow puppets, 
two pharaonic eyes from Egypt: small decorative objects brought hack from her 
frequent travels. More down to earth are the porcelain, the silver, the German angel's 
head in gilded and polychrome wood, the head of Christ from a Spanish procession 
figure. I sail re de Saint-Pierre used to look for things to add to her collection in London's 
Portobello market, but now hunts in antique shops in Normandy or in off-season fairs, 
such as the one in Antibes. An informal and heterogeneous background for a writer. 

Photographs: Gerry Tubby, 


A pocket-sized artefact brings together the genial 'fellowship of the turf ', 

the painstaking exactness of a centuries-old craft, 

and the ragaries of twentieth-century fashion; by Krika Speel 

DNNOiSSEl K February 1980 

I .'■', 

> I <iu r rases slum tug the technical 
ich could be achiei ed in the 

I mil /in I lit i ui/s . 

< lieloit i \ late nineteenth-century case n ith 
the run earl if London mark far 1HXS. 

i liiittmii > A tut, nineteenth-century ruse <>J 
( lermti ii origin 

The portrayal of horses has. of cours 
been an important part of the artis 
work for many centuries. The bi-eent( 
ary anniversary of the Derby this y< 
and the simultaneous exhibition to ma 
this event given at the Royal Acadei 
underlines this meeting point betwe 
men of action and wealth and the W01 
of tin- artist. Such pictures had to be mc 
than decorative, they were also requir 
as records and the paintings comm 
sioned by keen sportsmen were expect 
to show true detail. The profile, bread 
of forehead, arch of neck, slope 
shoulder and all the many subtle lin 
which are the hallmark of the thoroug 
bred had to be captured by the paint 
The length of the stirrup, the crouch 
the jockey and the angle of the reins a 
equally revealing of the correct practic 
at particular periods. This great ei 
phasis on accuracy of every detail is 
doubt the reason why equestrian seen 
were seldom attempted by the paint* 
of small cabinet pictures or niiniatun 
But in miniature enamel painting the 
could be sufficient sharpness of outlii 
density of colour and control of pigniei 
on such a reduced scale to allow accural 
and detailed copies to be made of t 
much larger equestrian pictures in 
and watereolours. The fact that the 
crisp, charming and finely worked e 
amel paintings are to be found embellis 
ing cigarette eases made during the fi; 
three decades of the twentieth century 
due to fortuitous circumstances 

For the space of one generation, the 
was still a fairly large number of snu 
craft workshops in Western Europe, h 
by this period the craftsmen could on 
eke out a meager livelihood because the 
was a sharp decline in the call for tin 
services. Competition from the industi 
ally produced decorative articles wi 
forcing family workshops to adapt ai 
change their methods to enable work 
be made more quickly and for le 
return. The enamellers. with their loi 
and highly specialised training and u 
doubted love for their work, found d 
ficulty in changing their methods. The 
continued, though now poorly repai' 
with the lengthy and metieuloi 
procedures that quality work require" 
Such work had previously been exclush 
to objects of much greater intrinsic vail 
than those being commissioned in the: 
changed circumstances. Among the art 
cles decorated during this period we 
the cigarette cases of which a larf 
proportion carried sporting motifs. 
( Cigarette smoking was at the time st 

n nled as a fairly new, somewhat elite 
p'j.sure and as such was particularly 
u .,| up by cultivated and leisured 
p pie, who as often as not had more 
tl 1 a passing interest in riding, hunting. 
n ngand travelling. The paraphernalia 
a iciated with cigarette smoking in- 
led, of course, the cigarette cases, 
w eh became favourite personal 
p sessions. The individual touch would 
h given by incorporating a personal 
e >lem, monogram or, best oi all. an 
e melled decoration. Knaniel could he 
fi d to objects made of gold, silver or 
(•i per alloy. The enamelled cigarette 
c, es which can be discovered by the 
e ector are generally of silver, the gold 

'S are very rare. For the lover of the 
h it or of racing, it was possible to order 
a igarette case decorated with a tine 
e unci painting depicting the chosen 
s hi or a detail of a stallions head. The 
e lerienced traveller on the Continent 
w'uld similarly enjoy a scene showing a 
c ich-and-four, evoking city life and 
v iter outings to the opera , or a sou venir 
p'ture of a white horse of the Spanish 

1 ling School of \ ienna. 

I'lie enamelling method by which this 
v rk was created was in the large- 
nniature on-enamel technique. The 
ciisp and detailed treatment produced on 
o asion almost photographic effects, but 
a a time when colour photography had 
rt yet been developed. Naturally, the 
i Teasing importance of photography, 
viich was eventually to take away the 
rniaturists' livelihood, was of assistance 
t the enamellers who could, if required, 
cpy from a print. However, much of 
t • miniaturists' work was based on 
s new hat earlier paintings; for example, 
t • racing pictures still showing horses at 
tii gallop in the 'rocking-horse' posture 
\th all four hooves off the ground (and 
i t in the true disposition of the hooves, 
viich was revealed for the first time in 
172 by the photographs taken by Muy- 
I'idge). But changes in the treatment of 
te painted enamelwork began to reflect 
miic of the new artistic trends, the 

< rlier gentle colours and softer outlines 
1 -re increasingly replaced by sharper 
( tlines, brilliant colours and more at- 
t ition to background detail. 

Although the actual shaping of the 

< ses was not any longer without niech- 
<• ical aids, it was still mainly a manual 
]ocess. The sheet silver was marked 
ad cut to size, pressed into the required 
: ape and polished by metalworkers. To 
nable an enamel decoration to be fired 
nto the lid. the metal had to be of 

( liihiu ) Silt //■ i/i/ti rette <<is, , i in portal into 
Eiojld ml <■ I'.i.'o, Herman n 

( Bottom) \ id ri i riuiiph 
i/olil ci(/arette ease. Such a seem i 
ordered on a shape chosen fro 
offered in i/old or silrer. 

INXOISSK! u February lUSo 


ii lliicknt'ss and shaped to with- 
\ s : 1 1 ■ j > 1 1 1 «_■ (luring the numerous 
i's winch would lie necessary to 
complete the enamelwork. A section ol 
the lid was marked and part ol the 
thickness of the met a I was cut away u ith 
a graver. I" leave a sunken panel into 
w 1 1 nli the enamel was to he hied. I lie lid 
was then reai I \ to he passed t<> the 
enamellers The laltel were still mam 
taming small workshops, often with 
I he same fan lib 
working together < hie ol the workshop 
uieiuliers would lie the craftsman who 
specialised in enamelling in the inlaid 
techniques and he would create the 
smooth foundation laser of enamel on 
which the painted work had to he based. 
Ili- would also general l\ lie t he craftsman 
who finally added the 1 1 u x 1 1 1 ^ over the 
painted work, which gave it the charac- 
teristic brilliance and glassy linish, 
protecting too the mure delicate painting 
pigments ratching in wear and 

tear I he enamel foundation was created 
in a series of two or three fine glazes: the 
enamel u;^ laid in as a paste m 
finely powdered form moistened with 
water b\ means ol a pointed ipiill or 
spatula; the moisture being dried oil the 

piece could lie hied, the enamel (using 

and adhering to the metal base. 'I he 

'fluxing . which crowned the final work, 
rei|iiired two very fine layers of colour- 
less enamel (flux); if too thick or in- 
correctly fired it would have veiled the 
carefully painted work beneath. A final 
poh slum; with soft abrasives was given at 
the last . to give a mirror-like brilliance to 
the surface. The painted work itself was 
the province of the artist. The artist of 
the team was often more volatile and 
restless than the other members of the 
group. Like the majority of miniaturists, 
he (or she, for this work w as also open to 
women artists) copied from larger oil or 
watercolour paintings, hand-coloured 
photographs or engravings. The painting 
was created either on a plain opaque 
white enamel ground or on transparent 
enamel over a giulloche background, 
which would give the painted work a 
border of brilliant , limpid colour. 

The traditionally trained enamellers 
and enamel artists were continuing their 
craft, making this genre of on-enamel 
miniature pictures at the period when the 
jewellers and craftsmen of the Arts and 
(rafts Movement . for example Fali/.e. 
Thesmar, Cunynghame and Wilson, 
were formulating their ideas and re- 
searching into Oriental and mediaeval 
methods of enamelling. The latter group 
w ere therefore advocating a return to the 

use of enamel in broad masses and 
flowing colours. In contrast, the en 
workshops were trying to perpetuate t 
refined methods developed in the ateh 
of I out in and perfected by I'etiti 
Bordier and their schools in the seve 
teenth century. The successors of the 
illustrious enamellers adapted the rain 
of available colours and the scope 
in i mat ii re enamelwork during the cours 
of the eighteenth, nineteenth and earl 
twentieth centuries, but, to the best i 
their artistic talents, they worked to til 
early high criteria and used essential! 
the same techniques. 

These precisely controlled miniatur 
techniques were those of on-enaini 
painting. The pigments used for thi 
painted work being not actually enamels 
but simply the metallic oxides which ar 
the colouring agents in the enamel. Th<l' 
mineral pigments, unlike true enamel 1 
could give dense colours, and were no 
subject to any degree of flowing durin; 
the firing, so that small work could hi 
precisely executed. The pigments wen 
purified, powdered as finely as possibli 
and then re-ground on a glass slab with; 
muller, this time with the addition of: 
drop of suitable medium, such as spike 
oil of lavender. In this way the powdered 
grains, though not able to dissolve, wen 


upended in the medium and could be 

^posited by painting onto the smooth 

amel ground. These colours could not 

i painted directly on metal, nor could 

■ v tire with a glossy finish. Hut they 

uld be mixed together to produce 

mv shades, they could withstand the 

irh-tempe rat ure Kring required to ti\ 

cm on the enamel ground and they 

mbined with the enamel to give per- 

anent colour. Although there are some 

nilarities to the painting of porcelain, 

i enamel the pigment fires into the 

ound, whereas with the harder porce- 

111 ground the colour remains on the 

rface, fractionally raised above the 

ickground. In on-enamel painting, the 

ork could be developed in a series of 

•ings and was in that sense built up in 

e way an oil painting is created, work- 

g from the broad aspects to the tine 

•tails. This gave considerable control of 

;sign and colour. First the outlines were 

awn in and the initial layer of colour 

as applied and as soon as the oily 

ledium had completely evaporated it 

mid be fixed by firing. Then the next 

yer could be laid in, and so on, over 

umerous firings. The firing was 

diieved by containing the piece in a 

juffle (or enclosed chamber) within the 

lrnace, to protect the enamel surface 

from soot and impurities of the charcoal 
or gas Haines. Each firing was extremely 
(jiiick, taking one minute or less, so that 
timing was all important - overfiring by 
even a few seconds could spoil all the 
foregoing work. The average firing tem- 
perature was 800 centigrade, with vari- 
ations according to the delicacy of the 
colours being used, (ienerally at each 
stage the painted work required different 
timing and temperature, the craftsman 
always judging the exact moment at 
which to withdraw the work. The colours 
requiring the hottest firing were applied 
first and the more delicate ones were 
given a gentler firing at a later stage. The 
need for this, plus the fact that the 
colours in their raw state do not show 
their fired hue is the main reason why 
enamel miniatures must be taken from 
existing pictures rather than from life. 

The famous enamelling centres of the 
past, such as Austria, Switzerland, Ger- 
many, France and England, were the 
countries of origin of the enamelled 
cigarette cases. The maker's marks are 
sometimes absent, blurred or untrace- 
able, but it is usually at least possible to 
identify whether a piece is of English or 
Continental origin by the silver mark 
inside tin- case. A date letter is generally 
shown and occasionally there is an im- 

port mark With rare exceptions, the 
enamel artists did not sign their work, 
but points of style can be help: 
attributing origin For ex, the 

English enainellers tended to use 
outlines and preferred opaque white 

The prices for plain eiga rette i 
the early years of this century differed by 
only a few pounds sterling from those 
offered with enamel. I he clients of the 
period or the collector of toda\ can 
hardly be blamed for perhaps concluding 
that the enainellers had found a facile 
way of creating these and 
delightful miniatures. Nothing can be 
further from the true (acts I nder these 
conditions, with the labour of many 
hours being so poorly rewarded, few 
apprentices were drawn into the craft 
By the late 1930s the few enainellers who 
still continued the centuries' old tradi- 
tions had become rare specialists. The 
even smaller number who still continue 
the old skills and the collector now can 
feel only the greatest respect for the work 
which only one or two generations ago 
was expected as the normal standard for 
this craft 


(L'ft It, r nihil 

Three eases slum nit/ different treatments: 
hi [Minted uork over translucent 

enamel over a (juilloche </ 
in) here the silver itself forms the 

background tlic exact silhouette 
of the horse s head hue tut) been cut 
nut to a depth of about !>.■> mm. the 
recessed area covered with white 
o/Mli/ue enamel iii/tl then the 
t ork superimposed . 
(tni painted work over plum white 
oputpie enamel . 

I'hofoi/ru j 

. \ ul u/ ues . 

el: ill 

onnoisskuk February lUSd 


Huguenot elockmaking in England, by Michael (I. ( 'o.r 

The Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 
1(>8H induced many Huguenot families to 
flee France and many of them came to 
England. Amongst these were talentei 
craftsmen, such as goldsmiths, silver- 
smiths, locksmiths, gunmakers, clock- 
makers and engravers. England was 
fortunate in reaping such a rich human 
harvest at a time when the skills of these 
men could be put to good use. The return 
of the monarchy in 1 ()()() saw the start of a 
'Renaissance' in this country after the 
previous sixty years, which had seen the 
end of the millenium planned and put m 
motion by Henry VI 1 1 and Elizabeth I, a 
king of England executed, the imposition 
of a dictatorship for twenty years and the 
attendant civil strife which inevitably 
followed, and the assumption of power 

by such a man and his followers. \\ it h the 
conclusion of ( Miver Cromwell s rule and 
ie restitution of the monarchy in lfifio. 
robabh some of the greatest advances 
were taken in the held <>l 'philosophy 
science). The following fortv years saw 
he formation of the Royal Society by 
iroclainat inn of Charles II. which iiiiiu- 
>ered Isaac Newton and I )r. Robert 
looke amongst its leading members. 
raft sine n of all kinds flourished with the 
(iiilding of houses, which reflected the 
eclectic tastes of their owners in arch- 
itecture and fine art . 

It is against this background thai the 

Huguenots were implanted and the 

purpose of tills article is to consider I u o 

oeks made by Huguenots -■ Daniel 

I )elander and Jean \\ adv. 

Connoisski H February 1!>S0 

lira Daniel 


Dealing first with the clock by Jea 
Wady, this was illustrated and describ 
in an article in The Connoisseur in 19' 
(December 1974, page 262/3). Some < 
the photographs used in the 1974 artic 
have been used again to show thesimila 
ity of craftsmanship in the cases and tli 
dials, also the style and quality of th 
engraving also case and dial feature; 
Daniel Delander was one of the re 
nowned makers of the early eighteent 
century and, looking at the two clocks, ; 
is easy and reasonable to conjecture tha 
Wady knew Delander and admired hi 
work, to the extent that he emulated itii 
his own clocks. Unfortunately little i 
known about Jean Wady, and not agrea 
deal about Daniel Delander, other thai 
the more plentiful examplesof hisclocks 
which exist and the rare examples of hi 

In his early career, it is known tha 
Daniel Delander was a journeymai 
assistant of Thomas Tompion. He wa 
admitted to the Clockmakers' Company 
in 1699, having served his apprentice 
ship from 1692 with Charles llalsted. Ii 
l?0(i he invented a safety catch fo 
ladies" watch-cases. In 1717 and 1722J 
evidently he had a brush with the lav 
which might indicate, certainly in tha 
second case, a determination to stand b\ 
his beliefs. The quality and execution 01 
his work both in clocks and barometers ii 
of a very high order, and these attribute; 
are well demonstrated in the spring table 
clock illustrated in this article. He i; 
known to have been working until 1721 
and his son, Nathaniel, was admitted tc 
the Clockmakers' Company in that year. 
Nathaniel was to become Master of the 
Company in 1747. Men with the name 
Delander appear both before and after 
Daniel and Nathaniel; R. Delander in 
about Hi 10; John, a case-maker admitted 
to the Clockmakers' Company in 1675 
and yet another, John, is known to have 
been apprenticed to Richard Conyers in 
1744. It is not the purpose of this article 
to determine the precise relationship of 
these other 1 )elanders to Daniel and his 
son. Mention of their names is solely to 
suggest that possibly the earliest one of 
all left France to practise his trade in 
England, only to be followed many years 
later by another generation, also Hug- 
uenot, for a compelling reason in Hi88 
and latterly to achieve recognition and 
fame for his work. 

A complete three-quarters view of the 
I )elander clock is shown ( 1 ). The bell-top 
ebony-veneered case has very sharply 
defined mouldings, with interesting 

iss mounting's. I he finely pierced ami 
ti raved frets to the front, sides and 
1 ( k are exceptionally well wrought and 
i interesting' to note that upon opening 
t front dour, the same I rets on the door 
g,i I the finely moulded brass break-arch 
sa round are repeated on the masking to 
i dial. 

rhe richly engraved side frets show a 
£.1 at delicacy (4). incorporating foliage. 
; 'hollo' bird seemingly within a cage 

1 Diana, the Huntress, with her 

hful hound. The back door of the 
1 lander clock ease (.'{), again with a 
( eful design repetition of the front door 
1 tss surround and beautifully formed 
f ts to maintain the symmetry of the 
I 'ak-arch of the front door. \ isible 
t -ough the glass is the backplate of the 
l (venient engraved with birds and 
I .age. The block for the carrying 
1 utile is recessed so that the middle 
I ger is not pinched, when the clock is 
] ked up for moving to a new position, 
1 ■ example, when carried upstairs for 
le in a bedroom or installation on its 
Ijacket upstairs where it could be heard 
1 others in their rooms. The brass feet 
;e l loulded in the same design as the 
1 int and back door surrounds. A elose- 
4 of the back-door frets is shown (4). 

The meticulous attention to detail in 
ie case and movement goes a long wax 
wards establishing Daniel Delander 
, nongst the en i incut clockn lakers of the 
ighteenth century, but the movement 
id dial further demonstrate this fact, 
he dial (!) has a conventional chapter 
ug with half-hour marks and graduated 

minutes, marked for every five- 

inutes interval with Arabic numerals, 

t cartouche is engraved with a fine 

)ld signature, 'Daniel Delander 

union'. The lenticle for the mock pen- 

iluiu, shows a backplate engraved with 

winged cherub. The two subsidiary 

als are for strike/silent and pendulum 

'gulation. In the arch is a calendar. 

The movement is two-train, with 

erge escapement, and pull-quarter 

peatmg work in six-bells for each 

uarter of the hour. The back plate of the 

lovement is in detail (.">). The large 

heels appearing at the top of the 

lovement are to operate the calendar. 

n many respects, the form of the wheels 

id pinions, together with the front-plate 

OI'K suggest a strong influence of 

homas Tompiou, and like Tompion s 

ddiction to 'fail-safe' mechanisms, this 

)elander clock performs flawlessly 

nder all conditions (even those carefully 

ontrived bv the author to demonstrate a 

tiNN'oissKl u February 1USU 

/ '■ 

11 (/(/// 

l)S sible failure of the pull-quarter 

peating work to operate at on*' minute 
, t| u . hour) Delander's |i«-n< luliiui 
i eking device is unlike am other the 

ithor has seen, and is reminiscent of the 
, insmith's art in its design. It is posit ive 

i,| sale w lien activated. So that there 

iould be no failure of the pull-quarter 
•peating work. Delander placed a 

nailer brass roller on the front plate. 

ith a guard over it to prevent the cord 
•oni getting loose. 

The similarities of style in engraving in 
nth the Delander and Wadv clocks are 
learlv shown ((>). The side frets of both 
lock cases were elaborately designed 
ml must have presented a considerable 
isk to the man who had to cut out the 
■ lain sheets of brass with a tine piercing 
aw in such a way that none of t lie delicate 

■tails of the original drawings was lost in 

the transition. It is reasonable to assume 
that bol h 1 )( landeraiid Wad.v would ha\ e 
known Huguenot engravers (possiblv 
Simon < iribelin himself), and tin: 
would have called upon the services ol 
such a man trained to produce the e\l ra 
ordinarily high qualitv of both clocks. 

Finally, the front views of both clocks 
are shown side b\ side < T ) . .lean Wadv 
chose to have his dial plate engraved all 
over, possibly to displav the subsidiary 
dials to better advantage. There are 
four rings and three apertures, which 
might have become lost it thev had been 
surrounded bv spandrels, I he engrav- 
ing of the chapter rings is similar on 
both clocks and so are the hands. 

That Daniel Delander was a clock- 
maker of great skill must be undoubted 
and. equally, it must be said that Jean 
Wadv was a master of the same art. 

*"X- ^ L» 

: I 


i owoissi i u Fchniaru 1USD 


|„. concept of the screen as a room 
[vider has been well-known since the 
Middle Ages when fixed screens were a 
mmionly used architectural feature in 
■ lurches and the (.teat Halls of large 
,uses. Although records exist from the 
fteenth and sixteenth centuries ol 
loveahle screens to minimise draughts 
i- protect against heat from tires there is 
ttle indication of their actual appear- 
Ince until after UiOO. 

I'ntil the middle of the seventeent li 
centun standard domestic firescreens 
were apparently of woven wicker and 
worked on a similar principle to the later 
popular pole-screen Several examples 
exist at Uardwick Half hue screens for 

I Far I, 
H. Xorma 

.,/ the ruin 

more important rooms such as one also at 

Uardwick, mentioned in MiOl asheing in Janus Furs 

the best bedchamber as a slcreyne with a Victor,,, an, I Mhert M 

carer for it of carnation relict iinhroilcrcil 

tilth ,/olde an, I a i/olde frein/c. were prob- ( licit 

1 six- fol , I ( hinese i • 
lacijiicr screen, I he 
hacLi/ronnil is seldom se, 
the most common colon i 
Mallet ami Son Limited, London, 


a en xltMi i -shaped 

i a loose screen cloth was 

nj pur [ilt Tapheta, 

andi/my up/ton 

ed and painted 

in\ enton of I lenn \ 1 1 1 in 

-ilil\ also ol this type, 
nyed, folding screens, used 
ipall.x lo exclude draughts were 
his al (In-- date ami were 
i . i ] I \ ci >\ civil wilh plain cloth, si mie 
mi one side on l\ . One yreat fouldiny 
w as recorded in an 
inventi >r\ for I lenyra\ e Hall in I (JOS. 

use nf screen* as a \ chicle tor 
displaying elaborate materials in coin- 
i heir functional aspects w as 
until the second halt of t he 
entun . I ndouhtedh the 
red f< id liny screens u ere I hose 
nf ( )riental lacquer imported primarily 
I iy the Kasl India Company. Although 
a skreens were listed anioiiR'st 
the possessions of Charles 1 after his 
death, lacipier screens were not 1111- 
ported in am sizeable quantity until the 
last three decades oft lie century. I )iiriny 
i a is of the eighteenth century 
became a common siyht in great 
houses and were referred to variously as 
India, Bantam or Japan work. 
The majority of these lacquer screens 
in fact I Vol n China although Japan- 
ese examples, first imported via the 
Dutch Kasl India Company, were later 
i rei I for I heir higher quality. \\ hile 
Japanese examples were decorated onl\ 
mi the surface, generally in gold reliel on 
,i I »lack ground, the majority of Chinese 
-i ii ens had incised and coloured deeor- 

al Since the nineteenth century. 

when the Kast India Coinpanv shipped 
of their goi "Is \ ia t he ( oromandel 

( 'i iast nf India, slicll screens ha\ e re 

d the em ineous name ol ( on niiiin- 
del \ four tn tw el\ e lca\ es. 

as much as (i feet (i inches in 
height. the\ proved too bulky in many 
cases fur domestic use and were Ire- 
; nt led and made into mir- 
nu's, , aides l>\ Knglish calii- 

akeis w In i had htl le or no regard for 
of the scenes depicted. In 
liarist John Kveb n referred to 
ii neighbour w here 
us instead <>J 
|>pi -a ret I in the hall. 

ds of the Kast India ( oinpam 
lilt!) show instructions to their super- 
ii purchase in addition to 
.linnets and tallies, board 

i nrniture makers 

.1 pole scran designed for the Etruscan 
Boom at Osterley Park House by Hubert 
Adam in 17??. The stand and frame are 
painted and the panel is oj embroidered 
silk. I he pineapple Jin tal teas a common 
feature on pole screens . 
\ ictoria and Albert Museum. London. 

'ummmmmsmmmm iz,. 

t-krccn-Stick or pole screen of wrought 
i ornamented « ///' sileer from Ham 
fittse. Petersham. Tins screen is listed 
i ,n inventor)/ of the house in It'n'.i. 
\ 'una and Albert Museum, London. 

mi arrival in Kiii'o|K', At the same time 
Knylish and I > 1 1 1 < - 1 1 designs were briny 
scut to the Kast in ;iii ;ittclii|it to produce 
work more appropriate tor t lie Kuropean 
market. Individual commissions were 
aUo ma ilr and screens < lisp lay i i ly (iyurcs 
in Kuropean dress ran ustialh be 
explained by t hese pract ices. 

I )einand for lae<|iier screens yradualb 
outgrew supply and imitation lacquer <>r 
japanning was practised in Holland. 
Krai ire and Knjjand from the KiSOs 
onwards. Alter the middle ol the eiyh- 
teenth century the popularity ol' lacquer 
screens diininished although the\ con- 
tinued to lie imported in small quantities 
until the early years of this ecu tun . 

Also popular during the seventeenth 
and early eighteenth centun were 
screens covered with j_;ill and embossed 
leather. I )i-eorate<l leather lias tradition- 
ally been associated with Spam, lull 
evidence exists to show that an Kny'lish 
^ill leather industry was well established 
in London by c. I(>?0. The embossed 
patterns at this date were either ol formal 
geometric design or ol fruit, flowers or 
foliage, flic gilded effect was usuallv 
produced by the application of several 
layers of yellow varnish over a silvered, 
and therefore less costly, background. 
The Use of <_i 1 1 1 leather for wall haliyiliys 
retained its popularity until about I ?.">(). 
but its use for screens extended well into 
the nineteenth century. \lan\ ol these 
later examples were covered with rem- 
nants nt old w albhanjjiiiy's rather than 
the made to-incasiirc screen panels ad 
vertised b\ specialist leather producers 
during the pre\ ions centun . 

Other coverings for folding screens 
included a wide ran fie of textiles from 
plain linen to tinelv embroidered silks, 
and canvas or leather panels painted in 
oils with figures, landscapes, birds and 
flowers. During the eighteenth centun 
Chinese or 'Indian wallpapers were 
particularly popular, either imported or 
produced m Falkland. In 17(10 the lilew 
Paper Warehouse m Alderinanbu r\ . 
London , ad\ erf iscd a great 
Skreeus ainoiifisl other tilings oj ( 
figures and Colours, in 17."><) 
Indian I'ictitn herein was supplied to 
Kensington I'alace h\ the cabinet n 
lienjaniin < ioodison. 1 )esimi> for 
t w ( >-h >!< 1 screens in ( hippendale s 
' 1 >iteetor . I T.~> I . also show panels i if 
( hinese papers. 

While folding screens were used as 
room dividers ami to v i Iraiifihts a 

la rfjer \ ariet \ is evolved as a 

protection auainst heal After c. I ?0(l the 

i\M Hssi.i h f-'chruuru I'.iSd 

must coi union type was the horse or ch i 
type where a panel, either fixed h 
adjustable, was held between o 
uprights, supported by a stretcher <) 
usually surmounted by a carved crest 
Chippendale described them as 
screens which stand on four feet when 
panel was sometimes intended to slide 
out oj the pillars that tire m eacli sidt 
generally small size of cheval sen 
allowed for a vast range of decora 
treatment and panels were varioi 
covered with printed or painted pap< 
engravings, watercolours, embroidi 
silks or velvets and tapestry or neei 
work. Popular throughout the eightee 
century were needlework panels, 
ed by the lady of the house and fron 
1?.")0 onwards their efforts occasion*,' 
extended to designs made with tea 
or rolled paper. During the latter par I 
the century screens sometimes incluc'j 
tapestry panels en suite with upholsted 
furniture and wall hangings in 
French manner. During the 1790s 
early 1800s pleated silk became popul 
The backs of screens were lined eit! • 
with paper or silk. 

Variety of decoration increased dur 
\ ictorias reign. Papier mdehe becam 
fashionable medium after 1840 and la, 
painted or stained glass and double gl. 
panels enclosing colourful arrangeme 
of stuffed birds, butterflies, ferns a 
How crs also became available. 

Similarly varied in decoration, but It 
so in style, were pole screens in which t 
height of a small panel could be adjust 
by sliding it up or down a thin p< 
supported on tripod feet and fixed b\ 
small screw or spring mechanism. T 
earliest existing example is the Skret 
Stick garnished with silver at Ham Hous 
first recorded in a 1(>79 inventor 
Seventeenth-century examples such 
this were of wrought iron, the panel or 
being of wood. After 1700 iron w 
usually replaced by walnut and later 
mahogany. Towards the end of t 
century rosewood, sat m wood or gild< 
and painted woods became more po 
ular. While early examples invariab 
had rectangular panels, after c. 17' 
shield and oval shapes wore conmio 
The variously ornamented panels we 
often protected by glass. From c. 17i 
onwards pole screens were fashionab 
made in pairs, one to stand either side 
the fire. Dr. Johnson is said to ha> 
commented we now hare twice as mai 
fire screens as chimneys. 

The basic form of pole screens cha: 
ged little until about 17!)0. Sheraton 

i Drawing Book', 1791-94, described 
i etail a mechanism whereby a pulley 
v- set into the hollow pole and a weight 
, t ,g enclosed in the tassel, the screen is 
• >r need to any height. He also claimed to 
H.e devised a pole screen on <tn entire 
u plan, it being designed to turn upon a 
-, rl which fixes to the ease, and passes 
f ugh the bottom rail, so that the screen 
n > be turned to any position without 
n\ ing the stand. 

iter 1800 the rather spindly tripod 
, s were replaced by solid triangular 
, •ectangular bases resting on scrolled 
'< . During the years 1815 to c. 1850 
) ner pole screens became popular 
a M-e the solid panel was replaced by an 
i rained piece of textile suspended 
'i n a wood or metal cross-bar. Some 
a -e elaborately draped with fringed 
j ' tasselled borders. 

)uring the nineteenth century small 
ii nbers of fan screens were also used to 
p itect the face against heat. Small hand 
s,eens, usually in pairs, were made 
fm about 1800 onwards and in IK.'W 
Ludon's 'Encyclopedia' illustrated an 
aortment of larger fan screens which 
c lid be clipped on to the back or sides of 
a hair, 
rhe latter three decades of the century 
sjv a revival of interest in folding 
s ecus, to a large extent promoted by 
t ■ fashion for Japanese interiors. Three 
c four-fold screens covered with 
c corated paper or embroidered silk, or 
ride entirely of lacquered wood, were 
i ported directly from Japan, while at 
t' same time British manufacturers 
{ )duced wooden screens incorporating 
I -ces of the former in their own inter- 
p'tation of the Japanese style. During 
t ■ lS!)()s imported Moorish wooden 
s-eens enjoyed short-lived popularity. 

Throughout the nineteenth century it 
vis fashionable to decorate folding 
s ecus with prints or cut-outs from old 
( contemporary newspapers or mag- 
< mes. The paper was generally glued to 
i anviis backing and heavily varnished, 
j though usually associated with the 
riddle and late years of the century, the 
■jaetiee had earlier origins and was a 
flogression, albeit amateur, from the 
(ghteenth-century use of screens to 
i splay prints, paintings or wallpapers. 

After 1900 folding screens gradually 
eclined in popularity, proving unsuit- 
ply cumbersome for modern homes. 

Ithough cheval and pole screens simi- 

rly lost sight of their original function 

ey are still highly valued for their 

corative appearance. 

,1 walnut clicral screen with afi.reil panel 
of needlework. English, c. 171ft). 

Sotheby's London. 

iN'NOISSKI If February l'.tSO 


I l, r~\ 


i in; i.i :\ 


.1 \p\\i;si. n >s i \ms 



b\ M noun 

(I .'i in I 
\|i I'ual 

Kyoto last 



V'es ill 
catali iglie. 

iniiMial for 


• .it .1 Paris 

bidding in 

■ mil of I lit 1 sale. 

ii '.H I \ 

Iding anil t lie result s 

included. 'I lie 

ii' lispla\ id in I he 

i ' ; ' uTial lightii 

list , in i irder tn 

i ' • 1 1 n i r 1 1 1 jj As all 

c ilycs of these 

' i ■ . i I I ' I < 1 1 1 1 1 ' k I \ 

I Im |ilates 
\< illi'iit quality 

Ii I Hi' I IN 
'. .' I I 1 1 1 ' 

on in I IS!).*) 

: " 1 1 1 1 1 1 ile 


I.i \ i 

veil red 
■ hi I \ 

I ; 

The mam attraction of the sale was an 
II plates b\ Katsiichika Hokusai 
IS1!)), which made 1 . 450,000 francs 
I !. |l!4,!)(il I. The series Thirty-six i ieirs of Fuji 
included the well-known [date (heat ware off 
ujtiicu which inspired Debussy' La Mcr. 
In its original binding, the allium contained 
live out of the ten supplementary plates. One 
of the most original ukioy-e artists, Tashusai 
Sharku, known to lie working in IS!)f and 
IS!)."), was represented 1 >\ two prints. His 
(lose up portrait of the grimacing actor Arashi 
Rviizo made 245,000 francs (£27,87.8). 
\notlier example had fetched £5,000 111 
Sollieliy's sale of the \ ever collection in 
March ID? I- and 19,200 in their Carlhian 
auction in November of the same year. The 
actor ( )sagawa Tsuneyo u in a female role 
was sold lor ISO. 000 francs (£20,478) com- 
pared to the £0.200 paid for another example 
in the ( a I'll nan sale, which was entirely made 
upofworks - extremely rare by Sharaku. 

One of the most delightful things about 
Japanese prints, rarity , quality and condition 
apart, is the movement of the figures, the 
contrast of figured textiles and the har- 
ms a nil subtle colouring. Lime and olive 
green, salmon pink and black were the main 
colours of the charming chuban by Suzuki 
Ha rui ml in ( I 7 IS- I 770), showing two women 
holding on their large hats as they sway in the 
autumn wind. It made 110,000 francs 
(£15.928). Kitagawa Itamaro ( 1753-180<i) is 
as well known a name in the West as 
Hokusai. I I Hie were seventeen prints of Ins 
in the I,e \ eel sale, including one of a 
concubine holding her urinating child, des- 
cribed by Kdmoiid de (ioncourt in his work on 
Itamaro (SO. (Mill francs; £9,102) and an 
attractive woodcut of a woman do my her hair 
Mom a series illustrating a selection of love 
poems (190.000 francs; £21.<>1(>). I'tagawa 
illii(17fi!) 1825) w as another artist well 
I in the sale, with eight prints, 
including two portraits of actors, which made 
(ill 000 francs I L<>.82f>) and 75.000 francs 

Tin second and third parts of the I.e Veel 
collection, of equal importance, will be auc- 
nd ot I !)S0 and sometime in 
l!)Sl Filly woodcuts by Itamaro, to be 
included in these sales, are to be loaned to 
Japai vhibition Toulouse-Lautrec - 

held from .human to June 

Too nteresl in an art form stops 

It i- considered t hat 'late spells 

I - recent exhibition in Paris. 

Japonaise' showed, however, that 

Japanese graphic artists have 

and technical brilliance as the 

former masters, albeit with different means 
expression. The first section showed post* 
from 1747-1944, beginning with tradition 
prints which were, it must be said, f'ai 
run-of-the-mill and of poor quality in coil 
parison with the splendours in the Le V< 
collection I p until the early tw< 
century, the subjects remain classic: inassr 
Sumo champions, puppet theatres, texti 
shops, actors, calendars and, later, pha 
niaeeiitical and beauty products. Lith 
graphy and off-set began to be used from tl 
1900s. After a period of sugary Madan 
HutterHys advertising everything from ele 
tricity to shampoo and wine, the J a pane 
posters of the late 1920s and '80s show 
decided Art Deco influence Aviation, tl 
cinema and heavy industry now appear 

The second half of the exhibition shov 
sixty posters by contemporary artists i 
international renown such as Shigeo Fukudi 
Za/.iimasa Nagai, Tadanori ^l okoo. Like the 
western counterparts, they use every avail 
able technique, but with such itnaginatio 
and high technical quality that the posted 
have quickly become collector's items. Thj 
third section, contemporary street posters 
shows the continuation of the tradition; 
advertisements for Sumo fights, the Kabul 
theatre and puppet show s of the old Japan. 

The exhibition will be shown in the Muse> 
d'Angers until the end of February and in tfo 
Musee (antiiii. Marseilles, in March. Il 
Paris, it was held in the Musee de I'Affiche 
IS rue de Paradis. lOe. The museum, whicl 
was opened m February l!)7S, is in a con 
verted late nineteenth-century industria 
building composed of iron pillars and glass 
roofing. It used to belong to the ceramii 
works of Choisy-le-Roi, whose pictora' 
faience panels still line the walls. With < 
collection of around 50,000 posters, flu 
museum has an interesting programme plan 
tied for l!)S0: late nineteenth-century posters 
(January-April), Belgian posters (May- 
September) and graphics by Cappiello and 
(heret (winter 1980/1981). 

Lynne Thornton 


(Far I- 

t Hum I uli -i by I I<k/ii a 11 1 1 

1 1 ;r,u i,s ■:• • ,,< th< ■ 

I urn i fii rn ami (hint / 


Oban Tate-e by Tosliiism Shtirui.ii 

(//. / V.l'j-lV.l'i) of the tutor Arushi l\ 

Other crumples nj this rare print 

\ ei er, ( 'urlhimi mill I'opper collections . 

ti actional in lU7'f mill /.'','> 


(Far left) 

(llimi Tate-e by Kitayaiea I tamaro 

1 1 ;:,.!- ISDH). Woodcut printed in delicate 

colours on n shimmering rose mica around 

from a series illustrating lore poems. 


Foster for the dress designer Issey Miyakt 

by F.iko Ishioka, IU7, 

(He/, in left) 

Foster in offset. lUID. by liyiiyo Machida 

l I S 7 I - I '.).',', ) fur n st emu ship company. 

I He I,,, i ) 

Wootlcut In/ ki/osen ail i trtisi uij u 

general store, c. l'.t(lt). 







iNMHSSKI H February I'.IStl 

I'll, lirilisli In 



>.l May ll>H(l 


WM'i I lay w aid \iimial , w hen a 
mist "I i hsilhisionment w ith 
in I lit* press, (lit' 
in Britain lias lict'ii 
fil and disl urhed IVter Fuller's 
■ I Im-cii heard tin- y ear 
in l!(7(i Today the eisual oris in 
a thin, lifeless tradition, 
ntradiiiioiis and i mag i ii (I 
ii i ill no real audience e reept the 
: ! \nl suprisingly, 
other iritii - began to confirm Fuller's 
diagnn lain artists rushed to art s de- 

fence David Hockney and H B Kitaj ap 
pea red naked on the cover ol the Sen lie new 
( February l!)7?) as part of a publicity stunt to 
nte a return to figuration. Two young 
artists, will al support from a leading 

set up the magazine \rtsenhe to assert 
alidity ol pi ist mi ulernist alist ractii m 
rd ( ork, in sudden reaction against the 
extrei imal and highly conceptual art 

that he had previously praised, demanded a 
•eated the making of 
street murals, political lianners and co- 
operative projects . 1 rtjor soe tety 's sake, wrote 
in a inn rallying erg, and 
iglil at again 
With such an array of conflicting view- 

The Arts Reei cued 

puiiils, each urging the artist in a different 
direction, it is not suprising that this survey of 
contemporary painting and sculpture is con- 
fused and confusing. The selector, Financial 
Times critic W illiam Packer, chose each artist 
on his or her individual merits and made no 
attempt to set up schools or stylistic group- 
nigs. Presented with great seriousness, the 
show assumes familiarity with the various 
debates and practices informing contempor- 
ary art. With almost 300 works by i 12 artists, 
great demands are made on the visitor who 
needs enthusiasm and a conscientious eye to 
stay the course. 

The abstracts range from the painterly and 
haphazards to the geometric and constructed 
No greater contrast could be found than 
between the paintings of Michael Mayer and 
those of .John Edwards, in The Aura of Joseph 
'Cornbread Thomas', Meyer's staccato co- 
loured bands stitch their way across the 
canvas in waves that gradually swell as they 
reach the top, creatinga visual crescendo. Its 
impersonal, mathematical precision releases 
lyrical expression. John Edwards, on the 
other hand, proceeds from chaos to order; he 
fulminates in paint, seizing on a deliberately 
ugly shape, adding layer after layer of loose- 
ly-brushed colour until an intense, sombre, 
even majestic end is reached. Between these 
two extremes falls a whole range of abstract 
art: vigorous and strident (.John Walker and 
John Hoy land), semi-Cubist and decidedly 
decorative (Bruce Russel and Martin Ball), 
classical (Prunella dough), or tasteful to the 
point of effeteness (John Mclean and Barry 
Martin). Despite its uneven quality, the 
abstract section is the strongest in the show. 




continuing that painting, the death of wh 
has for decades been predicted, is still ve 
much alive. 

The representational work is, by contra 
curiously mute and introverted. The st 
lives are sparse and nostalgic, gentle med 
ations on a private world Much of the hgi 
ative art is quirkly, obsessive, personal a 
non-political. Marry Holland's soft-focus rei 
ism explores an aspect of contemporary li 
that all can approach, but the uneasy relatio 
ships between his figures remain deliberati 
unexplained. Admittedly this section h 
caught three greats - Freud, Kossoff ai 
Michael Andrews, but the absence of Au< 
bach. Bacon, Kitaj, Caulfield and 1'et 
Blake is hard to explain. 

With the sculpture, the selector faced tl 
added problem of size, as a touring exhibitii 
inevitably limits the scale of three-dimensio 
al objects. Packer seems to have favoured tl 
well-made, the elaborate carpentry of B 
Scott or John Cobb, the skilful elision 
Gavin Scobie's Hook Sculpture,the clippt 
seductionism of form in John Waine's e\< 
gant stone carvings. The show introduces J 
a wide public Janet Nathan's spiky ws 
constructions made out of driftwood and W 
Rogers' piles of torn (taper. Here and elss 
where we can see that significant lat 
seventies media have been, not polishe 
steel and rugged bronze, but crumpled papt 
and rotting debris. 

A show of this size, devoid of perceptiv 
groupings, mixes the good with the lei- 
successful. Yet overall a mood of uncertaint 
prevails. There is a noticeable lack of audai 
ity and originality, a tendency to tinker wit 
highly personal issues, with the subtle, low 
key, the ordered and polite. Packer look 
with optimism at this reactionary element: . 
per mil oj reflection and consolidation is no ba* 
thing he writes. But dissatisfaction wit! 
modernism coincided with growing doubt 
about the viability of an ever-expandinj 
economy; and if art acts as a thermometer t< 
the health of society, then a sad failure o 
nerve has been revealed. 

Frances Spaldini 

l.aetitia Yhap. I )oris and a lad helping Paddy 
and Flasher Dick and Tom coming ashore 
1976 1978. 

The Arts Reviewed 

i 'ward Lear's Mount Kanchenjunga 
m Darjeeling, 1K77. 
leLeger Galleries, 13 Old Bond Street, Wl 

Iward Lear (1812-1888) was an intrepid 
iveller. By the time he was sixty, he had 
plored parts of Italy, Greece, Corsica, 
bania, Turkey, Egypt and the Holy Land, 
ten getting to the most remote and curious 
aces - Mount Etna, Mount Athos, Sinai, 
>u Simbel and Petra. Restless by nature, 
s asthma provided an excuse tor avoiding 
e damp English winters and he moved from 
le winter home to another - Rome, Corfu 
(I the south of France - before building a 
>use in San Renin in 1871 . But no sooner had 
j settled in Villa Emily than an invitation 
inie from Lord Northbrook, soon to be 
iceroy of India, to spend some months there 
s his guest. After much dithering Lear 
ecided to go, but the preparations for the trip 
mounted almost to pantomime in their 
nnplexity and confusion. Eventually, after 
lore havering and a false start, lie arrived in 
iombay in November 1S7S He was sixtv- 
neand not in the best health, but managed to 
ravel hundreds of miles throughout the 
ountry, often in gruelling conditions, sketch- 
lg continually, despite overwhelming tropi- 
al heat or biting Himalayan winds. His mood 
uctuated between delight and wonder at the 
olour and beauty of the country and exas- 
peration and despair at the Frightful 
uss - tickets - baggage, bother - tumult to 
>hich he was constantly subjected. 

He spent three weeks in the Governor's 
louse in Calcutta but found u<> rest in Htist- 
efussabad and was glad to leave and travel 

north towards the Himalayan mountains. In 
January he went to Darjeeling by garry - an 
uncomfortable journey on the bumpy roads, 
especially as he had hurt his bottom falling off 
his sketching stool when it broke - for lie hail 
four commissions to paint the mountain of 
Kanchenjunga; as they drew nearer, the view 
became continually more and more lovely. 
Although it was so bitterly cold that his 
servant Giorgio had to pile coats and blankets 
on him to keep him warm, he made numerous 
sketches from various viewpoints, and took 
the expedition very seriously. Writing in his 
'Journal' on IK January he recorded that we 
were on the highest point above the church by 7. 
The mountains were clear anil most wonderful , 
but it was an Jul cold. Vet I drew on till nearly 10. 
Kinchinjunga is not - so // seems to me, - a 
sympathetic mountain, it is so far off- so eery 
God-like it - stupendous, - and all that great 
world of dark opal tallies full of misty, hardly to 
be imagined fornix, - besides the all but im- 
possibility of expressing the whole as a 
scene, - make up a rather distracting and repel- 
ling whole. I le was up early again the next day 
to sketch from Weathercock Point: Kinching- 
junga at sunrise is a glory not to be forgotten; 
Kinchinjunga in the afternoon is apt to become u 
wonderful hash of Turneresque colour and mist 
and space, but with little claim to forming a 
picture of grand effect. Again, the following 
day: Yet rising up in tlw dark is the only possible 
way to get this south Himalayan scenery riveted 
into one's memory, but he still found the 
complexity of the mountain very difficult to 
draw and he was disturbed by the birds that 
whistled and squeaked. ( )n £] January he 
wrote: Out of doors by 6.1)0. Clear morning. 

Kinchinjunga altogether cloudli 

sun rises, but all and everything 

points, iias hidden by mist Only a 

pass, mostly carrying loads of some sort . all 

a cheery lot, hut easily dirty. Sear sunset, in 

ii ere at the little Buddhist shrine, a picture, tilth 

Kinchinjunga clear rosy, heightened beyond 

A couple of davs later the fog descended 
and he left. Despite his diffi< ulties lie had 
done well, and he put his sketches ami 
observations to good use in the oils and 
watercolours which he later painted. In them 
he captured the clarity of the early morning 
mountain air, and the majesty and mystery of 
the mountain, with the lower peaks ami the 
valley veiled in mist, and the strangeness of 
the scenery, although the stiffness and lack of 
warmth in the oils shows that he was not <pnte 
in tune with his surroundings. 

He left India for San Re-mo at the end of 
IM74 and spent the following summer in 
England. Soon after he had arrived he noted 
in his diary for £5 June that Louisa, Lady 
Ash hurt on hail commissioned a large Kinchin- 
junga from him - the first .specific mention of 
the picture illustrated here. Several years 
earlier Lady Ashburton had. after some 
delay, bought one of Lear's first large-scale 
oil paintings, The Cedars of Lebanon, but this 
was for only t>200, much less than Lear had 
originally asked for it. By the middle of 
August 1H7.">. however, Lear had fixed a price 
of £700 with Lady Ashburton for the Kanchen- 
junga oil and, back in San Remo, a month 
later, he referred to the progress of both it and 
two other hiiichinjungas for Lord Aberdare. 
He worked hard on the pictures for the rest of 
the year and shipped them to London in May 
IS?? On '51 August he was present at the 
hanging of the Ashburton picture: The great 
Kinchinjunga was taken off at '.) - and on my 
reaching Rent House, it teas brought there, and 
then hung up in the Dining Boom - u here it does 
look STCSSISC - Back to Duchess Street where 
instantly set to work on the outline of l/trd 
Sorthbrook 's Kincli i nj u ngu . 

Lord Northbrook's was a replica of the 
large Aberdare canvas, the rocky ledge with 
the Buddhist shrine and figures to the left 
rather than the right. Both are dated 1<S7!I. 

A great many drawings of the mountain 
scenery and the figures to which he referred 
in his Journal' survive (several in the 
Houghton Library, Harvard) some mere 
pencil jottings, others with coloured washes 
and others finished watercolours. ( )ne. m 
a private collection, but formerly with the 
Leger ( ialleries, is taken from much tin 
view point as the Ashburton oil, an' i 
been one of the preliminary designs tor ii 

CONNOISSFXR Feburary 1980 


i Seaport: 

I'll.- I Sheba. 

.1 M \Y. Turner (1775-1851). Dido building 
'it ( art huge, or The Rise of the Carthaginian 
Kinpire. /#/.<, / ">>; ■ i. US metres. 
Satutnal (Itillery, London. 

'Painting in Focus' is resting, at least tem- 
porarily. This very successful series of 
National Gallery exhibitions which taught us 
to look with concentration at one picture ata 
time has given way to 'Second Sight'. Now we 
are asked to look at two canvases, to compare 
and contrast. The new series begins, aptly 
with the two seaports, Claude's Embarkation 
oj tlir Queen <>j Sheba of l<>48 and Turner's 
Dido building Carthage of 1815, which have, 
under the terms of Turner's will, hungsidebv 
side in the gallery since 1856. 

Why devote an exhibition to two paintings 
we can see together any day of the week? 
Perhaps to make us see afresh anil to revise 
the common opinion that Turner was trying to 
out-Claude Claude. Turner's canvas is ad- 
mittedly bigger and brighter than its Claud- 
ian model but it is far from being a pastiche. 
As Michael Wilson points out in the booklet 
he has written to accompany the exhibition, 
Turner's use of a Claudian composition was 
an act of homage and the meaning of the 
picture is specifically Romantic. 

For Claude the title of his picture was not 
important, being conditioned in this case by 
the desire of his French patron for a Biblical 
rather than a classical theme. What was 
needed was an excuse for the grandeur of the 
scene and its superb effects of light. But for 
Turner the choice of an episode from the 
tragic history of the Carthaginian Empire was 
loaded with contemporary moral signifi- 
cance, to which, as Ruskin recognised, every 
detail of the painting contributes. The hopes 
of a new dawn may prove delusive and two 
years later The Decline of the Carthaginian 
Empire (Tate Gallery) made explicit what win 
implied here. That the rise and fall of empires 
might contain lessons for modern Englishmen 
was not a new notion, at least in literature, but 
the completeness with which the theme has 
penetrated a painting is unique to Turner. 

The two pictures have been attractively 
hung in a setting designed to suggest the 
country house world where Turner first would 
have seen Claude's landscapes and where 
many of his own works were displayed. The 
Claude seaport has been cleaned specially for 
this exhibition and its cool morning tones and 
gentle brushwork contrast more than ever 
with the more forced colour and agitated 
paint of the 'Turner. In an adjoining room a 
selection of slides with a commentary puts the [ 
paintings in context; many of the other works 
referred to can be seen in the National 
< lallery. 

'The next 'Second Sight', Titian's Portraitof j' 
a Man with a BlueSleeve and Rembrandt's Self ' 
Portrait Aged 3b, will run from 8 October- || 
? December Mare Jordan 

Sir William Nicholson 
Dame Mane i\ • n 1 1 >« ■•-.( . I'.IO.i. 

One of a group of portraits, purchased l>\ the 
National Portrait (iallery, between April 
1<I?.S and March l!)?!l. The exhibition which 
will he on show from \\ I )eccniber 
1979 - March 19K0, includesa bronze head of 
intii the Duke of Kdinhurgh l>\ Lranta 
Belsky and a full-length portrait of Walter 
Strickland, the Civil War Diplomat and 
Cromwell's ambassador to the I nited 
Provinces, by l'ieter Nason. flic contempor- 
ary portraits include (iraham Sutherland's 
proHle of Lord ( 'lark and Benedict Nicolson 
by Kodrigo Moynihan. 

Know th Tumulus - decorated stones 

( 'itmmwHwners <>j f'uhhr Works in Ireland. 

A Sense nt 1 re la nd is a I'Vst ival of the I rish 
Arts taking place in London from I Februarv 
to !."> March l!)S(). The exhibitions include 
The \ isiial Arts, Theatre, Photograpln , 
(rafts, and (ieneral Kxhibitions. The latter 
include 'Ancient Monuments Irish Sites' al 
the it \ (iallery from 7 February to Hi March 
and 'The Kvolution of Irish Architecture' al 
the Royal College of Art from \> Lehman to 
H March Lnquiries to Maureen Bagnall, l.">0 
New Bond Street, \Y I Telephone: 0I-49.S 
:W() I 

- i ^ 

F.arly Knglish Watcrcolours from the 

.1 I. Wright ('..II 

I I Januan ■> March I9K0 

This is the first time thai .1 1, Wright's collec- 
tion of Knglish eighteenth- and nineteenth- 
cent ur\ watcrcolours has been shown 

in Birmingham, as an entire exhibition. 

I he collect ion, presented to Birmingham 
Museum and Art ( iallery, me hides the works 
ol Richard Bomngton, J.S.Cotman, David 
< ox, J R ( ozens, (iainsborough, J. F.Lewis, 

Samuel I 'aimer a in I Thomas Row landson. 


John Frederick Lew is, 
\ Spanish Landscape 
Rtrmingham Museum and Art Gallery. 


I homas < iainsborough 
\ \\ oode<i landscape 
Rtrmingham Museum and Art Gallery. 

■"■' '■• :■£■'"* -.' •'■ '.•A-fc^-.,.- 

X* %'tWti 

;,, r v, 

llu^li Hughes The Pleasures of the 
Kail Load ( aught in the Railway. 
Rublislwd by S.Guns, London, 
etching, hand coloured. 
This is a direct reference to the opening of the 
<ool nail Manchester Railway in, 
mi which occasion U illmm lluskisson. Member 
oj Parliament fur Liverpool was knocked down 
and died set erul days later. 

I' ron i \ Sense ol 1 1 ii n mi ir ', an exhibition of 
cartoons, satirical sketches and caricatures 
the I Ituii ( 'ollection, on sln>\\ at ( oach 
House ( iallerv , I >arl>\ Road. ( 'oil irooki laic, 
" 1 March 1980. The 
exhibition will include cartoons, satirical 
sketches and caricatures from the Kltoil 
( ollection, allocated in HITS to [ronbridge 
I hese cxI pict the effects of the 

Industrial Revolution, ridiculed by the artists 
-.1' the daw 





- ■ //,/// /f//f,// ' 




y J.M.Addis 

pages, 38 illustrations, 

2 colour and 3 line drawings 

,ondon: British Museum Publications, 


This book is a catalogue of twenty-two 
>ieces of Chingtechen porcelain presen- 
ed to the British Museum by Sir John 
\ddis, a former British Ambassador to 
he People's Republic of China. As 
Embassador, Sir John had exceptional 
ipportunities to visit not only provincial 
nuseums and art-historical research in- 
stitutes in China, but also Chingtechen 

Sir John's gift includes both Ying- 
Ch'ing and Shu-fn wares as well as 'blue 
and white' and 'underglaze red', and it is 
in suggesting the relationship between 
these white wares and those decorated 
with cobalt and copper that the im- 
portance of this book lies. Moreover, as 
Douglas Barrett, formerly Keeper of 
Oriental Antiquities at the British Mu- 
seum, says in his Foreword, it also 
provides a fitting pictorial record of a 
splendid gift t<> the nation. It does more; it 
also provides an Introduction containing 
a scholarly interpretation by Sir John of 
the outstanding problems of the period. 

Our understanding of the porcelains 
made at Chingtechen in the fourteenth 
and fifteenth centuries remains im- 
precise and incomplete. By the late 
Yuan period, around 1330-1335 AD, two 
main streams of white wares were being 
produced there: Ying Ch'ing and Shu-fii. 
It is, however, not easy to determine 'the 
earliest group of pieces decorated with 
cobalt oxide", that is underglaze blue and 
white. In the author's opinion 'the early 
essays in underglaze painting were made 
for the most part on wares with a Ying 
Ch'ing glaze' whilst blue decoration in a 
rapid style of painting was applied to Shu- 
fu stem-cups with moulded decoration. 
He suggests that this rapid style of paint- 
ing, which was best suited to mass 
production, had its origins in a more 
tentative or experimental style which has 
still not been identified. It is, however, in 
sharp contrast to the careful style of 
outline and icash used on the large dishes. 

bonis, mei-pings and Kuans, produced in 
great quantities for export and in small 
numbers for the home market during the 
Yiian dynasty. This group, which de- 
veloped from the Ying Ch'ing wares, is 
conveniently dated by the famous pair of 
temple-vases in the Percival David Found- 
ation; these have a dedicatory inscription 
dated to 1351. Hecent evidence indicates 
that this group was made at Hu-t'ien 
kilns at Chingtechen. These wares, ac- 
cording to Addis, are quite distinct from 
the few underglaze-red vessels such as 
the mei-pings at Hakone and in the 
Yamato Bunkekan, Nara, which appear 
to be Yiian. He considers that this group 
was made at a different workshop or came 
from a separate village within the general 
Chingtechen complex. 

Addis considers that coloured 
glazes - brown, red and blue - of which 
very few examples have survived from 
the Yiian dynasty, developed from the 
Shu-fu wares rather than YingChing. He 
suggests, moreover, that, apart from 
certain small pieces, each workshop at 
Chingtechen . . . developed a distinctive 
style of underglaze decoration and confined 
itself to n single pigment either red or blue. 
Nevertheless there is one group which is, 
he says, decorated indiscriminately in red 
or blue in the same style so that it is 
sometimes impossible to fell whether the 
pigment used teas copper or cobalt oxide. 
Unfortunately there is neither arch- 
aeological, epigraphie nor literary ev- 
idence for the dating of this group. 
Moreover there is no firm evidence of the 
type of wares made at Chingtechen 
during the reign of the Ming Ilung-wii 
Emperor. 1368-1398, in the last three 
decades of the fourteenth century. Thus, 
since the only criterion for dating tins 
group is style, Addis prefers to attribute 
it to the time of the great social and economic 
upheavals at the fall of the Yiian dynasty 
on the grounds that in style it is nearer 
Yiian in manner than Yung-lo and 
Hsiian-te. Not all scholars, however, 
accept this view. In particular Miss 
Margaret Medley, in 'Yiian Porcelain 
and Stoneware", suggests on stylistic 
analysis that the watershed in the stylistic 
evolution from ) iitin to Ming came about 
towards the end of the century. As Sir John 
rightly says: There can be uncertainty, and 

it is only a surmise either nay. adding': 
Perhaps one day fresh archaeologicu 
deuce may give a clearer indication I ntil 
then it is well to remember that stylistic 
analysis without primary evidein 
support it holds many a pitfall for the 

Addis, after having visited Ching- 
techen and seen the recent excavations 
there, particularly those at Hu-t'ien, 
suggests that the manufacture of high 
grade blue and white" there ceased 
before 1370 and that it was not resumed 
until 14"20. By the time of its revival 
styles had changed and these changes, he 
considers, max be traced in the white 
wares which during this period replaced 
'blue and white". He then goes on to 
examine the wares of Yung-lo, Hsiian-te 
and Ch'eng-hua. Not all would agree, 
however, that the wares of Ch'eng-hua 
are even slightly inferior to those of 

All those interested in fourteenth and 
fifteenth century 'blue and white' will 
welcome tins scholarly monograph, as 
well as those concerned with the de- 
velopment of Chinese white wares from 
Sung to ^ ung-lo. Each piece is separate- 
ly described and discussed in detail ami 
illustrated. The colour plates are first- 
class and the black and white illustrations 
show significant details. This is a splen- 
did publication. It is surprising, there- 
fore, that the select bibliography does 
not include Sir John's papers 'A Visit to 
Ching-te Chen" and 'Hung-wu and 
Yung-lo' published in the Oriental 
Ceramic Society Transactions, IU?. r >-]'.)??, 
So. hi- W.H.H.Scave-llill 


at the 


( axti hi Book Fairs - 

Antiquarian Hooks, Maps and Prints, 

at the Rembrandt I lotel, 

( 'romwell Road, I ondon SW 1 

( Ipposite ilw I ; ■ \ 

I hursdav, February 21st, 10a n 


connoisseur February, 1980 



\iiiifiiiui , 

ill I pilars l!-t colour 

lid I IiiiImh 

I -.; i ] 1 1 1 « ■ v anni Pctsopoulos ami Michcal 

v who gathered much of t lie photo- 

iterial ami helped in the research . 

,i I achie\ emeiil in publishing 

'In 1 1 1 1 . -. t detaileil studies 

- textile art The sheer 

mi in I » i i.l pieces illustrated and the cove rage 

of all known families ul' kihins a-- well as 

llistolii lieees makes t Ills all CSSeil 

dice book suited to as w ide a 

readership ;is interest in kihins has been 

atl racl 1 1 1 <J 1 1\ el' the past tell 

It w ill nil longer lie ueeessan tor members 

eral pulilie who w ish to buy their 

lirsl k 1 1 1 1 1 1 to (jive dealers nr friends the 

uii pi issiblc task ' it choosing lor them or trying 

t.i explain what thev want The huge photo- 

of this book w ill (five people 

tin- opportunity nt seeing Jlisl what sort they 

like It has the advantage of placing photos of 

• I l< i each other ami 

so dra ii to t heir siibt le differ 

I hi- is a t unit ion w hull t hoilsands ol 

w i Hi I - < a mint ' 

Most of tl mdred ...Id kihins illus- 

trated w ere made during the last hundred ami 
.re i ilten made as di iw r.v 
.a for home use Hut b\ that tune tin clear 
w Inch probably originally deli- 
mited different tribes had fused and the 
author is careful to attribute families ol pieces 
tn bi i Marriage am I forced and 

1 I. in- . .I (lie w ea\ ers make one 
is painstaking exer- 

; .t to establish ei nil 

: led st uih ul t he -,( riletu re i .1 
■id end tllilsliev 

ive pin 't' i- 
- and coiii|iositions are 

k 1 1 1 III s 
. than formulating anv 

ll I hat exists 

■ of writing (or 

died captions mav 

.'iint; Hut. 


-i rl\ Persian kihins, are un- 
II probably 

Shandv . m 

moments of deep doubt, perha|>s soon after- 
wards. Most of these kihins an- very decora 
live and it is a combination of their colours 
and abstract geometric designs which appeal 
to our western eyes. The photographs are the 
strength of this book and thev provide a rare 
and excellent opportunity for the reader to 
find out what he or she likes. Many people 
must wonder what exactly makes a kilim 
great , * on may want to handle them all but 
the next best is to look at the photographs in 
this book. It is instructive to share this 
experience by going through the photos with 
si linn me else. 

I must declare that I have come to kihins 
late, if at all. Because of this I have taken the 
luxiirv of appreciating non-classic kihms 
purely \ isiially which explains my reluctance 
to accept an academic approach. 

At L'.'5S t he book may seem expensive, but I 
think that you get your money's »vorth. Of 
course, as si ii hi as you have bought a kilim for 

anything between WOO and £5.000, the I k 

becomes a reasonable expense, providing 
excellent reference Robert Chenciner 

I III I M.USH Hi il s| 

by Hermann Mutlwsius 

Edited by Dennis Sharp 

Trill/slated by .hunt Schgmaii 

-iW pages. ~t-> f illustrations 

London: Crosby Lock wood Staples. L'50 

Those who have enjoyed Mark (iirouard's 
'Life in the Kngl ish House' (and who has not : ) 
will find this book no less fascinating. Hut 
here, instead of a synoptic survey, we 
have at . alas, five t lines t he price - a study 
in depth of the Knglish house at the turn of the 
present century. It was a tune when, almost 
incredibly, half the laud of Lnglaud was 
owned bv no more than 150 people, and of 
Scotland bv onlv 7.V but the coimtrv was 
exteinely prosperous and a great main new 
houses were being built. Architects and 
designers ol even kind were in great 

The genesis of this book makes a curious 
-lnr\ It would seem that a number of people 
in (ierman (ioveriunent circles were so struck 
by w hat the \ regarded as the high standard ol 
i -in 1 1 fort in Knglish houses, middling as well as 
gram I, that they decided to appoint a kind of 
architectural attache on the staff of their 
London embassy to investigate and report 
flu- choice fell on Hermann Muthesius 
I Ml 1 1 9-2?), who performed his task superb- 
ly His extremeh long book, 'Das englische 
I Iaus'. was published in Berlin in 1904/5. and 
bv 1**1 1 all three volumes had gone into a 
d edition Hut until now thev have 

never been available m English. They have 
now been abridged by I )enuis Sharp to make 
a large single volume, admirably translated 
by .Janet Sehgman. 

Muthesius was a great Anglophile, and 
what he specially admired about our houses. 
and indeed about us, was a relatively high 
standard of taste compared with the Conti- 
nent, and in particular a lack of ostentation. 
I le saw our houses as a continual reflection of 
our national character, and also of our damp 
climate. Hence to the English a room without a 
fire is like a body without a soul, ami all the 
furnishings hail to be subordinated to the 

He considers the siting, planning, exterior 
aspect and every conceivable internal ap- 
pointment, even down to the design of towel- 
rails and soap-dishes, of modern English 
houses as he knew them, w it h an emphasis on 
country houses but not by any means only on | 
the large ones. Pleasantness and practicality 
are continually emphasised. The outstanding 
domestic improvement of the nineteenth 
century was. he held, the concept of the 
water-closet. And England, as the country of its 
birth , bus ei cry reason to be proud of it. ( >n the 
decorative side William Morris is seen as a 
master of the first order in his textile and 
wallpaper designs, towering over all his 
contemporaries. William Hinges, by con- 
trast, tin' must talented Gothicist of his day , built 
for himself at !) Melbury Road, Kensington, a 
distressing house which may be described in one 
word, non-culture. The Victorian period was 
flic cm of the ultimate in bail taste, from which 
the Arts and Crafts movement provided a 
most welcome reaction, without, however, 
reaching the artistic perfection of the Knglish 
interior under Adam and Sheraton 

Mistakes arc few: I have only found two of 
,• t i i v consequences. One is the quite unac- 
countable statement that there is no sand- 
stone in England and that the country is 
poorly endowed with building stone. He also 
declares that the English wish to stock their 
gardens unci- mure with native English plants, at 
exactly the time when every year was bring- 
ing marvellous new introductions from half 
the countries of the world. In the preface 
Mutliesiiis thanks heaven that in England 
there is no trace of art itouieau. How odd. 
therefore, to find that the cover of his second 
edition, reproduced here, sports a distinctly 
Art Nouveau design, probably by Frances 
McNair, sister-in-law of Charles Hennie 
Mackintosh. Hut this is not the note on which 
to end For the breadth and thoroughness of 
its survey no less than for the soundness of its 
aesthetic judgments this book is altogether 
remarkable Alec Clifton-Taylor 

. tv „ ' I „ 

Kclward Ardi/./.one 'Letter ton I'Yieml .pen 
U 7 'A niches. I'rirute ('i)llectuili, I 

(iiil>riel White's 'Kdward Ardizzone. Artist and 

unfortunate coineideiiee. a lilting memorial I ol 

prolific contemporary artists Ardizzom was first kno 

illustrations, then came the Second W orld \\ ar and In- . 

an official War Artist, lie had an ama/mjj eye l'oi 

caricature, and these were to l>e ii seil to yrea t effect in iiuinei 

to family and friends alike. The death of Kdw an I Anil/ 

a great sadness in many an admirer s enjoyment of I h i- i n i 

( lit',' pages, -2"):? illustrations, I I colour. London: liodlcy 11. . 

Michael Lyne. Tim Durant. pencil inul leafercolonr 

Illustrated in 'The Michael Lyne Sketch Book . written and I Nil 
by Michael Lyne ( l!l illustrations. ->\ colour and 70 pencil dr;i 
(lieringtoii, (doucestershire: The Standfast Press. Special eilil 
.">() copies with different original pencil sketch: £.'1(1(1; Limited edit ion of 
.")()() copies, signed by the author L'.Mli. Michael Lyne has collected 
together a most charming miscellany of his favourite w atercolour and 
pencil sketches ami added Ills own account of the stories behind them 
They confirm the author s enormous talent as one of Britain s greatest 
sporting artists and this I took can only give an abundance of 
pleasure - as in the story of Tim I )urant who rode in the Knglish ( irand 
National three times, the last when aged (is in IlKiS anil this when he 
had been threatened with a leg amputation for malignant I >< me cancer 
Paul Mellon, to whom tins book is dedicated, would I feel, have 


CONNOISSEUR February 1981) 


r 1 


w ^ 

r ^ 


Norman Adams Ltd. 

Luis Road, Knightsbridge, 
Ion SW3 
rd 01-589 5266 

FiHf 18th-century English Furniture and 

Work'' of Art 

Thos. Agnew & Sons Ltd. 

43 Old Bond Street, London wi 
Tel: 01-629 6176 

Paintings, Watercolours , Drawings and 
engravings of all schools 

Alexander Gallery 

I 3 1 )uke Street, London swi 
Tel: 01-930 3062/3 

Fine 17th, 18th and 1 9th century Paintings 


29-31 George Street, London win 5PE 
Tel: 01-486 0678 

Fine antique furniture , glass , paintings, 
bronzes, objets d'art 

Asprey & Co. Ltd. 

165-169 New Bond Street, 
1 < union wl y Oar 
Tel: 01-493 6767 
Cables: ( lulleus, London 
Telex: 25110 

Antique silver, jewellery, miniatures, fine 
period furniture, clocks and watches, objets 
d'art and Faberge 

Bentley & Co. Ltd. 

65 New Bond Street, London wiy 9DF 
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Antique jewels, Antique watches, Jewelled 
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H. Blairman & Sons Ltd. 

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18th century Iumiture, Regency Furniture, 
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vntui y British paintings and 
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Bluett & Sons Ltd. 

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The Bruton Gallery 

High Street, Bruton, Somerset ba 10 oab 
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Specialists in European sculpture of the 19th 
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321 Kings Road, London SW3 

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Early Naive Paintings. Also young artists 

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Crane Kalman Gallery 

178 Brompton Road, London SW3 
Lei: 01-584 7566 

20th century British and European Masters. 
Younger British artists. (Also unjustly 
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Andrew Simon Crosby 

PO Box 510, Edinburgh 10, Scotland 
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Oriental Carpet books and books on Glass 
Collecting. Catalogues tree on request. 
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T. Crowther & Son 

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Euston Gallery 

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Paintings and Prints, 50 page catalogue 36p 

Fine Art Society 

14S New Bond Street, London WI 
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Fischer Fine Arts Ltd. 

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Fox Galleries 

5/6 Cork Street, London wi 

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Cables: Foxart London wi 

Telex: 268048 Extldng 

Fine Paintings British and European 1700 

to 1965 

S. Franses 

71 Knightsbridge, London swi 

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and Works of Art 

Frost & Reed Ltd. 

41 New Bond Street, London wi 
Tel: 01-629 2457 

18th-l9th century English and Dutch 
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Modern French Paintings 

Fry Gallery 

58 Jermyn Street, St. James's, 

London swi 

Tel: 01-493 4496 

Cables: Fryart, London 

English Watercolours and Drawings oj the 

18}h and 19th centuries f 

The General Trading Company 

144 Sloane Street, Sloane Square, 

London swix qbl 

Tel: 01-730 0411 

18th and 19th century English Furniture, 

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Christopher Gibbs Ltd. 

1 18 New Bond Street, London wiy 9AB 
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Old Masters and Works of Art 

Richard Green (Fine Paintings) 

44 Dover Street, London wi 

Tel: 01-493 7997 

18th and 19th century English Paintings. 

17th and 18th century Dutch, Flemish and 


17th to 19th century European Paintings. 

Grey-Harris & Co. 

12 Princess Victoria Street, Clifton, 


Tel: Bristol 37365 

A leading West oj England repository for 

jewellery, Old Sheffield and quality Electro 

Halcyon Days Ltd. 

14 Brook Street, Hanover Square, 

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18th and early 19th century English 


Papier Mache, Tole, Treen, Tortoiseshell, 

Porcelain and prints. Fine contemporary 

Bilston enamels 

,1. Harris & Son 

(./52 New Oxford Street, London 


el: 01-636 2121 

ine 18th century English Furniture and 

forks of Art 

!. R. Harvey & Co. (Antiques) 

7-70 Chalk Farm Road, 

ondon nwi 8an 

ine 17th to early 19th century furniture, 

ocks and Works of Art 

leim Gallery 

9 Jermyn Street, St. James's, 

ondon swi 

el: 01-493 0688 

)W Master Paintings and Sculptures in 
mrble, bronze and terracotta 

Ai\ne Henderson 

'9 Mount Street, London wi 

Tel: 01-499 2507 

Chinese and Japanese Paintings. Japanese 

creens and prints, Oriental Embroidery 

-lennell Ltd. 

J Davies Street, Berkeley Square, 

.ondon wiy 2NY 

Tel: 01-499 3011 

Antique and Modem Jewellery and Silver, 

domestic Silver by the Hennels from 1737 


19 Old Bond Street, London wi 

Tel: 01-493 1394 

Jewellery, Antique, Victorian and fine 

Modern Silver 

George Horan 
(Oriental Antiques) Ltd. 

38a Kensington Church Street, 

London w8 

Tel: 01-937 9532 

By appointment to the Corps 

Diplomatique. Fine Oriental Ceramics, 

Bronzes, Jades, Ivories, Carvings etc. 

lona Antiques 

Stand 11, Antique Hypermarket, 

26 Kensington High Street, London w8 

Tel: 01-937 7435 

19th-century English animal paintings 

Alan Jacobs 

8 Duke Street, St. James's, London swi 
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Specialising in 11th century Dutch and 
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Alexander Juran & Co. 

74 New Bond Street, London wiy odd 
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Old and Antique Caucasian and Oriental 
Rugs and Carpets 

R. A. Lee 

1-9 Bruton Place, London wi 
Tel: 01-629 5600 and 499 6366 

Works oj Art, Fine Furniture, Clocks and 

Little Gallery 

5 Kensington Church Walk, London wK 
Tel: 01-937 8332 

Tuesday to Saturday 11 a.m. to 6 p.m. 
or by appointment 

18th, 19th and 20th century Watercolours 
and Drawings 

London Art Centre 

15/16 Royal Opera Arcade, Haymarket, 

Pall Mall, London swi 

Tel: 01-930 7679 

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carved framed traditional English oil 

paintings on canvas 

D. M. & P. Manheim 
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69 Upper Berkeley Street, Portman 

Square, London wi 

Tel: 01-723 6595 

Member B.A.D.A. Specialist in Fine 

English Antique Porcelain, Pottery, 

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6 Albemarle Street, London wix un 
Tel: 01-629 5161 

Cables: Bondartos 
Fine impressionist and 20th century 
Paintings, Drawings and Sculpture. 
Graphics and Photographs by leading 20th 
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6 Duke Street, St. James's, London swi 

Tel: 01-930 8665 

Cables: Miles Art London 

Gallery hours: Monday-Friday, 10 


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I 'ictorian Paintings and Old Masters 

John Mitchell & Sons 

8 New Bond Street, London wi 
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32 Bury Street, St. James's, 

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English paintings and drawings of the 17th, 

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Tel: 01-930 3222 

Specialists in 18th, 19th and 20th century 

English watercolours. Art consultants and 


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generations. Also at Harrogate 

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Marine, Military, Topographical and 

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Watercolours, Old Maps, Ship Model 


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European Works of Art 

Phillips & Harris 

54 Kensington Church Street, 

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Tel: 937 3133 

Selected European, Oriental furniture and 

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Piccadilly Gallery 

16a Cork Street, London wi 
Tel : ( ) 1 -629 2875 and ( ) 1 -499 4632 
British Figurative Painters, International 
Symbolist, Jugenstil Works, Museum 
quality. British and Continental Drawings 

Pitt & Scott Ltd. 

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Tel: Ml -607 7321 
Telex: 21857 

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18th century Chimney Pieces, Crates. 

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showroom condition including lacquer and 

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iture and Works of Art 

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Tel: 01-589 8481 3398 
Telex: Pavant 917447 

Members of'B A.D A and C.I.N.O.A. 

I ine Chinese, Continental and 
English Porcelain and Pottery 

William Walter Antiques Ltd. 

I ondon Silver Vaults, Chancery Lane, 
I ondon w< 2A los 
Tel: 01-242 3 

ilists in antique silver and old Sheffield 

in antique silver 
date throughout the world 

Weston Gallery 

Weston Longville, Norwich, Norfolk 
Tel: Norwich 860572 

Dutch and English Paintings from 17th- 1 9th 
century. Norwich School and Dutch 
Romantic Masters 

Louise Whitford Gallery 

25a Lowndes Street, London swi 
Tel: 01-235 3155 

Late 19th and early 20th century English and 
European paintings specialising in works of 
Australian and Middle Eastern interest 

Wildenstein & Co. Ltd. 

147 New Bond Street, London wi 
Tel: 01-629 0602 
Cables: Navild, London wi 
Telex: 267155 NavildG 

Old Master and Impressionist Paintings and 

Williams & Son 

2 Grafton Street, London wix .ub 

Vine Traditional English and European 
Paintings from the 19th and 20th centuries 

Temple Williams Ltd. 

Haunch of Venison Yard, Brook Street, 
London wiy [AF 
Tel: 01-629 1486 

Fine Regency Vurtiiture, Works of Art, 
I aluations 

Winifred Williams 

3 Bury Street, St. James's, Lond gj 
Tel: 01-930 4732/0729 

Important IHth century English ant\\ 
Continental Porcelains and Enamel 
Collectors' pieces of Museum qualit 

W. H. Willson Ltd. 

15 King Street, St. James's, 
London swi y 6qu 
Tel: 01-930 6463 

Vine Stock of Antique Silver 

Christopher Wood Gallery 

15 Motcomb Street, London sw 
Tel: 01-235 9141/2 

I 'ictorian paintinos, drawings and 
watercolours, studio pottery , works 

Harriet Wynter Ltd. 

352 Kings Road, London SW3 
Tel: 01-352 6494 
Telex: 21879 Harriet 

Antique Scientific Instruments a 
secondhand and Antiquarian Bool 
history of science and technology 

Charles Young | 

Second Floor, Old Bond Street 1 1 
6-8 Oid Bond Street, London w 
Tel: 01-499 11 17 and 491 3430 

English Paintings 1600-1900 and 
Old Masters 


Sublime Little Pleasures 

•tors Harvest specializes in surprises. Our only 

1, cloisonne, ivories, 
, Bronzes. Surprise the one whom you 
..Or, surprise yourself! 

Crown Center Hotel 
" Lobby Level 
One Pershing Road 
Kansas City, Mo 64108 

shortages in Diamonds 

and Preeious Gems 

makes it imperative for 

us to purchase fine jewelry 

from private collections. 


Call (213) 278-0811 for 
information and out t ^a 
brochure, "Selling £\ 
Your Jewelry" 

332 N. Rodeo Dr. 
(Street Level) 

Beverly Hills. CA 



Dayton & Rodeo 



$ ;iv>< h !,i in >;i <: ^SBlaSIsSIslsIsSS^ : 


19 Thy 

^ ( \ )iin< hsm-i 


( ' I \\l K POI I s 


'An exceptional wax polish' sold in association with 
the Connoisseur Magazine 

Renaissance is a professional blend ol letined fossil-origin waxes 
\miIi unique cleaning and protective qualities li is ahcadv used 
in main p.uts of the world In discriminating experts I his 
superlative wax polish revives and protects all surfaces, gentlv 
lifting the grime of antiquitv and leav ing a limsh dehghtlul to see 
and touch I he surface glows with repeated applications 
With the consent of the British Museum, acknowledged leader 
in conservation research, the polish is now heing made available 
to the public. 

I'ricc pel tan. UKhidiiiL' packing 

postage and I in t k onlv I \ \ 1 

/SI In Mail MO (Ml 

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Kazanjian jewels 
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Mallett & Son (Antiques) Ltd. 
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National Antiques A Art Dealers Association 
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O'C irady Galleries, Inc. 

Phillips Auctioneers 

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Phillips Ltd., S. J. 

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Shrubsole Ltd. 



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Wakeheld-Scearce Galleries 

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West German Antiques Fair, Diisseldorf ic 

Wildenstein j>a 

Wyoming Foundry Studios, inc. 42 

















PHONE: 01 211.1933 


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John Frederick Peto i 1854-1907), Hanging Violin. Bow and Note Book 
Oil: 14 x 10 inches: signed on verso: 'Painted by m> father/John Frederick Peto/Helen Peto Smilev 


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1 53 




March 19H0 Volume 203 Number SI? 

Sculpture by Excision 

The art of the Victorian fine art engraver, by Rodney En'gen 

The second coming of the Vikings 

The Victorian idea of the Vikings, by Will Allan 

The Viking World 

A major exhibition at flic British Museum, by Virginia FitzRoy 

The Dutch Masters 

Paintings from the Sarah Campbell Bluffer ( 'olfaction, 

by Christopher Wright 

1K+ Timber! 

. . . and the design of furniture, by Ben Bacon 

l.SS Great Interiors 

.1 preview of a new feature for The Connoisseur 

196 Urban beauty and Rural peace 

Japanese art from the Mary and Jackson Burke ( 'ol led ion 

204 Connoisseurship in Sapphires 

The history and recognition of fine stones, by Benjamin Zucker 

209 The Roycrofters of East Aurora 

An episode in American arts and crafts, by Carol Bohdan 

216 The Arts Reviewed 

Front cover: Viking iron helmet from Valsgarde, rectangular panels, 
lower half chain mail, the crest and eye-guards in bronze. 

P.arlg consideration will be gn en to MSS accompanied by suitable photographs. Alt /tough due care 
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A cabinet's 

a better investment 

when...'s well abore 
cabinet rank. 

As Vice President. 
Nelson Rockefeller 
chose it for the 
Foxhall Road home 
furnished with 
his own acquisitions. 
A wall cabinet of 
matched and mitered 
padouk (scarcer than 
mahogany), made 
in England circa 1760. 

With gilded car) at id 
heads and scrolls. 
Three full shelves, 
eight drawers. 


For an ap i Hutment to new in a Georgian townhouse 
off Park Avenue, call Sew York (212) 794-2545 
Cable address: WELLASTIQ SEW YORK. 


(PstuMtsbcii 1SJI5 



40" - 50" 

Night Anchorage Foochow 
by Henry Scott 

Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts 
Member of "Cape Homers*, the International Association of Master Mariners 

We will be pleased to send interested collectors photographs of the few paintings available 

Tel. 01-839 7693 


pk ( \i>r 

Tel 01 -4< 

International Auction in Copenhagen 

on 29th and 30th April, at 1 p.m. 
On view: Four days prior to the sale or by appoi 

Catalogue on request. 


Nicolaes van Gelder: Nature Mortc, signed and dated 1667, 110 x 87cm 

sale will include 1 6th- 19th century paintings, rugs, clocks and watches, 
European and Russian silver, works by Carl Faberge, early Meissen porcelain. 
and a large collection of German glass and oriental works of art. 


Auctioneer of Fine Art 
33 Hredgade DK-i 260 Copenhagen K Denmark Telephone +45-1-13 69 11 



K6nigsallee13und21/23-4000Dusseldorf1 • Telefon (02 11)370041 ■ Telex 8 581 444 hwd 

Important Old Master, 19th and Early 20th Century 

European and American Paintings 
Auction— Wednesday, April 2, 1980 at 7 p.m. 

Eugene Modeste Edmond Le Poittevin (French 1806-1870) 
"A Harvest Repast by the French Coast" 
Signed Hug Le Poittevin and dated 1855 
Oil on canvas 40 x63% inches 

(Irish 1878 1931) 

1 ' . inches 


Rubens Santoro (Italian 1859-1942) 
"Venetian Promenade" 
Signed .md dated 1880 
Oil on canvas 27Vi x 21% inches 

ated catalogue, including postage and post-sale list $8 in the U.S.; $11 in Europe 


day, March 29: 10 a.m. -5 p.m.; Sunday, March 30: Noon-5 p.m. 
Monday, Man h 31: 9 a.m. -7:30 p.m.; Tuesday, April 1: 9 a.m. -5 p.m. 

ested in the Purchase and Consignment of 15th-early 20th ( entury paintings and prints. 
immission with no extra charges Please contact Susan Powell 

William Doyle Galleries 

175 East 87th Street, Mew York, MY. 10028 Telephone (212) 427-2730 





Monday, April 21 and Tuesday, 

April 22 at 8 p.m. 

to be held at 

Bayfront Auditorium 

499 Biscay ne Blvd., Miami, Florida 

Telephone (305) 446-3436 

Oriental Ceramics, Hardstones and Bronzes 

Continental Porcelain 


Fine Paintings and Sculpture 

A Collection of Important Japanese Swords 

Exhibition: Sunday, April 20, 2 p.m. -9 p.m., 
Monday, April 21, and Tuesday, April 22, 1-5 p.m. 

J.F BLANCHE, French. 1861-1942 
"Content p I a Hon" 
Oil on canvas, 50* x 38*" 
Signed and dated lower right 




Exciting Premiere Auction in Atlanta 

Monday, May 5 and 

Tuesday, May 6 at 8 p.m. 

to be held at 

81 Peachtree Park Drive, Atlanta, Georgia 

Telephone (404) 237-1779 

Fine 18th and 19th Century 

French and English Furniture 

and Furnishings 

Continental and Oriental 

ncelains and Objets d' Art 

ine Paintings and Sculpture 

3 and Sunday, May 4, 2-9 p.m. 
} and Tuesday, May 6, 1-5 p.m. 





ers s 

.1 fine 





Walnut seaweed mahogany knee-hole desk. English, circa 1800 


ce De Leon Blvd., Co 

are still being accepted for these forthcoming sales. Please contact any of our offices 

MI Auction can be accepted until March 15. and tor our firs/ ATLANTA auction the closing date is March 25th 

10% buyers premium 
illustrated catalogue for either auction $5 ppd from any of our offices. 
" e. Suite 200, 3340 Peachtree Rd., N.E., Atlanta, Georgia 30326, (404) 237-1779 

orida 33134, (305) 446-3436 • 905 N. Railroad Ave., West Palm Beach, Honda 33401, (305) 659-1755 

A very rare Queen Anne cream lacquer cabinet decorated with vases of flov. _. 

with a scarlet border; the doors opening to reveal many drawers inside all decorated 

with flowers, birds and animals on a cream ground. English circa 1710 

Illustrated in 'Masterpieces of English Furniture and Clocks', page 78 and 79, by R. VV Symonds 

Height 2' 2>/2". Depth 1 ' 5". Width 2' 2'/ 2 " 

™ X£*^P& 59 N (ANT'QUES) LTD., 40 NEW BOND STREET, LONDON W i Y OBS. TELEPHONE 01-400 74 1 1 f < lines) 
Abo in NEW YORK : MALLETT of LONDON, P.O. Box 396 N.Y. 10028. Telephone : (2 1 2) 876 9033. Telex : 62580 


iii^i TMltMlf^l T^lT^lT^rf^lT^lr^ f^ TMf r^lfMl rMt ?^l T^ll^lTmlTMlrMfTMl T^n^l IMFr^l r^fi^l 


)ndon win 5pr 



29-31 george /treet london win 5pl 

tel. Ol -486 0678 

fine antiaue furniture 

obietx a art 





nt was painted in 1 91 9 and exhibited attheCarnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, U.S. A. 

39in. (99cm) x 31 in. (79cm) 







\ ^s 

Established 1674 

Sale 15th-19th April 1980 

Black lacquer Cabinet-on-stand, China 18th Century 

Furniture, Paintings, Silver, Jewellery, Carpets, Ceramics, Glass, Arms & Armour, Sculpture 

Illustrated catalogue available. 

Jakobsgatan 10, Box 16256, S- 103 25 Stockholm 
Tel: 08/14 2440, Sweden 


Mayorras Ltd. 

Member of the BADA Ltd. 

Tapestry of third 
quarter of fifteenth 
century, c 1475. of a 
group of 
woven in wools and 
silks in naturalistic 
tones of blue, green 
brown, mulberry, 
beige, ivory, etc. 
Excellent condition, 
edged with coral and 
saffron galloon 

1.70 m x 92 cm 
(5' 7" x 3' O1/2") 

38 Jermyn Street, St. James's 

London S.W.i Telephone: 01-629 4195 

JEAN-LEON GEROME (1824-1904) 

Femme Vol lee (Veiled Woman in Arabian Dress) c. 1890 

Bronze dore with tinted marble face, arms and feet; the buckle of 

the belt inset with enamel; mounted on a circular red marble base. 

Height: 27", width: 12 W- 

Signed and numbered on base. 

Provenance: American Art Association, January 22-23, 1936 

George F. Harding Museum, 1973 
Illustrated: Lea Arts, 1905. 
Exhibited: Galerie Tanagra, Paris, April, 1974. 
Jean-Leon Gerome exhibited sculptural works at the Paris Salons 
from 1878 ij il the end of his life. The artist was proud of his 
ability to w»U marble to bronze using the most advanced tech- 
niques, althoug this manner of working proved to be very expen- 
sive. This rare iind important work, with its use of tinted marble 
and inlaid enamel, is indicative of the innovative "chryselephan- 
tine" method Ge tJEzed in an attempt to achieve realism in 
his figural wo 

featuring the Fines 
Arts and Crafts Fu 
Art Pottery 

■of-the-gentury Decorative Arts 
c Paintings 

rips and Accessories 



U (212) 533-3900 
n Tuesdav throueh Saturday. 1 1:00 A.M. - 6:30 P.M. 


Sublime Little Pleasures 

Collectors Harvest specializes in surprises. Our only 
business is buying and selling antique jewelry, 
Faberge, art glass, Russian enamel, cloisonne, ivories, 
jades, silver, bronzes. Surprise the one whom you 
lold dearest. Or, surprise yourself! 

Crown Center Hotel 
Lobby Level 
One Pershing Road 
Kansas City. Mo 64108 



Banana Leaf #1 by Pegge hi 

Acrylii on canvas 43" x bb 

The Jack O'Grady Galleries is happy to 
announce Ms. Pegge Hopper's first show on 
the Mainland. Although she was born in 
California, she has lived the past seventeen 
years in Hawaii. She spent many years study- 
ing in the United States, and then several 
years abroad, coming back to make her home 
in the Islands. 

We cordially invite you to visit our gallery 
for this special exhibition and sale to be held 
March 21 through April 21, 1980. 

Both paintings shown here are each also 
available in a limited edition serigraph. Each 
serigraph sells for $200.00; or both for 
$300.00. (30" x 36" 12 color serigraph.) 

Write in or call for our fiee show brochure. 

Green Lei by Pegge Hopper. 
Acrylic on canvas. 48" x 48." 


Ja< k O'Grady Gallei ie 
333 North Mi< higai 
Chicago, Illinois 60< •" ; 
(312) 726-9833 



Andre Harvey Studio • Box 8 • Rockland Road • Rockland, Delaware 19732 • Telephone: (302) 656-7955 

Bron i lue) 

Life S (66 cm) 

Weight appi >xima pounds (11.4 kg) 

From .izes 

"The Relic" (Armadillo) 

Signature, Foundry Mark, Provenance 
Catalog: five dollars by mail 

Inquire directly by telephone or mail, 
or through selected galleries 

Bk nIZE sculpture 



% I 



j c 








l v ' 

m ] m^ 

'urwards Hall, Kelvedon, Essex, CM8 3HB, England La Pecherie, 1165 Allam 
Telephone: Kelvedon (0376) 70234 Telex: 987748 Telephone: (021) 76 3 

Dur wards Hall and La Pecherie are open only to antique dealers and inter! 




THE GREY BRIDGE" Oil 12" x 14' 

Lusher, fc 


P. O. Box D / Dept. C 12 

Sedona, Arizona ■ 86336 

1602) 282-7489 


March 27th-March 30th 1980 


All European or American Furniture pre 1840 
All Other Exhibits pre 1870 

To ensure as .is possible the authenticity of all exhibits, 
items on show will be vetted by the Hon. Advisory Committee 

Admission by Catalogue 50p (First Day £1 ) 

Open: Thursday to Sunday 1 1. J0am-7.30pm 



id, FinchleyRoad, Hampstead, LondonNW3 01-435 2643 

John Keil 


Member of the British Antique Dealers Association 

An extremely fine Ceorge III Sheraton period mahogany oral 

breakfast table, the top crossbanded in satinwood. Circa 17'JO. 

lei- III 2ft. ">in. ! 7 v">< ml Width "ill. fun. i lli'K mi Dcpihlti. I lm. i 1 _'()( in 

.1 fine and unusual Ceorge 111 Sheraton period break/ront mahogany 

cardtable inlaid uith uitinnood banding. Circa 17')<). 

Light -Mt.'im. I/v'hiii) Width ill. din. (<)2nn) Depth lft.iHin. I I.Vm) 

10 QUIET STREET ■ BATH BAi 2JL TEL: BATH (0225) 63176 
ik connoisseur March 1980 



Stolen from 34-35 XewBond Street, London Wl 

A Flemish Baroque bronze group of 

The Conversion of St. Paul, 

his hands raised in alarm, 

about to be unseated from his falling 

mount , a servant preparing to catch 

him at one side, the figures in 

Roman armour. 
1 If x 7" (29cm. x 17.8 cm.) 

early 17th century. 
Fingers of the rider's left hand 

Should this bronze come to your 
notice, would you please contact 
S. Cunningham or H. Jones at 
Sotheby Parke Bernet& Co., 
Telephone: 01)493 8080, 
r. B. Slater at Douglas Jackson 
&Co. Adjusters) Ltd., 
tihone\ 01 407 5599 
ice Station. 

ill be paid 


Detail, TABLE SCREEN PLAQUE c. 1770-80 
Collection ol Mrs. Rati Y. Mottuhedeh and the Estate of Rati Y. Motlohedeh 


Catalogue of the exhibition held during the summer of 1979, 

and organized in collaboration with 

the Museum of the American China Trade, Milton, MA. 

Divided inlo two complementary sections, this illustrated publica- 
tion offers new and important information on the China Trade, both 
for the general reader and the scholar. The first section, written by 
H. A. Crosby Forbes, Founder-Curator of the Museum of the Ameri- 
can China Trade, contains a lucid introduction to the China Trade in 
history and modern times. Section two is a scholarly catalogue of 
thirty-nine "Masterworks of Chinese Export Art," specially selected 
from over three hundred objects in the exhibition and prepared by 
Kee II Choi, |r., Guest Curator at the DeCordova Museum. This 
section includes discussions of Chinese export furniture and paint- 
ings, as well as porcelain, metalware and enamelware. 

64 pages - 1 00 illustrations/$7.00 per copy - $1 .50 postage and handling 

1 'he exhibition and catalogue were made possible by generous grants from 

the National Endowment for the Humanities and 

the Massachusetts Council on the Arts and Humanities 



Avon House, Market Place, Tetbury, Glos. 
Tel: Tetbury (0666) 5220 1 

\tru \ct of Parliament < lockbyjno Wilson. 

Peterborough i rhechinoiserie work tothe 

mink isonginal ) Height 5 It 

We have available a selection ol books on such diverse subjects as 

Versailles the work of ( analetto furniture I English and Continental). 

as well as horologe Price list on application 

l>l \l I k |\l l\l l M.I isll WIH. 1 1 I < LO< KSANDFl RNITCRE 



Telephone: 01-352 0644 
01-352 3127 

Cables: jkremique. London, s w 3 


Members of The llruish Antique Dealers' Association Ltd. 

■ • 


English: last quarter of the 18th century. 
A highly important PAIR of George III period Dining 
Room Urns being executed in faded selected carved 
mahogany and still retaining the original painted decoration and SUPERB Lions Head carrying h 
the carved lids lifting to reveal the original leaded interiors for the purposes of cooling boi 

DIMENSIONS: Max Height: 2' 6"; 76cms. Max Width: 1'1"; 33cms. Max Depth: 1' ' 


ill. L855-1867) 

Still Life, Flowers 

( )il on panel, 

16 \ 18 inches 

Signed & dated: 

A. Wydeveld 1867 


American Cornucopia, 

l<>th Century Still Lifts 

and Studies. 

The Hunt Institute 

for Botanical Documentation, 

( iarnegie-Mellon University, 

Pittsburgh, 1976. 

No. 24. 

Berry-Hill ( lalleries, Inc. 

CahU-s BKRRYHIL1 \K\\ \u\\K 

M Fifth \venue. New York, N.Y. 10022 • (212) 371-6777 

Member of the National Antique and Art Dealers Association of America. 

Come to the experts 

For packing, shipping and removals 
of antiques and works of art 

Gander & White 
Shipping Ltd 

lor the most specialised and comprehensive services 


Empress » 
Lillie Rojd 
London S \S 
k-1 01-381 0571 
Iclcx 917434Ganil 

■ Europe 


ij -' ••■'■ 




1 >nver guide 

I : 

'shortages in Diamonds 

and Precious Gems 

makes it imperative for 

us to purchase fine jewelry 

from private collections. 

JCazfinjian J 

Call (213)278-0811 for 
information and our 
brochure, "Selling 
Your Jewelry" ( 

L*L. (31 

332 N. Rodeo Dr. 
(Street Level) 
Beverly Hills, CA 



Dayton & Rodeo 

A Sumptuous Punch Service 
by Carl Faberge 


lOuntraisedonfour.ionspavvterms.Theentirebowlsupponedonawide^ ««-««- 

rtioned ladle en suiuhas a gilded interior. The service is fully signed throughout and contained within its o 

it glass cups similarly decorated. The finely proport 

Diameter of tray 25 inches. Overall height 20 inches. 


Auctioneers and Appraisers Since 1865 


TELEPHONE (415) 673-1362 




To be followed immediately by 19rh ond 20rh Century American 
and European paintings, property of various owners 

AUCTION SUNDAY, MAY 4, 1980, 5:00 p.m. 

C. Kk. 

irrship " oil on canvas, 30x22 1/2 inches (76x56 cm. ) 

including- s by A. Alexejeff, D. Bloomers, 
A. Hanser Hasselbach, T. Hill, A. Humborg, 

C. LeicKert, Mauve, F. Roubaud, F. Schoonover, 

>erger, A. 5chr< K. Stuhlmuller, O. Wieghorsr 






01-493 5288 

An excellent 1 9th century' Bessarabian 

flat-woven carpet in vivacious colourings 

Sze 18' 5" - 11' 5" 

1HK CONNOISSEUR Mtiri-li 1980 


One of the country's most fascinating antique 
shops — invites you to spend a pleasant day 
In the Bluegrass Country ... 

Come see one of the largest and finest 
collections of English Antiques — furniture, 
silver. Sheffield. 18th- and 19th-century 
paintings and prints, brass, lamps, mirrors. 
and decorative accessories — as well as the 
work of all the Important Limited Edition 

Under the same roof are the dining rooms of 
Science Hill Inn and the shops of Science Hill. 

We are located on 1-64 Just north of 
Lexington — and have welcomed visitors to 
this area of Kentucky for nearly thirty years. 
We look forward to your visit 


HENRY ALKEN (1774-1850) 

Oil on canvas. 14-1/2 x 20 Inches 


In the Stable 

Oil on canvas 17-3/4 x 23-3/4 Inch 

Signed and dated lower right corner: 

J. F. HERRING 1853 


( u i'sk 7 i lull IS ipc rs 

the disc erning letter writer, artis 


• ndividualit> for the discerning letter writer, artist and craftsman 

I. .,.,<]. 


. RH-I ' ." 

$ 875,000 Editkfa 

I or information on theavailabilit\ 
authentication or registration ol 
other |ac kson si ulpture, 
please tail, loli-lree 8OO-44?-4905 

nr cento 

I6V4 "fc i J9"l i7U"w 

The subscription to Harry Jackson's new work 
"Marshal II' was opened on February 7th. 1 979 
and sold out on February 22nd. 1 979. The edition 
comprised 1 00 patinaed and SO painted bronzes. 


I'O HuxJSi, Dept l-H , Cody. Wyoming 82-414 

Exclusive International Representatives for Harry Jackson 

Auction: Thursday, March 20th at 12 noon 


I. .mi'. XV nuii,mi!>\ u\H'(, nu ii/uimmi . 

i hmc\c UdkunnA Ulhk'. III. Ill I SV 

Auction: Thursday, March 20th at 8pm 


hilw I ■■ ! I.. : , 

nl .Hi ijiini\ 

I ! ILimmn '• i i. 

U in 

i' ' \ J 1 '' 

Included will he works h\ Arthur IV Pavies, Arthur C Hove, |ohn h. Francis, 
Arshile Gorky, t In Lie Hassani, Everett Shinn, |ohn IwaJitman, and others. 

/'Lira's sratul.inliC 

406 EAST 79TH STREET, NEW YORK • 10021 • (212) 472-1000 CABLE: PLAZAGAL, NY 




Proudly Presents 

Auction I V of Duplicate and Surplus Items 


Rochester, New York 

April 24, 25 and 26, 1980 


The New I lampshire I lighway Hotel 
Concord, New I lampshire 

This auction of over 4,000 duplicate and surplus items 

from the Strong Museum Collections includes all types 

of Dolls, Toys, Paper Dolls and Paper Ephemera. 



ire 03244 U.S.A. 




» Domimoi * i 

Upright VI i iiive 

ilh Rodin s Buri.jhi't iif Calais and Henry Moore J 
i front of its buildtng has 1 7 rooms on 4 floors 

Oil on canvas, 36 ■ 28 inches 

Great Euiopean Artists 
19th and 20th Century 

Old Masters 
200 Canadian Artists 



TEL (514) 845-7471 and 845-7833 


British Code of Advertising Practice 

Advertisements in this publication arc required to conform to the 
British Code of Advertising Practice. In respect of mail order 
advertisements where money is paid in advance, the code requires 
advertisers to fulfil orders within 2S days, unless a longer delivery 
is stated. Where goods are returned undamaged within seven 
days, the purchaser's money must he refunded. Please retain proof 
of postage despatch, as this may be needed. 

Mail Order Protection Scheme 

It vou order goods from Mail ( )rder advertisements in this magazine 
and pas bv post in advance of delivery, the Connoisseur will 
consider vou for compensation it the Advertiser should become 
insolvent or bankrupt, pros ided: 

I You have not received the goods or had vour money returned; 

J You write to the Publisher of the ( onnoisseur summarising the 
situation not earlier than 2S davs from the day you sent youi order 
and not later than two months from that day. 

Please do not wait until the last moment to inform us. When you 
write, we will tell you how to make your claim And what evidence of 
payment is required. 

We guarantee to meet claims from readers made in accordance with 
the abo\ e proc edure as soon as possible after the Advertiser has been 
declared bankrupt or insolvent (up to a limit of ? 10,000 per annum in 
respeel of all insolvent Advertisers. < 'Linns may be paid tor higher 
amounts or when the above procedure has not been complied with, 
at the discretion ol the ( onnoisseur but we do not guarantee to do so 
in \ icw of the need to set some limit to this commitment and to learn 
quickly of readers' difficulties 

This guarantee covers only advance payment sent in direct response 
to dn advertiesment in this magazine (not, tor example, payment 
made in response to catalogues etc, received as a result of answering 
such advertisements;. Classified advertisements are excluded. 







A fine four-piece tea and coffee service with 

finely chased mythological scenes after 

designs by John Flaxman. 

Maker, John Bridge, 1829-1831. 

Weight 94 ounces. 







'- : /'/ 


alternative entrance at 22 Albemarle Street. London W1 
Telegrams: Culleus London Asprey S A Geneva. 40 rue du Rhone. Geneva 

Telephone 28-72-77 

Beautiful Hotel 

in New¥>rk.f 

That's what visitors from abroad 
sav about the Pierre. They 
a dm in- its decor, and the 
architecture that meets the sky 
where l : itth Avenue joins the 
park. But they also respond to 
its truly personal service, and 
cherish its fidelity to the finest 
traditions (^i the great hotels of 
I iu rope. The Pierre. It's a rare 
ity. And tlie world never 
•ugh oi that. For 
ations and information 

0. , , 

\1 W'AOI I > I, 
. 1 

roiM I , I id. 

iFranrpfi Klrin 


Possibly the largest and 
finest collection in the world 

310 N. Rodeo Dr. 

Beverly Hills, California 

(L'l.$) 273-0155 

* r=~S 

We purchase Estates and Quality piece 






French.Engllsh,* Continental Large ft Varied Selection 








312/337-4052 MON.-SAT. 10-5 


We are interested in purchasing worthwhile ART of all periods. 


A Loan Exhibition 
Paintings from the Glasgow Art Gallery 


Nature adorned hv the Graces 

Until 29th March 

Admission 40p 
in aid of The National Art-Collections Fund 


147 New Bond Street, London Wl 


iiiiih"'" ''''HlllfW \ ••■ 

du 14 ail 23 Mars 1980 

lie de ChatOU pres de PARIS 



organisee par: 



ETDE L' OCCASION tel. 77088 78 


Antiquariaat Kremers 

N /. Voorburgwal 129-131, Amsterdam 1012 RJ 
T.'l 020-222896 



Rembrandt van Rijn, etching with 
some drypoint and burin 21.9 x 16.8 
cm. Made in 1635 V/V, watermark 
paper: Arms of Amsterdam, 
(Churchill nr. 5, dated 1662.) 


/jf Member British intique Dealers 4ssmiati<m A 

Fine Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Century 
Furniture and Works of Art 

6'7-7<> CHALK FARM ROAD • LONDON NWi oi-vk.i i.'.ui <>]-i>«7 27«7 



We are exhibiting in the 

Chelsea Antiques Fair 

March 4th - March 15th 

George I period pollarded oak and 
walnut bureau. Ca. 1720 

Measurements: Height 3' 5" Width 3' 0" Depth 1' 10' 




01 589 4128, 2102 


to 1 point; but the one awaiting the upholsterer is 1 765 and .ill that it should be The other is 
I ; BA1 >A has experts 111 ill fields and you can trust them to tell you the difference 

A list will be sent free on receipt of a stamped and addressed envelope. 

Sapphire Cross Pendant set in 

gold and enamel, signed Carlo Giuliano 

RICHARD OGDEN can ensure that 
your choice of Jewellery is a rewarding 
investment as well as a joy to wear 


Internationally famous tor Fine Jewellery 
Specialist in Probate and t a/nation 


Telephones: 01-49^ 9156 7 & ^2^9 


Augustus Hervey, 
v,/ / oW »/ Bristol 




In aid o\' the 
Suffolk Historic Churches Trust 

26 February - 28 March 

Admission £1 Catalogues 1.1 

43 Old Bond St., 
London Wl 

Tel: 01-624 <>l 7 6 

Mon-Fri 9.30-5.30 
Thurs until 7 


Tuesday May 6th at 11 a.m. 

Fine English Paintings 


Wyckliffe reading his translation of the Bible to John of Gaunt, Chaucer and Gower, 

inscribed on boarcl (18cm x 25cm) 7 x 9f inches. A letter, in the artist's hand, attached 

to the reverse of this picture claims it to be 'a small oil first sketch' for the later fully 

worked up painting which now hangs in the Bradford City Art Gallery Museum. 

Viewing: Thursday prior 2-5 p.m. Friday 9 a.m. - 5 p.m. 
Saturday 9-12 noon. Monday 9 a.m, - 5 p.m. 

Illustrated Catalogue £2.50 (£3 by post) 

For further information regarding this Sale please contact 
Nicholas Wadham, Tel: 01-629-6602 

Phillips, 7 Blenheim Street, New Bond Street, London W.l. 

West2.ll>\ 1 l>MlW 
London \VJ -Ml 
Id IHl'L'I.V.II.". 

loiuUNUHil \ 
Id I II 71'.". HIM 

Jollys.H ' 
Kuli Von 

i 'ill if ill! I 

Midlands. I !w( I 

North. HwrlUs, 
Id I I.V>J 1 

Scotland I 

MlVnlMTSohln'NHHMWlt! ITU- \n V. 

We bid you welcome to 



March 12-16, WHO 
Sto< kliolm, Sweden 


1 or lurdier information contact: 


Stockholm International Fairs 
by the City of Stockholm and the Stockholm Chamber of Commerce 

address: S- 1 25 80 Stockholm. Visitor's address: Massan-Alvsjo 

m .ii< : 08-99 01 00. I dcx: 10660. Telegrams: Stockholmsfair 
Sales I Kpartment lor Stoc kholm International Antiques Fair, 
MajWcstin. Telephone: 08-749 1 1 00 

u iilliam and JRaru bureau bookcase of nia/iJu fiaured burr walnut 

cuitn f earner- banding t/irouyhout and a fully fitted interior be/iind mirrored doors 

( 'ornice witn side arc/ies and double front arcnes center ina a mirror 

7 feet. ,S /nc/tet C'irca 1700. 



27 E DE LA GUERRA/SANTA BARBARA, CALIFORNIA 93101 (805)966-1400/965-4058 


New York 

Saturday, March 29 at 10 a.m. 

Fine Musical Instruments 

The violin section of this sale 
includes the works of: Carcassi, 
Enrico Ceruti, Gasparo da Salo, 
several instruments by J. B. 
Vuillaume and other fine makers. 

Several violins by Nicolas Lupot 
will be offered, one of which is the 
very fine example known as the 
'Lupot de la Revolution'. 

A good group of violas, including 
a viola attributed to Enrico 

Included in the cello section will be 
a very fine work by Allesandro 
d'Espine, made circa 1835. 

The bow section will include 
examples by E. Sartory, James 
Tubbs and other makers. 

Also in this sale: flutes, a fine 
banjo, a dital harp, a theremin, 
printed music, reference books 
and other related materials. 

^n view from Saturday, March 22. 
ue Sic, order by 'Elman' 


Dy ti 
.'que, bank draft or 

Kudig (212) 570-4182 

'The Madame Samazevih, ex 

Mischa Elman Stradivari' by 

Antonio Stradivari, Cremona, 



New York 

The George R. Harm Collection 

The List J udgment, Novgorod School, earlv With 

centurv, S3 in. bv 5S in. 

2 1 2 cm. bv 1 4 T c n i . 

Part One • April 1 7th and 18th 

Magnificent icons, man) from theTretyakov Gallen in Moscow; jewelled crowns and chalices; embroidered and jewelled 
silk and velvet vestments; important Russian Imperial porcelain; silver and gold; jewelled, ivory, wood and other religious 

pendants; and crucifixes. 

• I lection held from March M to April Id 

I-'nquines: Mr. Bronislaw Dvorskv, l'el:(2l ! 

( atalojj 

Part Two • May 1 9th and 20th 

To be sold at 'Treetops', the residence of the lateGeorge K. Hann in Sewickley, Pennsylvania. 

Furniture; wood and stone sculpture; majolica; metal work; stained glass; terracottas; bronzes; arms and armour; or 
works of art; tapestries; oriental carpets; garden statuary; and other works of art. 

On vicu at '7 rectops' May I Ub to 17th, from 10 a.m. u 

:S1 S, order bv 'Treetops' withcheque. Admissio ieonl\ Admits 

[•'.nquiries: Mr Anthony Phillips, Tel: 212 S262SfiC. 


New York 

Thursday, April 10 at 10 a.m. and 2 p.m. 

Important French and Continental Furniture, 
Objects of Art, Sculpture and Tapestries 

The property of Mr. and Mrs. Deane F.Johnson, 
Mrs. Lloyd S. Gilmour, the Estate of Barbara Lowe Fallas 

and others. 

rued commode 
57iin. I 146cm.) 

Mr. & Mrs. I )eane F. Jol 

5 prior to the date of the sale. 

mey orders L .S. dollars. 

< hi iswoods. New ^ oik: 
V \i ■:■■. York 7 10-5812325 

Ni '.-, \ 212 570-4141 


One of a pair of candelabra, 

height 15'i inches, by John Schofield. 

Date George m, 1784/5. 

Garrard are also interested in buying; 
fine pieces in silver or gold. 

'_±w^ y Jw- ■■■> 

H-) \PP( HMMfM n > HI U M vi f xn r ith t)\ t I N 

i ,( H |)\MI f HS A < Kt i\AS If VM I I I K\ t , \Kk VKI >\ ( <> I ID H)MM)\ 


The Crown Jewellers 


French f rui 
1840. 52 inch 
high. $8,500.00 



Member of The National Antique and Art Deal 

iled. Circa 
i, 7 feet 5 inches 

- 'Mendel 

i: (502) 587-6611 
n of America, Inc. 


The Madonna and Angels, 

by Giuseppe Mazza (Bologna 1653-1 741). 

Terracotta , with greyish-green polychrome, 

m the original frame . 45 by 28.5 cm. 

From the collection of Julius Lessing, 

the first director of the Kunstgewerbemuseum 

in Berlin. 

1 1 . Westdeutsche Kunstmesse 


StandXo.71. Tel. 0211/450596. 



Tel: (089) 55 52 29 

Telegrams: Paintings 


New York 

Ian Kennedy, Director of the Old Master Department 
at Christie's New York with Balthasar van der Ast's 
"Flowers in a Wicker Basket". . . sold on January io, 
1980 for $170,000. This Old Master sale totalled 
$3,000,000, one of the best in recent years. 

The van der Ast picture above was the second sold this year for six 
figures. . .and other high prices included a van Ostade for $170,000. 
There will be another Important Old Master Painting sale at Christie's 
New York on June 6. If you have a painting you would like to consign, 
please write or call Ian Kennedy at (212) 826-9293. 

302 Park Avenue, \e\\ York 10022; tel: 212/826-2888: cable: Ghriswoods. New York: 
international telex: New York 620721: domestic telex: New York 710-3812325. 



JAMKS ShYMOUR (Knglish 1702-1752) "A Match at 
Newmurkci Heath" Oil on canvas, 47 inches l>> 55'.' 


Gallery AUCTION 

Friday evening, March 21 at 7 p.m. 
Saturday morning, March 22 at 11 a.m. 
Sunday afternoon, March 23 at 12 noon 

PREVIEWING from March 14 until sale times 

We will otter objects of vertu from several estates augmented 
by other fine offerings. Included: Fine oil paintings, 
sculptures, Oriental rugs, Fine furniture, Sterling and much 
more. May we suggest previewing. 

Illustrated catalog l>y post. 
prepaid at S-/ or at the 
Galleries $3. 

further information by Tele- 
phone or by mail. 

DuMOUCHELLE Art Galleries 

409 E. Jefferson Ave. Detroit, Michigan 48226 
Telephones: (313) 963-6468 and 963-6469 

Lawrence V. DuMouchelle Joan Walker Krnest J. DuMouchelle 

Art and Estate Auctioneers and Appraisers 

Art as Investment 

EI i: Special Report No. 74 

Interest ' imuhitfil h.V t he 

i .hi l lie art market In ed in the 

■ ■ ■. ■ I u-hango? Tin ■ Special Iteporl usi 

the price change of a 

in I in- I ' K or I 'S.\ at 

wei liltiil and 1979 v\ it h increases in the Dow 

- ial share indice - o\ er I he 

i 'i into aci 

i\ er the l'e\ lew pet'ioi I rose 
the I 'SA lint l>arely kept pace 
II the I 'K I lev i I Iv 7<l per cent of art 

llil.-; three of tin 

ed par- 
ii lual items produced a start line 

er, Ki l and 1!" h 

i painting , mod 

< ramie; .('hine e 
l nese jades and 


&/-U_ I 




Two pairs of matching Cast Candlesticks. 

One pair LONDON 1 732 by James GOULD, 27 ozs. 

The other pair EDINBURGH, 1734 by WILLIAM AYTOUN. 

Assay Master ARCHIBALD URE. WEIGHT 27ozs. 6^" high. 

Our London and New York collections feature antique silver of the highest 
quality and always include exceptional and rare pieces of interest to the 

serious collector. 

Our collection of Old Sheffield Plate is also one of the largest in the country. 


Member of the British Antique Dealers ' Association and the National Antique and An Dealers Association of America 

Nordenberg, Bengt 

(1822Jamsh6g - Dusseldorf) 

Signed and dated 1879. 

Oil on canvas. 55 x 46cm. 




near Wallraf-Richartz-Museum 
Telephone (0221)238137 and 237541 

19-22 March 1980 

On view 8- 17 March 1980 










Catalogues on request 





Signed and dated 1867 

Frederik Marianus Kruseman 
Winter Landscape in Holland 

Oil on canvas 21 x 2 C M ins 
(53 x 75 cms) 

Important paintings currently in stock include works by: F. Andreotti, D. Artz, F. M. Bennett, 

Eug. de Blaas, B. J. Blommers, W. Bouguereau, G. Chierici, Ed. Cortes, Montague Dawson, 

F. DelobbcC. Detti.N. Diaz,T. Duverger, J. Ehrentraut, A. Elsley, SirWm. Russell Flint, 

A. M. Gorter, Heywood Hardy, A. Harlamoff. H.J. Harpignies, J. J. Henner, K. Karsen, 

J. Klinkenberg,H. Koekkoek,Wm. Koekkoek, Ed. Ladell, W. MacLaren, J. L. E. Meissonier. 

A. J. T. Monticelli, S. R. Percy, B. Pothast, Ed. Pritchett, V. Reggianini, Rubens Santoro, 

Wm. ShayerSenr., C. Spencelayh. P. Trouillebert, F. R. Unterberger, E.J. Verboeckhoven, 

A. Vollon, G. Weiss, Ed. Williams. 

A CATALOGUE illustrating examples by the above artists 
is available free on request. By Airmail $2,00. 





[111- < OXNOISSEl'R March 1980 


The date of Sotheby's Belgravia's 

sale of 
Highly Important Victorian Paintings 

Drawings & Watercolours 
advertised on page 51 of the February 

issue has been changed to 
Wednesday, 9th April at 7pm. 


Elliott Galleries 

222 • 249-0300 

Louis XV/XVI 


style Marquetry 

Commode of 

gilt bronze 



33" high, 

51" wide, 

24%" deep. 

Sotheby's London 

Wednesday 26th March, 19K0, at 1 I .1111 


including the properties of the Estate of ( )scar 1 lomolka. Sir John Woolf , 
Madame Suzanne Janson-Hallet and other owners 



i :-. 


ClaudeMonet, Antibes, vue des Jardinsdela Salis, siened and dated 1XHK, 93 X 74cm 


The next series of Important Impressionist, Modern and Contemporary Art sales in London will be on 

Wednesday 2nd Jul v, 1980. 

The last date for receiving property is Friday 25th April, 1980. Please contact Michel Strauss, fuli, 
Barran and Thilo von Watzdorf (for Contemporary Art). 




Sotheby's london 

lav 1 4th March, 1980, at 1 lam 



A 1 Hitch marquetry corner cupboard, mic 
I Nth century. 229cm. high by 122cm. wide 




*% : 

A Dutch marquetry drop-leaf table, c. 1780, 146cm. diameter 

One ot a 


ibout this sale should he addressed to Graham Child 

Sotheby Parke Bernet new york 

)No Madison Avenue, New York, N \ 

Telephone (:i:)47:uoo7r/i;i;hiiii) P I wYork'/i 

Saturday 22nd March, 1980, at 2 pm 


including a selection of European, Chinese and Indian carpets 

Illustrated catalogue Sj by mail, S$ overseas, order by sale 110.4 1?- with cheque , bank draft or m 
denominated in I ' S. dollars only to Sotheby Parke Bernet , Department (A ■ \ 

A Bidjarcarpet, \h\ \ metres, approx . to be sold in the auction at yNo Madison Avenue on Saturdav . 22nd March 

PB Eighty-Four 

adivisionof Sotheby Parke Bernet Int , 171 East x 4 th Street. New York. N Y toojX Telephone ;i: 472 jjsx.l Telex ijifiajSOl UP. Telegrams Parkgal, New York 

Wednesday 19th March, 1980, at 10 am 



Enquiries about this sale should be addressed to Michael B. Grogan or Evelyne Ry, 



Sotheby Parke Bernet newyork 

telephone: (212) 472 3400 Telegrams: Parkgal, New York Telex: 2 32643 SOLUR 

Wednesday 26th March, 19N0, and following day at 10. 1 5 am and 2 pm 


On view from Saturday 22nd March 

I, S10 overseas, order by sale no. j ?_s^ with cheque, hank draft or money order 
uitedin I '.S. dollars only to Sotheby Parke Bernet , Department CON 

mi aiioueaih, ualofued lot sold lor oyer S500 All property sold is subject to a premium of 10 per cent payable by all buyers as pan of the 
purchase price 

s nit hiding two( leorge Woodall figural vases, several Thomas Webb& Sons Cameo glass vases 
.! dec orations and other fine examples of Webb and Stevens & Williams Cameo glass 

about this sale should be addressed to Barbara Deisroth 

Sotheby Parke Bernet newyork 

9XoMadison Avenue, New York, N.Y [0021 Telephone: (212)4723400 Telegrams: Parkgal, New York Tele.x 232C143 SOL UU 

Friday 1 1 th April, 1980, at 10.15 am and 2 pm 


A Collection formed by Nelson A. Rockefeller and offered for the benefit of his Estate. 

On view from Saturday 5th April 

Illustrated catalogue $20 by mail , $25 overseas, order by sale no. 4 ^58 with cheque, bank draft or money order 
denominated in I 'S. dollars only to Sotheby Parke Bernet , Department C( )N 

A Sale of Important European porcelain , including Worcester f i elain from tin F.stati of Donald S Morrison, will hi held on Tin >day 15th April, 1980. at 10 1 5 am at 980 Mad < I 

A Meissen Italian comedy figure oj ' The Greeting Harlequin ', modelled by fohann Joachim Kaendler, c. 1 740,1 s 



PB Eighty-Four 

,u i 

) of Sothebv Parke Bcrnct Inc 

!M3S< >l UK rcltyam I'urkgal, New York 

icsdav 26th March, l ( )K(), at 10am 





om 10am to 5pm, Monday 24th March from 9am to 7.30pm and Tuesday 

2 vh A larch from 9am to 2pm 

ordei by Sill i' no. 747 with cheque, bank draft or money order 
s dollars only to PBIiighty-Four, Department COS '. 

tied by Sir Laurence Alma-1 adema R. A. and executed byjohnstone, Norman & Co. 
for Henry Gurdon Marquand, second President of The Metropolitan Museum of 

d panel of " I he Wandering Minstrels" by Sir Edward John Poynter P.R. A. 

about this sale should be addressed to the following: 
I )ecorations, Silver and Porcelain: Eric Silver and jay Weinstein 

Furniture: Margaret Caldwell 
Paintings, Sculpture and Pnnts:jiww/i Ki iffei 
■ ts and Tapestries:. Vlichael B. Grogan 


PB Eighty-Four 

A division of Sotheby Parke Bernct Inc. 

.ist 84th Start, Ni-w York. N Y 10028 Ti-tcphon, !I2 I I3S83 H-liw 232M3SOIUU fW<;c»,mi> I'.irl i Yorl 

Thursday 27th March, 1980, at 10am and 2 pm 


O;/ view from Saturday 22nd March 

Extensively illustrated catalogue $(> by mail, S7 overseas, order by sale no. 74H with cheque, batik draft ot money order denominated in 

I '.S. dollars only to PB Eighty-Eour, Department CO.Y 

e currently accepting antique and period-style estate jewellery to he included in our 1 *>th June sale. 

An antique gold, silver, diamond and ruby honey moon brooch, c. 1 84( I, a Gothic revival carved ivory gold and jewelled 

pendant, c. 1850, a diamond and ruby ring, an antique gold and diamond vine motif collar, c. 1820, an antique Gothic 
revival gold and jewelled pendant, c. 1860, an antique gold, diamond and jewelled ring, c. 1750, an antique French 
silver, grisaille enamel and rose diamond brooch, c. 1810, a pair of antique gold enamel and jewelled ear pendan 

Enquiries should be addressed to Alison Bradshaw 



On the 24th, 25th, 27th and 28th March 1980 

The Estate of Maitre Roger Hild 



CORNEILLE: First edition of "Le Cid" in its period binding 

DESCARTES: First edition of "Discours de la Methode" in its period binding 

MOLIERE: First editions, including "Les Precieuses Ridicules" ( 1660) 


BOSSUET: First edition of "L Apocalypse" bearing the author's arms 
ROBESPIERRE: "Projet de Constitution" with annotations by the author 

19th century first editions, most in their contemporary bindings, of BAUDELAIRE, 

VICTOR HUGO: Corrected proofs of "Les Miserables" 
STENDHAL: Testament 

AUCTIONEERS: Maitres Laurin, Guilloux, Buffetaud, Tailleur 

1 rue de Lille, 75007 Paris, 
Tel. 260 34 11 

Maitres Loudmer, Poulain 

73 Faubourg Saint Honore, 75008 Paris 
Tel. 266 90 01 


Experts: Madame J. Vidal Megret and M. Marc Loliee 


Q, Viewing: Saturday 22nd March from 11 a.m. to 6 p.m. 

Oil on panel 


(1581 - Antwerp- 1642) 

Christ's descent into Limho 

Provenance: Mrs Arlene Brett 
Roerich Museum, New York 

34 x 47 cms 

Johnny Van Haeften 

i (So New Bond Street London W1Y9PI } 
Telephone (01-) 499 1885 

THE CONNOISSEl'R March 1980 




■ r^tll 


$s3 C/i 


America s only auction house specializing in 
rare Rugs, Tapestries and Textiles. 

Announcing an important 

two part auction: 

April 15th, 6:00 pm • April 19th, 2:00 pm. 

Part One April 15th 
Textiles, Tapestries and books. 

Part Two: April 19th 

Rare Turkoman, Turkish, Persian 

and Caucasian 

rugs and carpets. 

: e gallery ip| l ■ ■..timates may be obtained by 

italogs $12 IS exhibito 'formation call or write 

John C Edelmann Galleries, Inc. 
123 East 77th Street, New York, NY 10021. Phone (212) 628-1700. 


iXji itandoid charge fo the velter r 


:• the 109b premium paid by the buyer os port of the purchase pin 

r * 1 


"U^hJ^* " 

|b k^ : ' £j 


The Conversation" 
■ 30"— cm. 51 < 76.5 
■ 38"— cm. 71 x 96.5 

"In Toronto" 

Fine Paintings by 

recorded artists 

Abbey Altson, Henry Andrews, G. Aureli, A. W. Bayes, 
Berne Bellecour, A de Breanski, E. C. Barnes, F. M. Bennett, 

F. C. Cachoud, W. W. Caffyn, I. Chelminski, Ivan Choultse, 

G. J. Delfgaauw, Victor Dupre, Dietz Edzard, E. Eichinger, 

S. Eisendeick, Paraj S. Fabijanski, Ettore Forti, F. Goodall, R.A., 

Paul Grolleron, Joseph Highmore, G. Holweg, 

Arnold Houbraken, L. B. Hurt, W. G. F. Jansen, Aston Knight, 

A A. Lesrel, Constantin Makovsky, J. E. Meadows, 

Hans van Meegreren, G. W. Mote, J. Munsch, E. Niemann, E. Parton, 

Philippe Pavy, Bernard Pothast, A. Prieckenfried, B. Priestman, R.A., 

Sir Henry Raeburn, George Romney, Guilo Rosati, Ferdinand Roybet, 

W Dendy Sadler, J. Scherrewitz, E. Semenowsky, Wm. Shayer, 

J. J. Scherrewitz, Wm. Thornley, J. Thors, A. Toulmouche, R. Watson, 

and others. 


1 94 Bloor Street West 

(just west of Park Plaza Hotel) 

Toronto M5S 1T8, Canada 

Telephone 416-921 3522 
Area Code 416 

Bronze hanging La vabos. Flemish, 15th Century. Height 12A ins, Length lHins. 


■ ■ «wS ■ 








TELEPHONE 01 499 2858 


Delomosne & Son Ltd 

'■T - "^ 

A pair of Figures of 
Turks seated with 
sweetmeat shells on 
their knees, painted in 
pale colours. 
Chelsea, red anchor 
period, one marked. 
Height: 6 inches. 
Circa 1755. 

Exhibiting at 



March 27th to 30th 

4 Campden Hill Road, Kensington High Street, W8 7DU 01-937 1804 



nque Dealers' Association 



be following distinguished group 

of exhibitors will offer antiques 

of quality and interest 

within a wide price range. 

Jane Alper Antiques 

W. Graham Arader, III 

Leonard Balish 

John Bihler & Henry Coger 

William Blair, Ltd. 

Jerome Blum 

Ronald Bourgeault 

Irvin & Dolores Boyd 

Philip H. Bradley 

Alfred Bullard, Inc. 

Robert Burkhardt 

Childs Gallery 

Circa Antiques 

Ed Clerk 

Gordon S. Converse & Co. 

Katherine Denny 

Cynthia Fehr Antiques 

E.&J. Frankel, Ltd. 

Malcolm Franklin, Inc. 

Georgian Manor Antiques, Inc. 

Price Glover, Inc. 

Good & Hutchinson, Assoc. 

Elinor Gordon 

Greenwood Book Shop 

Kenneth Hammitt Antiques 

Harry B. Hartman Antiques 

Hastings House Antiques 

Hayestock House 

Hobart House 

William D. Hocker, Inc. 

Valdemar F. Jacobsen 

Bernard & S. Dean Levy, Inc. 

The Lion Mark 

Marine Arts Gallery 

Fred B. Nadler Antiques, Inc. 

John C. Newcomer 

Nimmo & Hart Antiques 

Jack Partridge 

Maze Pottinger 

C. L. Prickett 

Herbert Schiffer Antiques 

George E. Schoellkopf 

Matthew & Elisabeth Sharpe 

Kenneth & Stephen Snow 

Joseph Stanley Ltd. 

Leon F. S. Stark Antiques, Inc. 

David Stockwell, Inc. 

The Stradlings 

Philip Suval, Inc. 

Ruth Troiani 

s D. Vandekar of Knightsbridge 

Vose Galleries of Boston, Inc. 

mas D. & Constance R. Williams 

Jane Wilson 

Ricks Wilson Ltd. 

Thomas K. Woodard 

Manager Mr. John G. Fifield 




April 15 through 19, 1980 

Tuesday through Friday, Noon-9:30 p.m. 
Saturday, 10 a.m. -4 p.m. 


Hrd Street just north of Market Street 
(Two blocks west of •iOth Street Station ) 


Admission $3.00 
A Benefit for tbe Hospital of tbe University of Pennsylvania 

Loan Exhibit 

A tribute to Ann rica's early volunteerfin 

Preview Reception & Dinner 
MONDAY, APRIL 14, 5:30-9:30 p.m. 
Tickets, $80.00 per person 
($55.00 tax deductible) 
Make checks payable to: Board of Women 
Visitors and mail to: University Hospital 
Antiques Show, 265 Cheswold Lane, 
Haverford, Pennsylvania 19041 

Symposiums 1 1:00 AM 

Round table discus i ion ( by telei ted exhibitors, 
with examples. Panels moderated by Lita 
Solis-Cohen. nationally syndicated columnist. 
$6.00 (includes admission) 

Special Gallery Tours & 

WEDNESDAY, APRIL 16, 10 a.m. 
THURSDAY, APRIL 17, 10 a.m. 
$10.00 (includes admission) 

Supper at the Show 

FRIDAY, APRIL 18, 6:15; 7:15; 8:15 
$15.00 (includes admission) 


FRIDAY, APRIL 18, 6 p.m. 



Wendell Garrett. Editor and Publisher. 
The Magazine Antiques 
$7.50 (includes admission) 
Lecture, Supper at the Show and 
Admission: $18.00 
SATURDAY, APRIL 19, 1 1 a.m. 
Slide-lecture, by Kenneth Finkel, Curator of 
Prints, The Library Co. of Philadelphia 
$5.00 (includes admission) 

Gallery Tours 

THURSDAY, APRIL 17 at 11 a.m. 
FRIDAY, APRIL 18 at 10:30 a.m. 
Small groups escorted through the show by 
Philadelphia Museum of Art guides. 
$7.50 (includes admission) 

Gourmet Luncheon 

FRIDAY, noon-2 p.m. 
$6.00 (admission not included) 
Reservations necessary. 


$4.00 (by mail $5.50) 

Tickets & Information 

Please make checks pay a bit to. 
University Hospital An 
3803 The Oak Road, P; 
Pennsylvania 19129 
Telephone: (215) 68 
During the show call 


1050 Second Avenue at 16th Street, Sew York, \.Y. 10022 L.S.A. 

212) 555-4400 








1 1 





Hoc hsl ( iroup, Modeled h\ 
|( ill, mn I'etel, ( m,l I 770 

M.iilis.i's Antique Mciiit 11 lm 
(212) ~ > ! i<>ri 

I ■; t < 1 1 1 / 1 ■ ill luo I ighting Hulls 
( )ne 1 il ,1 Kind by I ( lesingei 
25" high, r i7" long, i V v\ kit* 

I'.ll.K e ( ,,lllei\ 1212) '» '.'.-MOO 

I'.HMl/e ( hei. keis l'|i \1 ihe I ,11m 

|ohn Rogers. L muled Ldition ot (>">() 

( i,illei\ (1 '. Antiques 
(212) 7"SI-(H(>7 

( ll I )nie Hi! ni/e 
<ose\\ I IIjiiiI 

( hosed Vitnne. 

Signed I Hike 

ei \ d 1 Antiques 

(212) 7',l llll, 7 

I'.lll I'll!) ( enlui \ |,l|i,mese 
llll ill/e I lgUI.ll ( .llll I It 'si ic k*. 
Signed Ml, mil 

|< ,lin Walkci Aril i< (ires 
(2121 H^-'l',-') 

I M ,111 .1 Se| ( ,1 I i\ e ( ,)ui,lllli Hlg N nit he 

I 1. 11 ti 1 i.tii R.ue Ail 12121 7'M 2MI2 

k.lie ( 1 inledei.ile Rein I !i 'II 

In 1111 ( SS Al. ill, llll. 1 

I lie Armors (212) 7 >2 2242 


Ihe largest .hkI most important antique i enter in s 

|)ii (lessii >n,il .inli(|ue ile.ileis serving ihe track' .inil ll 

I )e,ilei . .mil serious i ollec tors are invited to browse n 

selves Din large arra\ ol art, antiques .mil related item nieiitU 

located in the center ot the c ity. ( )pen 7 days 111 i Monda\ 

through S.iiuid.iv and IJ-(>pm on Sunday. 




ro n v 

} I l/Aht 111 Till 
Qt lis MOT HI l< 



t/iare (diwiM, and tontitientat oliuiter. c/runlaiutw 

George III silver 

by John Scofield, London, 

Diameter: 22 i 

Weight: 140 a 

From our collection of Georgian 

Valuations for Probate, Insurance and Division 

Trlrphonr 01-629 A26I Tehtraphic Addrtst "Euclaie London W I" 

The \ ictol'lail Cllfll'il 

inc art publishers t < • re 

topular paintings i 

he very nature of his piofev- 

er\ difficult | >osit ion. ( )n 

>y engraving the w ork of a pi 

•ainter, a Landseer or a \\ 

■xaniple. the engra\ er '«. na soon 

issociated with that of the pan. 

nany engravers limit ver\ -,i 

areers on such associations and were 

•aid well for their work. ( >n the • • 

land, throughout the \ ietorian | m 

he line, mezzotint, --tipple and mixed 

Method engraver was forced l>\ 

irtistic colleagues into a disagre< 

second-rate position, that of a mere 

•opyist with few real artistic skills. Kor 

his he was barred from lull Royal 

\cadeimaii ( K.\) status, was forced into a 

argely thankless, solitary profession 

•rs. I)es| 
ivers W ere t ni 

1 [ > r < > < 1 1 1 1 

interpretative, yet orij 

■ were lai 
of the corner printsell< 

subject matter, rather 
quality of their reprodn 

/ ran get, <// flic pi 
i/iiii :// it// nj lint r 
irhips iiml falling at John 

were de 
t place as bei 
wealthv na 

UK ( onnoissi I K March [USD 




and tradesmen hoisted to the surface by 

•ountry's prosperity. Although be- 

: by 'fine art', they were quite 

l> to purchase reproductions of 
paintings recommended to them. .1 good 

, mi/ is better than a bad />ainting was 
a standard adage among those whose 
standards of artistic quality included 
inspirational pictures of Queen Victoria. 
For example, for about three pounds in 
ISfiti, one of these wealthy art collectors 
could purchase the most admired work of 
the season - \V. II. Simmons' mezzotint, 
.1 Cottage Bedside at Osboitrne: //>/ the 
Queen Haul nig the Scriptures to a Sick 
Fisherman, after (iourlay Steell's paint- 
ing. This followed a growing demand for 
improving works like (ieorge Baxter's 
missionary prints, classical allegories 
that provided a respectable guise for 
nudity, or religious pictures like .lames 
Sant's The Saul's Awakening with its 

single young girl, bible in hand, eyes be 
Iii-iii eiiu aril , that occupied (in print 
version) the honoured place over tl 
mantelpiece of many \ ictorian home 
Portraits were cherished and publishe 
m large numbers, the most popular bein 
of Tennyson, .Jenny Lmel and Florenc 
Nightingale (works declared to th 
IYintsellers' Association). By far th 
largest edition (declared in l8ol) wa 
Charles (i. Lewis' engraved version o 
The Relief oj Lucknow after T.Jone 
Barker's painting. Published by Agnew' 
for a nation still stunned by the India 
Mutiny, the edition of 8,175 was easil 
sold out. despite the £15 !.~>.s\ price fo 
artist'-, proof's. Holman Hunt's 77/ 
Shadow of Death, with its morbid fore 
shadowing of Christ's crucifixion, wa 
the second most popular work of th< 
period declared in an edition of 1. 1 10 ii 

The sheer number of prints produce 
by publishers meant a succession of sale 
gimmicks were devised. These include* 
appealing, if not evocative, titles witl 
the power to attract a reader's eye as he 
glanced through a print-seller s catalogue 
titles like That's Rude, Doggie or tin 
popular romantic themes There's nobodx 
coining to marry me. Oh for the touch oj a 
Vanished hand. My Mather Rids Me Rinu 
her Hair. He won't hurt you. Can't you 
unit.', or the indignant. Sobody axed you, 
Sir, she said. Titles were readily borrow- 
ed (before lS(i-_>. when they wore given 
copyright) and variations on favourite 1 
works became common as publishers 
and painters recognised the opportu- 
nities offered by printed reproductions. 
The size was also an important factor. 
Bruits were expected to be large enough 
to fill a wall, taking on the importance of 
fine works of art when framed. Size was 
governed by the original paintings, 
w Inch wore often massive, but engravers 
inevitably had to reduce a work, as in the 
case of Frith's popular Derby Day - the 
painting over four feet long, the print 
half this size. And yet when framed 
behind a large piece of plate glass, the 
print represented an imposing addition 
to the Victorian drawing room and the 
plate glass manufacturers thrived, as did 
the framing industry, with its own vari- 
ety of frame styles designed to compli- 
ment each print, from solid mahogany 
simplicity for a Rossetti <>r a Burne-Jones 
to the elaborate Egyptian mouldings for 
an Alma- Tadenia. 

Ironically, these painters and print 
publishers were praised for their noble 
aims in providing popular, accessible 

yrk^ of art. lived like princes on mas- 

,e profits and copyright sales, w Idle the 

eator of these works, the \ ictorian 

igraver, \\;i^ forced to struggle through 

lonely, frustrating series of seeniingh 

idless deadlines. The histon of the 

ictorian engraver is tilled with sad. 

■nkcii men lorn between the anxious 

•mauds of their publisher-employers 

id the artistic standards set l>\ painters 

orried about their works being inisin 

•rpreted by an incompetent engrav mil' 

gam it was John Kiiskm who took ii|i 

ie neglected engraver s cause when he 

escribed to his (Ktord audience the 

ruelling task set before an engraver. 

magine spending one s lite bent over a 

letal plate that needed to be tilled with 

linute lines t hat added up to a can 

oneeived impression ol a painter s 

. ork . he e\| »la me< I Say I liree 

housaud to the inch each u ilh si 

Iltl'llt put III its iildii . mill tin 1/ run 

Ik,' the ordinary 

/(/., ,//'. In tin mi ii a Im Ita i r fru 
his' Nevertheless. Uiiskin 
I'll ere w ere a tew competent \ni 
•ngravers (especially niterpretois ol his 
ielo\ ed Turner K w lin 1 1 . 1 < i helped In 
•le\ ale I lie engl'a \ CI' s a it ab<>\ e 

'ommercialisin; men he cl 

in n/lit Inn c In i I In/ r 

in ll/i 

\ ieti iriaii < 
master-ap ualb ap 

1 1 fee. 
In ill 

important of all \ n ivcin, 

Samuel Cousins ( ISIO-.S 
a p| ire i\ I , \\ 

patron, but most asp 

master s fees. ( )nce accept i 

found I he I raining strenuous. 
In irmj 
I he Sci il I is! Iiihn IS 

t iced in the Kdinbiirgh 

Sci it I . at ? 1)11 ;, 

S.00 p. in. M i ne was 

the pri 
allot I 


Till i iiwoissi i i{ March I USD 

il ill one time I lie finished 
signed onl\ b\ the 

i \ el', I lie I \ pe 

: of and | leriodical illiisf rat ions, 
notahh in the early part (it the 
! plates tor tlie 
tashu i I annuals t hat became the 

bread-and-butter work for so many 
ers 1 echn ica I profi- 
ciency, however, was mil \ one aspect of 

ipprentieeship. The long, lei 
liours spent cutting minute lines onto 
prepared the voting 
iver to I ■ I lie numerous ag- 

ree ol 

perseverance essential to his profession, 
tins that sa ■ chard 

(.olding l ITs;,|S.,i;i. apprenticed \, 

ugra\ it \\ ilham Sharp, w hen sent 
lp engrave Sir 1 hoinas Lawrence s 

a ilh a 

to succeed, despite 

Lawrence s stubborn insistence in alter- 

ic plate 11VIT t lill't V times. ( ioldillg 

a success, his plate earning 

the further royal patronage that 

i reer as a | lortrait 

ver. His wt irk included niaji >r soci- 

iiuiuissions. including a portrait of 

Queen \ icti iria as a child. 

Intense <|i the pri if'ession 

id he taken too far, as in the 

i if the line engraver Joseph (iood- 

1799-1839) Having first en- 

d shop hills and decorati\ c hoi 

for several years (under Charles Heath; 
then illustrations to the annuals, (mod 
year was given his first large-scali 
commission - an engraved version of 77i< 
I' mi it 1 1 e after Sir Charles Last lake 
l'i ir Linden's Royal ( iallery of British Ar 
i 1838). It hail taken him over fif'teei 
years ty reach this cherished point in hi. 
career and (ioodyear was determined t< 
produce a masterpiece. Diligently h< 
poured all his energy into this one worl 
until he became seriously ill from over 
he never recovered from the. 
illness and died the year after publication 
of his masterpiece, aged forty. A similai 
Hgiire was the line engraver for the, 
Art Journal, Joseph Clayton Bentlej 
(1804-51). According to the dnb. Bent-; 
ley tl/rctr much artistic feeling into hii 
ami laboured so incessantly that ht 
undermined a naturally iceuk constitution 
mill brought on an illness which terminated 
his lij 

The profession was filled with num- 
erous tales of woe as the long hours spent 
In total solitude, often working well into 
the night, took their toll on those I ill ndec 
by the lure of financial or prestigious 
rewards. |)rink became an easy escape 
route which ine\ itably led to tragic earh 
deaths. Temporary insanity was yet 
another hazard. This was to claim the 
ambitious hue engraver John Havell 
(?-1841), who was victim to what Bed- 
grave called a sudden loss of reason. 
Similarly the distinguished line, mezzo- 
tint engraver John Saddler (1813-9*), 
committed suicide by hanging himself 
attack of temporary insanity\ 
a ving a lifetime of praise-worthy 
works after Turner. Millias and Dure, of 
which twenty-one were successfully ex- 
<! at the Royal Acadenn of Arts. 
Perhaps the most fearful of all threats, 
however, was the loss of one s eyesight, 
for, however substantial was one s repu- 
tation, the loss of sight brought an entire 
career to an abrupt halt. Richard Cioilld- 
ist hi- sight w lule spending ten years 
over one plate, a work that not only took 
his sight and was left unfinished, but also 
left him to die in poverty. 

There are instances of extraordinary 
feats accomplished by Victorian en- 
rs The mezzotint and land-cape 
etcher Joseph Knight (1838-1909). at the 
if six had had his right arm am- 
putated: but. despite the disability, he 
spent a lifetime painting and etching 
over a hundred Welsh landscape prints 
winch he exhibited from 1883 to 1908. 
flu problem of finance forced William 
Henrv Robinson ( 1796-1871) to sacrifice 

, private 1 life anil, laic in life, lie 
arric I a wealthy woman In support 1 1 1 -~ 
•undering career, lie had chosen her 
refulh and made il clear thai his life 
■longed en tirelv to his work. It was this 
tense dedieal ion, il not i iliscssii hi w it li 
ork, that made Samuel ( oiisins puhlic- 
lv record his disgust with his ei 
sk. and on several occasions he di scour- 
red those hoping to follow in his (iM.-t- 
c|>s by describing the sacrifice* 
ilitude involved in the profession, lie 
iniself had l>een known to take ;is little 
< six weeks lo engrax e a plate. Imt most 
i' his better work 

Miiplctc. His publisher 1 lenr \ ( ■ i 
n the other hand, was known to have 
ad at least three plate 
I'fecn years each . ( i ra 
t'tcn met his father - 
lid recalled the ones he met as ill 
I >le private son is w ho, in contrast to I heir 
rivoloiis painter-ei illeagu 
lined and spent 1 1 1< >i 
•ho souls a ere in tin 

111)11/ II Inn I lilt i i 

\niml thrni hard at 

crapt'r hi/ i/as lit/ht 

! liferent si \es on ha ml at 1 1 

in ai nihil/ at work on the sum I! 

light. (The I'rintseller, I 

When forced out of such sell 
olitude, an engra\ er ofti 

li|il atic and tactful to re so I \ 

ng obstacles that prevented his sue 
Alien Samuel Cousins signed 
iient to engrave Land seer s Hold 
n the nl ile it tune, the painting was in 
>y the I )ukc of I )e\ oiishire. w 
'esult of Cousins brusque 
used to lend the painting lor engra 
lorrificd b\ this persona 
inder contract to engi lure, 

oiisiiis was forced to journey back 
ortli to C'hatsworth to prepare hi 

'raving fr the picture as it hung on the 

.vail, i et abo\ e his head. I le 

still )l)< Ml 1 1 \ sloi ,<| t hel'e. aeei Hi I I 

•iographer, ronstantl// 
worried hi/ the remark - 
'ourists ami e.i 

in astonishing mezzol mt Its, 
Guineas (b\ ISS7 was worth si\l 
seventy) and technically represente<| a 
watershed in the engraver's art. His 
colleagues claimed this one plate marked 
the end of the Knglish line engraving lor 
Cousins had managed in mezzotint to 
clarify and give more turn- ami depth to 
Landseer's painting than any liia 
graver could have hoped lo do. 

I his work (commissioned in I SS."> ) was 
the beginningof a remarkably sucee 

in IS 

( leclared: Hitherto 


pleasure not 
sign in 

Ills II 

w ritt< 

in lie. \\ 1 1 

i\\o|ss| i i; March I USD 

ill I III/ 
\\ nil , 

to tin- Printsellers' Association. 
Ambitious engravers cultivated pain- 
riends w ho would offer them coin- 
other \ ery successful engravers 
members of arl istic families u hose 
hers paintings the v would engrave. 
Iiiston "I \ ictorian engra\ ing is 
with such families: the Kaeds (in 
which James engraved his brother John's 
and 'I homas' paintings) or the Dicksees 
(Herbert engraving his brother Frank's 
popular annual paintings that extended 
lii> reputation into the twentieth cen- 
tury). The Landseers. however, are 
perhaps the most important and the 
collaboration between the painter Edwin 
Landseer and his engraver brother 
I homas provides the clearest picture of 
a remarkable relationship that existed 
between painter ami engraver. 

I hiring his childhood Thomas Lamb 
seer (r. I?!)K-1880) was carefully 
groomed for an engraving profession by 
his engraver father John, win icon side red 

the engraver's art a safer vocation t lis 
painting, although Thomas had show 
remarkable painting skill. His frien< 
(including William Bewick) urged him I 
forget his father's plans and become 
painter, and he was noted throughout h 
life for his keen abilities as a pictun 
doctor,- advising colleagues on problei 
canvases. However Thomas wa> ove 
shadowed by his brother Edwin's eno 
moils success and he learned to accept h 
ancillary role, helping to promote h 
brother's work. He spent a lif'etim 
interpreting Edwin's paintings and th : 
DNH claimed as a result he may be said I 
hat e mi iiittd u style in order to render mot 
faithfully and sympathetically the works c\ 
his brother, A stout, mischievous, eccei 
trie individual, totally deaf in adult lift* 
Thomas worked within close vicinity c 
his brother's St. John's Wood home. II 
lived with his stout, relentlessly an 
bitious wife (who had had a son b 
another man) and who was determined t 

minute Thomas' life. She wore the 
(■■users in the family, supervised his 
i>rk and often pressed him to finish a 
I ite which she would snatch awa\ from 
i; workroom and deliver personally to 
i; publisher, praising its merits in the 

pes that the publisher would advance 

;■ payment she wanted to buy herself a 
i w dress. 

With his wife and Edwin s concern 
r his career, I liomas rareb en- 

u nte red problems: indeed his brother s 
isessive dedication to his skills as an 
igraver meant that Thomas had little to 

>rry about. If Edwin found out Thomas 
■eded monev, he would paint a picture 

ited to his brother s engraving skills, 
itting in the shown landscapes that 
produced well (for which Thomas was 
•aised by among others Samuel ( ous- 
s), or altering a composition so it w ould 
ok better when engraved. Conversely, 
hen Thomas had difficulties engraving 
;rtain areas - for example, the moist tip 

of the nose on The Monarch of the (Hen - 
Edwin stepped m with a burin to com- 
plete flic plate I of these 
two talents representee! an artistic mon- 
opoly and Edwin refused to allow his 

| Ml I >l I - 

engravers. In I K.">? ! i 
gested a new engraver might be con- 
sidered for a el .but Edw 
m outraged ti 

the benefit of 1111/ signature, it is nnj brother, 
the en</rarer of i/on 
he well aieare of . At his death Edwi 
the then princely sum of I'HiO -^OO.OOO. 
earned primarily from engrav ii 
of which Craves had paid Kid. 00(1 m 
copy rights alone. This seemed to just if \ 
'Thomas Landseer s subsidiary role 
working for over fifty years producing 
I OS different editions of his brother s 
paintings. By IS?.") he and C.(i. Lewis 
and Samuel Cousins were the priman 
Landseer engravers (although over l v 2(i 
engravers ha<l b\ then produced b'H 

'The < ombat: Mer 
I he \ aixpiished after H 
/ in/ hi/ (ieon/e I )< n 
111/ n/iiisii ri in/ I 

us one of t he most st ii 
ii Art . 
\\ itt Library. London 

■ ■■ 


""" : '"<: 

till. ( ONNOISSKI K March 1'JSO 

editionsof Fandseer paintings). 

e\ ''ii w ith his famous brother 

uork. Thomas' engraving 

\ ere not publically recognised iinlil 

lie was elected Associate 

lo tin i. ■ \ at the aye of seveuh - 

aged over eighty, in IS7(i. By 

his virtuosity had declined, al- 

insisted on engraving I slag for 

I ler Majesty'-, I'ets series in 1ST 1. a work 

sted his age. When the (^ueen 

irinl of her tax ourite dog 

eniarked it was a noun 

in in er eightg gears old , 

'"it hi hreath added she was 

disap| i <ition. The 

nder of Thomas' professional life 

ua^ spent (like Samuel Cousin-,) signing 

his past work, for which Henry (i raves 

paid Inn; a l>o\ of a hundred cigars for 

\ hundred signatures. 

(^ueen \ let uri a was a shrewd judge of 

iiienl formed <|uite 

early in her reign. She selected the hi 
and stipple engraver (Jeorge [)oo (far 
oils for his print. The Combat after Ftt 
as her Historical Engraver in |Kp> ai 
about this time she and Albert had begu 
their series of etching lessons under tl 
tutorage of Kdw in Landseer. The wort 
they produced were bit in by Thorn; 
who sent them to his printer I Ioldgate. A. 
least forty were done l>\ the Queen an 
twenty by Albert, which ranged froi 
travel sketches to copies of Faildse* 
sketches of their favourite pets. Th 
(Queen's etching of Fsla\ sold for L->-> i 
18-W but most were distributed private! 
among their friends. Fifty-one were e> 
hibited in New York in 1898 to th 
amazement of one critic w ho elaime! 
these original etchings of hers come distinc 
hi nearer to being works of art than do fhoi 
iij some pretentions amateurs. The Quee 
continued her keen interest in engravin 
throughout her reign, often presenting 
signed prints as commemorative gesturd 
to her most loyal subjects. 

As profits from engravings and repij 
tat ions of engra\ ers grew, painters oncl 
reluctant to produce what were sti 
considered second-rate works ofart tried 
their hands at engraving and etchinJ 
either their own works or original com 
positions. The most important of thesJ 
early painter-engravers was .John Mar 
tin, one ofthe first to recognize the valuJ 
of the soft steel-plate mezzotint tech 
nique to copy his paintings. Many of hif 
paintings he therefore considered men 
steps in the engraving process and it wa 
the sale of engravings on which he hope< 
to retire. Six years before his death h< 
purposely moved house to exhibit hi 
paintings and engravings together (b\ 
imitation at stated periods) because, as t» 
a colleague, // is almost needless to observi 
lion iniirli this exhibition would promote th, 
sale nj engravings. Etchings appealed t< 
painters of delicate subjects like Burne 
Jones (who restricted the number 
etched prints issued of his work) and this 
provider! a market for (lie skills of foreigi 
(notablx French) ex-patriot etchers whej 
made their reputations etching the Pre- 
Raphaelite paintings of Rossetti anc 
Burne-Jones. However, Millais anc 
Ahna-'I adema are known to have etched 
book illustrations as did Sir Henry Cole. 
who exhibited three original etchings at 
the Royal Academy of Arts. It was nx 
mere coincidence that Whistler's etch- 
ings appeared in the print shops late in 
the 1870s. following his disastrous libel 
case with Ruskin. Works like Battersea 
Bridge as well as a mezzotint of Whistler's 


Till. ( OWOISSKI l; Miinh 1USU 

■ \\t) 

i tuna a i: 

( ) 1 1 1 

Mntli, raved In Kichard Josev . 

offered h\ 1 1 »■ 1 1 r\ (iraves (or L'.'< .'!>. in 
|S?!I) Hi'ir clear alien i| its l>y (lie artist to 
u --< > n 1 1 ■ til liis badly damaged pres- 
ent not e\ cry painter was willing to 
concede that engravings had artistic 
importance. 1 he prominent painter ol 
i si i and Italian yen re scenes Thomas 
( nwins, K \ ( 1782-185?) always made it 
clear that his painting style had suffered 
and was irrerncably cramped and crippled 
b\ his early training as an engrav cr. 

Nevertheless the \ ietorian engraving 
profession experienced a phenomenal 
growth boom rising out of Thomas 
I, Upton's perfection of the steel surfaced 
plate in 18-22. This had meant that 
previous copper-plate editions ol -200 
could lie increased to 15,000 and later 
unlimited numbers of prints taken from 

■ steel plate. Engra vers and publishers 

could thereby produce a greater variety 
ol works to provide the growing picture- 
conscious public with prints at a wider 
range of prices (iradually line engrav- 
ings were supplanted by the more ap- 
pealing softer, atmospheric et feet s of the 
mezzotint and mixed-method (hue and 
mezzotint) techniques. I he sharp, often 
harsh delineations of line were though) 
unsuitable for the mottled, feathery 
effects of satin or silk used by painters of 
romantic portraiture that grew in pop- 
ularity when engrav ed. ( ousins mezzo- 
tint of Millais' Cherry Ripe ( I SS I ) was 
.i work. The little girl in mob cap. 
sealed with cherries beside her was first 
wood-engraved for I lie (iraphic which 
sold out lis li. IIIHI. 1)0(1 copies, and the 
publishers were forced to turn away 
future orders, Cousins completed 
otint reaehei I the far c< irners of the 
English-speaking world and. according 
In Millais' biographer, it so affected 
( it mill id n btiekwootls- 
■ 1 1 a I 1 1 1 e V 
to M ill;: ; ;e of a | ml lire that 

St 1 1 mi nice all in er the 

vers wore dependent upon such 

isiastic public approval ol their 

works and they (I lid thelil- 

pri inn itci I b\ prmlscllei's. I he 

Her ranged from a 

\ individual stal ii med on a si reet- 

r with a 

imibrell etors of elab 

lx i\\ - w nidi >w ed \\ est End print 

. filled w ith the latest offerings fr 

publishers. I heir stocks were uui- 

l\ ackiu iw lodged as displav ed \< ir 

shop w indow el'lect . an effect 

according to / he Sjiliin i . w as 

something that n ill strike the eye enough 
In make passers-by exclaim, 'My end' 
Landseer's prints inevitably proved tlu 
most effective, despite attacks by angry 
artists who felt themselves over- 
shadowed by his reputation. ( hie day tlu 
animal painter Frederick Taylor passec 
such a print-seller's window and noticed 
a print of his own painting prominentlj 
labelled from the original by Sir Edwin 
Landseer. lie marched indignantly into 
the simp to protest, but was told by the 
proprietor If you will be so good as to u/ina 
your own business, we shall be glad tofollou 
your era in pie. 

Kngravei's were even more dependent 
upon the print publishers. These highly 
respected men like Henry (iraves or 
Francis Moon had banded together in 
1847 to form the Print sellers' Association 
to face the growing threats of copyright 
infringement and foreign competition. 
By 1894 this group numbered 12<> firms 
selling -1,823 print editions from offices in 
London, Paris, Berlin and New York -a. 
figure alone that represents the consid 
erable demand for the engravers' workf 
during the period. Each engraving, how- 
ever, was the end result of a long series of 
intricate negotiations between publisher, 
painter (or picture dealer) and engraver. 
'The copyrights needed to be bought. 
contracts drawn up for the loan of pic- 
lures to the engraver (interest was paid 
on time spent over the specified amount 
in the contract) which were signed, and 
engravers were given deadlines. While 
the engraver worked the publisher often 
exhibited the painting (if he owned the 
exhibition rights) to obtain subscribers 
for the engraving. This allowed the 
publisher to gauge the size and nature of 
the proposed print edition - whether the 
artist's proofs should be several hundred 
or thousand; the ty | ie of paper and inks to 
be used. As profits grew works were | 
gradually promoted through ginnnickery ; 

the more expensive prints were signed 
artist's proofs printed in green or brown 
on Japanese or India papers or on satin or 
vellum. Whether the artist or engraver 
signed the work, or if a remarque (an 
engraver's artistic doodle) was printed in 
the margin added value prestige. 'The 
reniarques ranged from a frustrated 
monster (representing the engravers 
boredom), to elaborate crests, rows of 
cupids. or peculiar animals like the frog 
smoking a pipe under a toadstool found 
on one such popular work. The presence 
of these and other gimmicks increased 
the value of the print, as did the fact 
that senile plates were destroyed 

I er a limited miiiil >«*r <>l' prints \\ ere 

idr. When in IS.")."). Landseer's pub- 
lic r Moon, I Joys and (i raves an noun - 
id tin- public destruction ol Hve of his 
ost popular plates, an outraged cr\ 
ose from the crowd assembled to watch 
e execution ceremoin who tell works 
such value should be distributed 
ii< >i i e. (he poor, while one mail called 
e publisher <i eundal oj the worst clay. 
Once an engraver's work was pubh 
led it was often reviewed in the art 
•ess, especially those works alter pro- 
inent paintings. Reviewers were iisii- 
ly kind in their remark-., attaching 
mieth ingot the artist s reputation to tin- 
ingraver's work. f'lte Art I man (after- 
lard the Art .liinrmil I was a primary 
n lire of print reviews. Here, for exam - 
le, James Watt's The lln/hlaud Droeers 
fter Landseer was praised as a mirurl, . 
Ve nitty confidently affirm thai tins is the 
last lieiiut 1 1 ul product/an tif the hiirin ire 
ave ever seen. The four years Watt had 
pent engraving it the '2(H) guineas he had 
iaid for the copyright in the reviewer s 

opinion had paid off. Kngravers also 
worked for the Art I nioii> w ho commis- 
sioned engravings to be sold in their 
lotteries, or from philanthropic publish- 
ers who occasionally commissioned and 
sold engrax in. ol which 

wenl In charity. Kngravers wishing to 
exhibit their works found those venues 
abroad (especially in I'aris) (he most 
rewarding: it was nut until lik'N that the 
Royal Academy of Arts gave their w oiks 
full recognition. H\ then the photo- 
engraving had raged through the profes- 
sion, killing oil the livelihood of most 
engravers. Works, once limited and sold 
in their hundreds, were now supplanted 
b\ photo-engravings in unparalleled 
numbers Luke Kilde The Doctor when 
photo-engraved was said to have sold a 
million copies in America alone. Such 
popularisation of Fine Art meant that the 
(|iialit,\ of the Victorian engraver's work 
was forgotten and it is only recently that 
these works ha\e taken on social, histori- 
cal and artisde value for the art historian 
as well as the enthusiastic print collector 

The ( ■ i eek I )a I ice after hdirard I'm 

, n in 'i 1/1/ la/ liirl i n I'hofot/ruphtc 
Company (Ps\ /'it mi, (i ii in I, ii ith detail 
that could onli/ he reproduced 
phutni/ra ph/cally , 'i'i inches. 

\ ictoria and Alliert Museum , Loudon. 


I III i nwoissh I H March I U.S< ) 

Will Mian 


\ IklXt 

' i mi m 

nil the 

hi/ S /ill mi , 

i s . I 
\ 1 1 1 1 \\ 1 1 1 1 . 

i lan- 
ii) \ 1 1 1 1 - \ i k 1 1 1 u s 

I|l l)C- 


rccnl I v. lo chance upon a 
gold tun | iic stuck on a rock a I low tide arc 
yon likcb In have in your collection 
an\ tiling ;is line as the artefacts now on 
display at the British Mnsenin. London. 
Mnt it is fun. and instructive, to collect 
material relating to t he second coining of 
the \ ikmgs. the revival of interest in the 
old sagas which followed in the wake of 
the Romantic movement and led finally 
to some marvellously unhistorieal out- 
bursts by writers and painters, theolo- 
gians and Kmperors. 

The British, in their unfeeling way, 
took the \ i kings as their own, looking to 
law - and language, and even their 
sense oi humour to justify this sense of 
kinship. The British, like the Vikings, 
(I across the oceans in a con- 
centrated outburst of colonising energy. 
diem, lhe\ were fine sailors and 
1 s, and possessed of respect for 
law and religion. Frederick Wishaw , 
historian turned novelist, put the point 
thus; Untie hurl Rugnvaid lirususon rode 
ii illi half it hundred hungry wolves in 
jull rri/ after In in . . . lie had never heard the 
Inle there's life there's hope', 
lint tli' ntnuent ii Inch Xorsemen and 

I he popuiai in the Horsemen 

m the iX.'iOs. following sensational 
ns hy archaeologists and an- 
tiquarians, and went into its stride in the 
v I wo influential 
ii this revival were William 
Morris and 1 liomas Carlyle. Morris vis- 
ited h <? I , to sec for III' 
the bleak and hard\ landscape described 
. ii illected by the priest 
llnl as the ' Elder Hilda'. I le des- 
tory nl the 
'a all our raet 

( arlyle. 
in his e-.s;i\ on 'Heroes and Nero 
Worship . wrote that these old .\orse st>ngs 

truth not of 

ilk, hut a rude 
Moth men shared a 

growing belief that the all pervadin 
influence of Greece and Rome ha< 
somehow sapped the virility of the Nor- 
thern peoples. Carlyle suggested that h 
kuou the old Faith brings us into elearei 
and rinse r relation with the Past - with out 
nun possessions in the Past. This doctrine 
started a prolonged but polite war w itl 
the apostles of Hellenistic culture ii 
Britain, and led eventually to some 
preposterous notions among the fanatic; 
of Nordic and Teutonic legend. ( )ne 
Pastor Rump published a book in Berlii 
in which he claimed that all the true 
heroes of art were in fact Old Germans 
Leonardo da Vinci was really Leohardi 
von Winken, and Michelangelo the trade] 
name for Karl-Michael Bohnrodt. Even. 
or perhaps one should say of course 
Kaiser W'ilhehn II saw himself at once as 
the all-powerful demi-God, winged hel- 
met m place and mailed arm pointed 
forward to the destiny of the new Nor- 
thern Empire. Books apart. Wagner did 
not help; and painters like J. ('. Doll- 
ma mi and Oscar W ergeland propounded 
the myth. 

This great revival of interest in the 
Norsemen and their Gods raised a moral 
issue, especially among guardians of the 
young. Norse tales were thought to be 
too strong meat for children, with their 

1)1 Ithirsty pagan Gods and strange 

half-men half-beasts. They stood for the |' 
dark side of man in an age of certainty. 
There were obvious attempts to tone 
down the sagas, to remove the blood lust' 
and the burnings, and concentrate on the 
grandeur and self-sacrifice instead. 

This element is present, too, in the 
decorative art of the time. Bronzes 
showing muscular Norsemen peering out 
across the oceans, commemorative 
plates with \ iking scenes and even jugs 
in the form of \ ikings were widely 
produced to meet this new enthusiasm, 
as visitors to Phillip's. Monham's and 
Christie's South Kensington can testify. 
As Pari Ragnvald has it. Trolls take me, if 
it lie in it enough to make a hear laugh! 

Kinji Alfred's first 

t> ■ -v 



•• Sii • ! " they said. 

And h era a trumpet blast, 

Prom a burning town, 
That jhust. 

Then I To sea ! " and the galleys sprang 

To the w;i as the captive sang. 

Walter THORNBritr. 

it illustration to one of Waller 
I hornhuri/'s Cornish hallails, ninth 
■ tablishes mutual respect hetu t en 

e Xorsewen anil the (Ornish, 

rut fighters ami seamen Imlli 

Innsell ( 'tilled urn 

I ; Lav 


mi ell's jineiii, /inlil / sheil in I 'J I .'. urges n 
II In he si Mils si r;i i[_;lil ;i ml rli 
hi ^1 1< 'si fibre, si ii n ii I ill i\\ ii In I In- he; ill 
(' heart , so I hat n e mag lie n nrllii/ 
iieestnrs irho forged oa r mute. 
cmoeraeg and l\m/n re 

lieh m ) 

[n ill ust rat am In/ (ierlrade Demain 

linn iiitmtl , itl, from Captain (liarles 

nil nij's lined ' Harold , .' 

i kings . 

"l I ^ K \ I, I 

Id 1 1' 

rill, ( (iwoissi i i: March I USD 

Virginia FitzRoy 


is Mead- Bitter ii hen jiaul for. 


( HT- 

'I lie 

I n>n i 

or tlif 

i Irt-ss i 

ible cloaks. I hose who 

gi\ hi axes inlaid \\ itli 

Hitter a hen paid for 

up well the Vikinjj mentality of 

the British Museum, 
t's every aspect o( 
tin- \ irlil. Their prow ess at sea 

and in th I at making ships; the 

their pagan belief's; 
llery; trade and the inat- 
inired; the craf'tsmen; coins 
and i ditical leaders; and fin- 

ally I In- slow emergence of ( hristianity. 

The \'ik v the Romans, made 

sacrifice- to their Gods after victory in 

battle. Odin, was the God of War; and 

Poetry. He had great 

■. and lie was the 

The pagan religion in 

linavia was very disorganised; 

man chose his own (iod, and used 

different circum- 

It was for tin- reason that 

able lo replace pagan- 

although there were 

n Vikings who believed in both 

I ll|s|\ . 

emerged when the 

itact w itli southern 

Since tl inning of the 

Hi Scandinavia had 

Knrope. Copper 

up the river routes to 

ad. The < amber made 

of the Bronze Age 

in pe From there, 

and the 

an Peninsula. to Italy, the 

Mediterranean and Mycene. Annual 

and sable, squirrel and 

|e, walrus i\ on . 

and -hip's cables and always slaves 

and in southern 

Knrope. In return, the south offered 

and silver, ceramics and filigrees. 

glassware. Hue material-, jewels and 

The e\i ii »ls took place 

, as a result of warfare. 

■ through piracy and some- 

honest trade The graves of Birka 

show the\ traded with all the known 
world, particularly the East, with the 
Carolingian and Byzantine Empire! 
western Asia. Russia, the Lapp- and, 
other Scandinavian kingdoms. 

As craftsmen too. the Vikings werd 
extremely capable. There were two| 
forms of decoration - naturalistic and 
abstract. The latter was of an extremeljj 
tortuous nature, and much more of in 
survives than the former. It is used as! 
an ornament for such objects as 
brooches, and swords, pendants and 
helmets, metal, stone and wood. They, 
were strongly influenced by thd 
Romans, in their ornamental motifs. 
The various different styles include thd] 
Jelling Style taken from the silver cud 
found in the royal burial mound atl 
.Jelling. Its serpentine animal form! 
have evolved spontaneously from ear- 
lier Scandinavian art and were also used! 
abroad in the areas conquered by thd 
Vikings. The Mammen style also used! 
swirling animal forms, but it includes 
vegetable motifs. The name is takeiJ 
from an axediead found in a rich man j 
grave at Mammen. Denmark. The 
Ringerike Style consists of almosfl 
recognisable animals and birds set in a 
pattern of stylised stems and leaves, 
The True- Style is the final stage oil 
Viking art. when Christianity had begun; 
to take over from paganism. 

Canute 'The Great', Harald 'Tin 
Ruthless'. Sihtric 'Silkbeard'. of Dublin 

and Kirik 'Bloodaxe'. were s e of the 

great Viking leaders. It was not unti 
about 1 Mill U>. that the Viking perid 
was over. Nation states emerged in 
Scandinavia, and peace and stability 
won through. 

'The Vikings' will be at the British 
Museum from H February - JO July 
IUSO. In conjunction with the exhibition, 
'The Viking World' by James Graham- 
Campbell has been published by Francis 
Li wot n Publishers. 'The .Xnrthcr/i 
World' edited by D.M. Wilson has been 
published by Thames and Hudson. 

Post in the form of an animal head, which 
was part of a piece of furniture, perhaps a 
chair. It was found in the ship-bur nil at 
Oseberg, in south Norway. So piece of 
sculpture demonstrates quite so clearly the 
skill of the Viking craftsman working in 
wood, with which he was most familiar. 
The head is decorated with animals by a 
craftsman who has been distinguished as 
'The Academician', a slightly out-of-date 
member of the group of artists represented 
in this burial , who also carved the stem 
of the ship. 
Photograph: Thames and Hudson. 

Mi atonal Stone. 
- ii a arrwr ton ard 
n a n inn a , i <l rt tilling horn. Is 

>tg taken to \ allialla 
Height s '» cm. 
Stati n> Htstoriskii Museum. 

Musi a m . London. 

I : Ill/Ill I 

Helmet I rum a grate at \ < ndel, I ppla 
Snellen ll~- applied plates hear scenes 
ruler ami a In ur \ Ik hnet oj almost 
similar form, almost eertai nl y made /. 
Sn i ih a , a us found i a the cenotaph oj 
seeenth century East Anglian king at 
Sutton I Inn I n Sn I 
I'hotograph: Thames and Hudson. 

lllK CONNOISSEUR March 1980 

lirim , 
i m , London . 



Seekluee, crystal, silver and ylass. 

I. ilia Hone, Siveden. 

Maximum lenyth: •>'.■>' cm. 

Xecklace, ylass, silrer, etc. 

Hirka i/rarc tidJ, Sweden. 

Lenyth: ';•>' cm. 

Xeeklucc of Anylo-Saxon coins, silver, 

Aspinye, Sweden . 

Lenyth: ',<>. '/ cm. 

Seeklnce, sili er. 
I'nlhayen, Sweden. 
Lenyth: <>!..'> cm. 
\eeklacc ami ilisc brooch, 

and yilt bronze. 
( ,re U' ( S, Sweden. 
Lenyth: '.Hi on. 

h Museum . London. 



^•M* 9 

' • • • ■ •• ■<-<. 

^i=' (i 

eft) Armlet hoard, silver. Martens. 
veden. Maximum diameter: ',).■'. cm. 
■male grave group, Hirka grave. Swede 
\'itish Museum, Loudon. 



lird-shaped brooch, silver gilt, 
'resli, Norway. 
Yialli: lf.8cm. 
rondheim Museum, Sorway. 

( Above) 

Box-shaped brooch, gold, silver, niello 

mid bronze. Martens, Sweden. 

Diameter: , .~> cm. 

British Museum, London . 



(Above, left and right) 
Two mounts, silver gilt. 
Maximum length: ■'>. 1 cm. 
British Museum, London. 

(Above, centre) 

Two broodies, gilt bronze and enamel 

Maximum length: '.'.) cm. 

British Museum. London. 


Li/uul arm brooch, gilt bronze. 

Length: I 7.(> cm. 

British Museum. London. 


1 Jan van Kt 

Study of thirty-six butterflies, 

moths and in 

panel, inches. 

Most of the small creatures in tins tiny 
panel have been identified and it remains a 
source of wonder, even today, why the 
artist should have delighted in such a 
disconcerting array of insects. Pictures oj 
tins type survive in considerable numbers. 
an cram pie being the whole group in the 
Ward Collection in the Ashmolean 
Museum, Oxford. It has to be assumed that 
they had great popularity with the Antwerp 
collectors of the tune. 


lintings front the Sarah Campbell Bluffer Collection, by Christopher Wright 

I ' « ■ 

It is ;i ul\ held fallacv thai il is n<» 

longer possible to collect Old Master 
paintings today, in ;i res) 

market . 1 1 several pri\ ate collec- 

t ii »ns in (liflei Is oi America \\ In >se 

holdings in I )i ictures make m< >sl 

museum acqni policies appear 

half-hearted. A:i i ig ci Election i >l 

pictures has heen recently formed by the 
Trustees of the Sarah ( ampbell Blatter 
Foundation of Houston. I e\as and it has 
gone on view for the first tune in the 
I Diversity Art (iallen at Houston. The 
collection concentrates on t he I )utch and 
Flemish sixteenth and seventeenth cen- 
turies with a few (ierman works of the 
s;inu' period. 

The strengths and weaknesses of the 
Blatter collection serve to illustrate 
several important points about present 
day collecting which are so often over- 
looked both by those who form the 
collections and the public who look at 
them. The express intention of Sarah 
Campbell Blatter was that the collection 
should have an educational bias. After 
the Houston showing the pictures are to 
be circulated round the museums of 
Texas, ('specially in areas where there 
are few pictures by any of the Old 
Masters. In concentrating on the educa- 
tional, and therefore by implication the 
historical side of the collection, the Trus- 
tees have succeeded amazingly well in 
representing the unfashionable side of 
Rembrandt's pupils. There is a line 
academic portrait by Fernad Hoi. an 
elaborate Allegory oj Abundance by Aert 
de (ielder and an unusally good Old 
Testament subject by Harent Fabritius. 
Historical considerations have also pre- 
vailed in the representation of painters 
active in Antwerp in Rubens' time and 
there is an extras agent (iarlaud oj Floir- 
ers by Daniel Seghers, an excellent Jan 
F\ t animal piece and the Jan van Kessel 
( I ). As well as these pictures obviously in 
the collection for their place m the 
development of painting in Amsterdam 
and Antwerp are representative exam- 
ples of Aelbert Cuyp (H Jacob van 
Ruisilael ((») ami Jan van (ioyeii (!>). 

I lie weaknessess of the Blatter collec- 
tion cannot be blamed either on the lack 
of Rembrandt, Hals. Vermeer, and 
Rubens without the intervention of his 
studio. 01 on the problems of the present 
day art market. The.v belon 
difficult realm of taste. As ha 
been noted, the Blatter o 
sought many at prese 
painters in the name i 
pleteliess, bill there i 

rilK CONNOISSEUR March ]U8() 

i >idance < >i types <>! subject 

matter. The spectator can be moved by 
the genuine pathos of the Metsys altar- 
piece (8) I > 1 1 1 never by anything remotely 
vulgar. Kven the Jan Steen (71 is rela- 
tively genteel. Looked at in a broader 
context tin problem is simply this. Most 
American collections and those in Kur- 
ope with purchase funds have tended to 
avoid the whole period of Netherlandish 
painting ('■ 1550-1630. Apart from the 
very rare doubled-sided panel attributed 
to Lambert Lombard, the Blatter collec- 
tion does not contain a single example of 
tin- art of this period. The bad example is 
set bv such institutions as the National 

Gallery in Washington whose recent 
acquisition of a picture by Wttewael 
serves to underline the gap. Naturally it 
would be unfair to suggest that every 
picture gallery should attempt to line its 
walls with the excesses of Cornells van 
Haarlem or nocturnal flea-catching of a 
Honthorst. However, avoidance of what 
is now considered to be disagreeable is 
justifiable on grounds of taste but not in 
the name of history. 

In spite of this general quibble, which 
is just as serious in many other collections 
which seek to inform an historical basis, 
the Blatter pictures will provide a great 
impetus to the appreciation of the art of 

the period in that part of America. Th> 
Baroque masterpieces in the Houstoi 
Museum of Pine Arts contain very fev 
Northern pictures except the Frans Hal: 
Portrait of a Woman which was given bj 
Sarah Campbell Blatter in her lifetime 
There are no significant holdings in th( 
area north of Houston until the distant 
collections at Kansas City and St. Louis 
are reached. Not even the greatest 
picture collections can always provide 
the neccessary historical balance. The 
confusion and contradictions of the 
period have been, on the whole, avoided 
by historians seeking to fight shy of 
paradoxes. They have tended to want to 

cV kle The Netherlands neatly mt<> the 
I. testant North and the Catholic South 
guiding the uneasy co-existence of 
(i hohc and I rotestanl in Northern 
ti us like l)clft which produced the 
(i hohc \ erineer or the almost entirely 
(b tholic city of I'trecht. From a visual 
I nt of view the Blaffer pictures have 
I n ty of action, from the soldiers plun- 
c -nig in a Won wen nans to the skaters in 
t unusual Ice Scene liy Hubert van der 
lei. Tins note has, however, been 
\ itten as a plea to those who appreciate 
f e painting not to confuse their per- 
s lal taste with the doings of history. 

± The Master of Frankfurt. 
The I !ol\ Kinship, 
left panel: dO'/s ■ .'.'' ■inches; 
right panel: d<)> ■ ■ I J'/s inches. 
II hen placed foyefher these tiro panels 
make a continuous scene anil it must he 
assumed that then formed " diptych. The 
subject oj the relafircs anil ancestors of 
The Holy Family is quite common in 
late fifteenth-century art. The Master of 
Frankfurt, named after an altarpieee in 
Frankfurt, has yet to he identified hut it is 
assumed that he was act/ re in Antwerp in 
the years immediately after l-'tlil) and 
worked in a shyhtly old-fashioned style 
directly derived from the work of Me ml inc. 

(I'uyc I Sin 

.'<: Lueas ( ;■., luicli 
I he suicide of | aicrczia. 
siyned in monoyram and dated 'I.Vj'l', 
panel, .".)' ■ ■ : 1 >//ches. 
This is an cxn •■ unpleofCranach's 

mature but sfereofypi d style The tragic 
figure of Lucre a, o ha suffered 
outrage at the hands oj Tunpiui, is about 
to take her men life. Fiery clement in the 
composition is can fully exaggerated 
almost to the point oj being ridiculous 
especially, for example, the crazy castle 
in the background. 


i :u 

; -<m;&.:-.- 


I Arllx-rl Cuyp. 

i Ii iim liu'li !>(■(< ire I I il n v.'i ll ( ;i -t !c 
. < IIVp . 

"J niches. 

i formal purl nj tin lint 
( olivet inn tins picture lias < <i 
attcnl f literature. It <hous the 

castle i>l I familiar from n 

different • he picture in tin 

Satlou union, ll is n ii usual 

for an ei/nest i re hi/ (lll/p to he on 

so small a sculi iien point i/ii es 

an impression of art 


.">: I let'iiiaii ( iciiiKz. I )> linker. 
Family fjroup in ;i IsiimIm apt' 
sii/ued '\\. Donckcr ilateil ' I 
; / , • UW s inches. 

\ cri/ fete pictures are knoirii hi/ Donckcr, 
although some remain at Kilam ami 
Enkhuizeii . This picture is an uiterestini/ 
social document as it slum's a prosperous 
famili/ dressed in their liest . The child on 
the ru/ht is a hoi/ as it u us the custom in 
those dai/s to dress children alike, the 
main differentiation hetireen them heinij 
the collars the// arc ucurint/, the girls 
in imitation of their mother a ml the 
hoi/ of that of his father . 


fi .lai'i 1 1 1 \ ilai'l. 

I ,;un lsca| i cornfield, 

signed: ' I 
■ I . ■ 

Altlioi. •nt tire has suffered from 

smut , ution of /nt 1 11/ in the sky, 

i us us a powerful crumple of 
duel's understated art . As Fromcntin 
si i a /ill// remarked lie never painted a 
stinin day. Keen witli these simplest of 
means, clouds, trees and sand dunes 
Huisdael ue/ueees that feeling of 
melunelioly for it huh In- has been 
rit/htl// esteemed . 


?: Jan Steen 

The Twelfth NijjUt I'Vast. 

W' inches. 
Towards the end of his career dun Steeu's 
coarseness uf subject-mutter extended to 
Ins hrushwork too. lie aoundoned his 
preoccupation u itlt silks and satins and 
turned In the homespun fustians of the 
poorer classes. Tin twelfth Sight feast 
nils a popular Setherlu ndish custom 
marking the end of the Christmas 
jestit ities. dan Sit en far all his rudeness 
and t ulyurity nt 1 1 r lust Ins ability tit 
record the endless ninety of human folly. 


X; Quiiitii 

Till' 1 )»>|)(»sil ion t rniii the ( ii iss, 
panel, M ' 

I his memoralu is reputed to 

hare come from .\i in rrp ( 'atfwdral and 
it is one of the Jeii put, ; <<f its type 
in America. 7 lie i- r crisis in 

The Setherlands in r caused the 

removal or destruction of many ultarpteces 
mill very jew remain in situ hor Ins time 
Metsys teas backward-looking. Tin' 
passionate intensity of tins picti, 
reminiscent oj the work of Hogier inn tier 
W'eyden. duly in the landscape 
background is the early sixteenth-century 
date of the picture obvious. 


U: Jan van (ioyen. 

\ lew <>{' I hmlreeht from the North-East . 

signed and dated '\ . (ioyen l(>47 , 

. > /" ' , * •' 7 ' / / iicl/cs. 
Formerly in the Wilstach Collection , 
Philadelphia this picture is the only known 
i /en of the town from this angle by the 
artist . He worked on a large scale like this 
but rarely and the monochrome treatment is 
unusual for a date as late as W>\ , as at tins 
tune most of his pictures had returned In 
the use of the brighter colours of his youth. 



[•HE CONNOISSEUR March 1980 


ami flic design of furniture , by Hen Bat 

The design, materials, and ('(instruction- 
al techniques of furniture have been 
affected as much by economic and politi- 
cal events as by aesthetic and stylistic 
changes. These factors, though often 
overlooked when considering the fur- 
niture of a period, have had a profound 
influence in l><>tli the initiation ami the 
evolution of a style I Ins series of three 
articles will discuss the economic and 
political factors affecting the develop- 
ment of Knglish furniture from l(>5() to 
I7H0. Tin- main emphasis will lie on the 
supplies of foreign and domestic timber 
and the economic reasons for the decline 
in use of Mime timbers and the rapid 
acceptance of others. I lie series will also 
consider the influences which these 
w i H H Is had on the styles of the period. 
The first article w ill deal with the re sin ra- 
tion of the monarchy and the accom- 
panying changes in furniture, especially 
the change from oak to walnut. The 
second will focus on the exotic woods 
Kngland imported and the effect these 
woods had on Knglish furniture. The 
change tron i walnut to mahogany and the 
reason^ for the rapid acceptance of ma- 
hogany will lie the subject of the third 

Kcoiioinic. political, and stylistic in- 
fluences on Knglish furniture were most 
in oti mini following the restoration of the 
iirchy. The return of'Charles II from 
exile in Holland in KifiO ushered in a new 
period of furniture making and design in 
Kngland. Coming with ideas and tastes 
from stylistically advanced Holland lie 
accelerated and influenced the change in 

sh furniture style from domestically 
inspired and manufactured Jacobean 

iin to the more sophist ieated 

alniil st\ le. Knglish furniture at 

ol Lis return lagged far behind 

that ol the Continent in design and 

i s| iccia II v in (•( unpa risi hi with 

: French work. In ci ml rast w it h 

cd pieces ol the ( oiitineiit, 

re was simple and sohd . 

with few ;il st \ lisfie or technical 

experi ( h'nament ci msistei I 

1 1 1 1 a I a 1 1 1 e , 
limited par(|ii( work or else 

carving, which wa ed most ly ti > 

ilia ll's aild bei |sti ■; ! here w as 

ie woods used 

work, the main wood used m furniture 
continued to be English oak, as it had 
been since the Middle Ages. Though 
very practical the restrained Jacobean 
style was not as varied and stimulating as 
the decorated work the new king was 
accustomed to. Its simplicity suited the 
Puritan years, and reflected the qualities 
of the Knglish oak from which it was 

England was changing, however, lie- 
cause of her increasing importance in 
world affairs and because of greater 
sophistication brought about by growing 
trade contacts with the Continent and the 
East and West Indies. The introspection 
of the Cromwell years was over, and the 
ascension to the Knglish throne of Dutch 
influenced Charles II and William of 
((range introduced the sophistication of 
Dutch taste into Kngland. The sturdy 
and relatively unrefined Jacobean fur- 
niture gave way to the more delicate and 
sophisticated Stuart style. The Dutch 
influence was a change which affected 
not only the furniture design of the 
period but also revolutionised basic at- 
titudes towards style and cabinetmaking. 
Because Knglish craftsmen and 
designers were unable to satisfy the taste 
for fine furniture, the new kings brought 
Dutch furniture designers and cabinet- 
makers to make their furniture and to 
teach the Knglish Dutch styles and 
techniques of cabinetmaking. Instru- 
mental in the introduction of Dutch 
design was Daniel Marot. a French 
trained architect and designer who came 
over with William as his Court Architect. 

The Knglish benefited not only from 
I hitch instruction; the raising of Knglish 
craftsmanship was greatly aided by the 
influx of French Huguenots who came to 
Kngland for asylum, welcomed by a king 
who shrewdly recognised their talents. 

Their influence on cabinetmaking was 
greatest in the design and execution of 
marqtietn work 

The new Continental designers im- 
mediately introduced furniture more re- 
fined and lighter in appearance. 1 his was 
done by a reduction of the massiveness 
and scale of Jacobean furniture and the 
introduction of proportion as an essential 
of furniture design. The turning of what 
were previously square legs, especially 

in chests, resulted in a delicate airl 
decorative appearance. Fine veneei 
and marquetry work in place of the plail 
Jacobean oak surfaces also contribute! 
to this delicate look. The use of venee 
and marquetry changed dull areas in thl 
design of a piece into enjoyable an] 
beautiful parts of the whole. The piece 
became lighter in look and more refined] 
less bulky. A restraint and order wal 
introduced into Knglish craftmanshil 
and design based on careful consideil 
at ion of the piece as a whole and ol 
attention to all the parts constituting tlu> 
whole. Furniture was regarded more an 
more as an expression of good taste, a 
enjoyable luxury rather than a utilitaria 

Along with new attitudes toward dc 
sign and proportion the Dutch also con| 
centrated on changing Knglish attitude 
and abilities toward cabinetmaking am 
wood itself. The cutting and working o 
veneer, used in both marquetry am 
decorative work, was a technique totally 
new to Knglish craftsmen, who ha< 
previously worked only in solid wood. I 
called for a vast raising in the standard: 
of eabinetinaking. The speed with whicl 
Knglish craftmen learned to select, saw 
match and lay finely figured walnut il 
impressive. A greater technical achieve 
nient. however, was their rapidly acquir 
ed competence in marquetry work, whicl 
required not only great skill and ex 
pertise in design but an enormous 
amount of technical ability. Taught b\ 
the Dutch. Knglish craftsmen rapidlj 
progressed from the solid but simple 
Jacobean constructional techniques tc 
varied and sophisticated methods of 
construction and embellishment. 

The Dutch believed that wood in itself 
was an important stylistic element and 
could be intrinsically valued as an aes- 
thetic extension of a piece of furniture, 
rather than simply as a constructional 
material. Harmony between timber and 
design was introduced as an ideal, forc- 
ing a careful selection of timber for each 
intended use. Marquetry design was 
intended to make greatest use of the 
beauties of the various woods used. 
usually laying holly and other light 
coloured veneers in a contrasting back- 
ground of burr or oyster walnut veneer. 




_ *■ M 







I Ills created ;i pattern of differing shades 

and colours. especially in tin- contrast ol 
light and dark woods, and played upon 
tin 1 differences in the colours and tones ol 
tin- woods. The Dutch taught that line 
craftsmanship and appropriate and care- 
fully selected materials were a vital ami 
integral part of style and design. The 
sun | (lest manifestation of t Ins new aware- 
ness was shown l>\ the appearance of 
veneer and marquetry work in Knglish 
furniture, and by the sophisticated use ol 
different colours and grains of wood in 
pieces of furniture. 

Techniques of cutting wood to obtain 
different colours and grain patterns also 
originate in tins period. Burr, oyster, 
curl, and straight-grain walnut and exotic 
veneers are all results of this experi- 
mentation: and were a stylistic inno- 
vation used to enhance and contrast the 
different parts ol the pieces. I hough the 
attainment of line craftsmanship was 
highly important to the development ol 
Knglish furniture, the concept intro- 
duced by the Dutch of matching material 
to design was possibly ol greater, if more 
subt le. importa nee, 

Though a strong and stable wood, 
oak s coarse gram and dull, even colour- 
ing were not capable of conveying the 
subtleties and fineness ol the new style. 
Walnut rapidly supplanted oak in all but 
con nt r\ furniture and carcase and drawer 
work, \n additional reason for the 
decline of oak was that as Knglaud 
became increasingly involved in trade 
and wars with the rest ol the world she 
needed more oak for ships. Knglish ships, 
,| iccia II y w ai'shlps, w ere built pil- 
ot oak and it wiis for shipping ami 
that the best Knglish oak was 
\ a st anion ut soft he wood were 
tor this purpose. \\ ith the 
size of Kugland s forests 
oa k I'cially tineoak wasbeconung 

hard flic decrease in supply 

probably n ale cabinetmakers receptive 

to the inl I new materia Is. 

Walnut was * oured w I on the 

( out iiient an. so since t he 

sixteenth century Its use was probably 
due primarily to it? nd colour- 

ing. I)iit the abundance of walnut in mid 

(Page 18?>) 

I In- Stuart/ Restoration ruimi 
nl the Gejfrye Museum, London. 
Among tin- seventeenth-ventury objects 
are mi oak side table; a 'Cromii ill inn' 
rluiir; an oak settle; the pannelling is by 
John Wydldgos, 1668, who was 
carpenter U> Sir ( 'hristopher Wren. 
Photograph: AC. Cooper Limited. 

and southern Kurope played a great part 
in its widespread use. Though walnut 
t rees grew in Kugland and walnut timber 
had been used since the beginning of the 
seventeenth century it was not in great 
enough supply or demand to gam wide- 
spread use until the influence of foreign 

The change from Jacobean to Stuart 
furniture led to the selection of a finer 
material (walnut for oak), but the mat- 
erial itself also greatly influenced the 
course of the style which first introduced 
it Because walnut was a finer wood 
it demanded better craftsmanship and 
sty hstic consideration. The emphasis on 
veneer and marquetry as decoration 
caused carving to disappear from Knglish 
furniture for several decades. 1 he desire 
to show oil curls, burrs, and oysters of 
walnut veneer in the late walnut period 
led to the great expanses of Hat space 
decorated with veneer especially on 
table and bureau tops, and on drawer 
fronts. Ftilising the beauty of wood as an 
intrinsic aspect of the style of a piece ol 
furniture was to be a dominant tradition 
of Knglish furniture design even after the 
initial I )utch influence died out. 

The change from oak to walnut 
highly important to an understanding 
the use of wood in Knglish furniture. 
was the first example of a change in bas 
materials accompanying a radical chanj 
in style and techniques of cabinetma 
ing. a phenomenon that was to occ 
again in the next century with malic; 
any. It also marked the beginning of tl 
Knglish cabinetmaker's concern with 1 
material and his ability to detect wooi 
strengths and to utilise them, blendii 
the material to the style and the style 
the material to make a composite who 
reflecting the best in design, craftma 
ship, and materials. In the demandi. 
furniture of the next century this a 
preciation and ability was to be critic;. 

From <-. 1685-1700 an Knglish sty 
distinct from the Dutch began to evolv 
By 1700 Knglish cabinetmakers hi 
surpassed their Dutch teachers and we 
considered ecpial craftsmen to tl 
French, the finest in Kurope. Co 
structional refinements are especial 
obvious in the finer dovetailing and mo 
sophisticated construction of Englii 
drawers. Freed from solving teclmic 
and constructional problems they turne 
their attention to design and stylist 
improvement. Sophistication and i 
dependence in both making and desig 
are shown in the English marquetry woi 
of the 1690s, superior to Dutch work 
grace and technical execution. Increase 
cabinetmaking skill, combined wil 
appropriate materials led to stylist 
improvements that would have be( 
impossible with Jacobean workmansh 
and oak. 

The scarcity of native walnut was 
constant problem. England did not hai\ 
the extensive forests of the larger coin 
tries on the Continent. In addition, tl 
forests had been intensively worked f< 
six hundred years. Conservation {delist 
mainly on the oak trees, destined for tl 
Royal Navy and Fngland's merchai I 
shipping. Kngla nd's forests were neverii I 
tended to supply the furniture indiistr | 
they were treated instead as a nation I 
asset vital to shipping and defence 
Though it had been a relatively mitotic! I 
ed forest resource, walnut had neve I 


( 'abliiet-on-stand , reneered 

with walnut, c. WHO. 

\ ictoria unit Albert Museum, London. 


Burr- walnut veneered fall front writ my 
cabinet, c. Ki'.l-'i. Saltratn House; 
Photographs: ( 'ooper Bridyeman Library. 

1 en as plentiful in England as on the 

ipntinent and it soon came into short 

: pply with the tremendous demand for 

I ? fashionable new walnut furniture 

igland is cold tor the tree, which did 

ich better in the wanner climates of 

ance and Italy, and what were then 

■ newly settled territories of \ irginia 
; d Carolina. 
The scarcity of walnut was dealt with 

several ways. There was an effort to 
ant more of the trees. Because of the 
mate and length of time needed for 
limit trees to reach maturity this was 
pt adequate however. In addition. Eng- 
h walnut is generally interior to Conti- 
•ntal walnut in grail) and colouring, 
iigland also imported walnut in great 
lantity from a large array of countries 

Europe and America. Then, as now. 
e finer burrs came from France and 
; ly. and were greatly used in England, 
he Statistics of Import show that m I (>!•!( 
ngland imported wallnut tree planck 
oni France. Holland. Spain. Portugal, 
aly. Pennslyvania, \ irginia and Mary- 
nd, and Barbados. In addition, the 
■ 'ords for the same year show wallnut 
ee root (probably burr tor veneering) 
iming from Italy. 

The increasing use ot veneer reduced 
ie amount of walnut needed in a piece, 
i a chest, for example, cabinetmakers 
»ually only made the turned legs or feet 

solid wood. The rest was walnut 
,meer over a carcase of oak or deal 
lepending on the quality of the piece). 
or solid pieces such as chairs increasing 
se was made of the walnut in the 
mericas, known as Black or \ irginia 
alnut. This wood was close enough in 
rain and colour tor the two woods to be 
itisfactorily mixed on a piece. This was 
>ne most often on chairs. The legs and 
ack stiles might be made of Virginia 
alnut and the rails and hack splat 
eneered in European walnut. 
These means were sufficient to cope 
ith the shortage of native walnut until 
700-10. This date corresponds roughly 
ith two developments in the furniture 
ade and with other events occiiring in 
Europe. The first was the gradual end of 
ie extensive use of marouetrv. Later 

walnut furniture relied much more on 
figured walnut for decoration and conse- 
quently greater amounts ot prime walnut 
were needed for tops and other surfaces 
previously covered by marquetry. 
Another stylistic change was the increase 
in favour of solid furniture. This was a 
factor that did not have its full impact 
until the cabriole leg and the develop- 
ment of Queen Anne furniture. 

Also affecting the furniture industry 
was the upsurge at this period in the 
demand for tine furniture coming from 
the banking and merchant classes, rich 
from trade with the Continent and the 
new colonies. This increased demand 
coincided with, and greatly contributed 
to the shortage of walnut. 

Economic factors affected the supply 
of walnut as they had with oak. England 
was often at war ami used great quanti- 
ties of walnut for gunstocks. The supply 
of the tree in Europe was also greatly 
lessened by a severe frost in 170!), which 
killed off great numbers of the tree. \\ hy 
these shortages could not have been 
solved by increased imports from the 
vast virgin forests of \ irginia and Penn- 
slvvania has never been satisfactorily 

explained. Perhaps, because 

of the inferior grain of the 

American wood (here ye been a 

prejudice against usmg ' d for 

show surfaces. 

The shortage ot walnut i I some 

changes in the furniture designs > ■ Jueen 
Anne and (ieorge I styles. First was the 
economising of timber by using veneer. 
Another was the substitution of \ irginia 
walnut m suitable places. A third change 
was more subtle and only became fullv 
evident twenty or thirty years later when 
the use ot mahogany dominated fur- 
niture. The shortage of large boards 
caused cabinetmakers to occasionally' 
join up boards for solid bureau and table 
tops. The legs, chair splats and back 
stiles of chairs and settees were also 
much less voluptuous than later (ma- 
hogany) exam pies of the same style chair, 
showing an effort to conserve wood. 
Though this restraint was due to initial 
reserve in developing the new style 
conservation was also a factor. Cheaper 
wood, often beech, was occasionally' used 
for the back legs of chairs, and cabriole 
legs were sometimes glued up. The lack 
of material resulted in a severity of 
curves which especially affected chair 
construction. The growth ol the later 
Queen Anne style may have been suffer- 
ing from a lack of suitable timber. 

In 1 7-20 England had a developed, 
sophisticated, and talented cabinetmak- 
ing trade. This trade cat er°d to a sophis- 
ticated clientele concerned w ith the style 
and quality of furniture. A greater and 
more varied market had ev olved for fine 
furniture and cabinetmakers were forced 
to become more flexible in order to cater 
to differing demands. This period also 
was marked by the shift from Stuart 
furniture to the more curvaceous Queen 
Anne. As with the earlier transition from 
Jacobean to Stuart furniture (and oak (o 
walnut), the new style was being ham- 
pered by the lack of a suitable mad 
Mahogany, newly available from 
West Indies in virtually lllilil 
inension, was the wood which 
the limitations of walnut and i 
the development of I 
st vie into the nineteent h c< 

HE ( OXXOISSEIR March 1980 


In this issue we offer a preview of a new 
: The Connoisseur, in which we 
ur readers to some ol the finest and 
the most representative of Britain's 
countl'X houses. Some oi these are open 
|iul)lie, others still in private hands 
and not generally accessible. Of those 
thai are open, we have chosen houses 
within a reasonable distance of London. 
in the hope that mans of our overseas 
readers, coining to Britain, will take the 
opportunity to travel into the country- 
side to see collections which have hither- 
to been nothing more than names in a 
guide book. Britain's country house 
o\\ ners face a difficult decade. It the '70s 
made people more aware of these great 
national assets, and led to a fuller under- 
standing of the multitude of problems 
involved in their preservation, the hope 
for the '80s is thai these problems can be 
more w idely shared ( )w tiers in different 
parts of the count r\ are coming together 
to promote t heir In mses jointly, to pool 
resources in terms of publicity and re- 
search, and to work s_\ in pathetically v\ it li 
local authorities and the tourist boards. 

There ran lie no more pleasant way of 
looking at antiques and fine paintings 
than country house-,. 
my cases the furnishings were made 
for the house, iii have been in the house 
t< >r main \ ears 

These collections also offer a remark- 
able insight into collecting, habits, the 
on for Italian and I hitch paintings, 
for French furniture. Chinese and Japan- 
ese art. the return t<> old oak and the lure 
oi shining mahogany 

V\e hope that you will enjoy this series. 

photographed with such excellence b\ 

>n\ kersting We hope that the 

I H allied ci illecti ir in \ on will feel 

if jeali mis greed, and that the 

romantic w ill delight in these 

durham House, 


hims, i (/ collection <>f 

;niiiiti iiijs . notable 
th a/ decorative 


, , nth cen ' arity. 

.1 ./. Eyston, I sq 


■ . " 


The hall at .\li liampton, Dorset. This is one oj the most complete 
uieiliaci at ' iiuie sunned in England, complete tilth secret 

stm ru mi- 'mil and panelling. As the illustration suggests, 

the lion ins a wealth of good English furniture. 

Robert t 'oolie, Esq. , >//'. 

(Ear right) 

Tin staircase and hall ut Bell oir ( 'astle, Leicestershire. The seat of 

the Duke of Rutland, Belvoir was remodelled by W'yatt in tSlti, in 

the modish Gothic style. Famous for its collections of paintings and 

furniture, Belvoir is set in some of the loveliest countryside in the 

East Midlands, now threatened with the prospect of open cast 


His (Irucc the Duke of Rutland . 


The ( 'hinese Idiom at ( 'layiton House, Buckinghamshire. The 
Verneys ofClaydon were staunch Royalist in the seventeenth 
century, and strong lories in the eighteenth. They set out to neal 
the great Whig family of Grenville with their nearby seat at Stowe, 
and the set of state rooms at Claydon testify to their zeal and 
inventiveness. These rooms are unique, in their decoration and 
contain remarkable English furniture in the ( 'hinese taste. 
I lie \atioual I rust . 



U Kite* 

gill ■!? ®r,-s 


(f«r left) 

The saloon at Chatswon /shire. Tins o> 

Europe's greatest ducal In for the first I ') 

Devonshire in the late set century. The pa 

tapestries, furniture, plate < objets d art rank 

as one of the finest private co >i the world. 

A selection from this assembly '/ been on 

tour in the I 'nited States undt ' 'Treasures 
from Chats worth'. 
His Grace the Duke of Devonshin . 


The drawing room at Arbury Hall , \\ 

One of the finest examples of the intricai iteenth- 

century Gothick architecture, Arbury hout 'J fine 

collection of English furniture and paintings 

F. IT FitzRoy Newdegate, Esq. 


A bedroom at Pack wood House, Warwickshire. 
Packwood contains a remarkable collection of tapestru 
and needlework from the seventeenth century, and, 
as the illustration shows, fine English furniture of the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The gardens are 
particularly interesting, in that they have retained much 
of their Crotnwellian character, including a great yen 
hedge laid out in the form of the Sermon on the Mount. 
The National Trust. 


fid i tirtlt , 

lemonstrai <rdinary artistic 

heritage ttj I ■ ,s greatest families. 

! . \iIiiiii , .S70// contains 
itotftu spectacular or exquisit 

• from central London , 

// j.s pressive introduction to the 

ighteenth-century England. 
I .' 'In- Dnlr of Sorthumberland. 

(I'm i ight) 

>>rtli, Suffolk, lujuses 'mi' of 
I ngland's finest collections of silcer, 
I' re nch furniture mid English paintings. 
I In I'onijii inn Room, illustrated here, 
slum s the extrai agance of late eighteenth- 
century English Seo-classicism. 
The Xational Trust 

I fielou ) 

The library at Mellerstaiu, Hern ickshire. 
I Ins rntlier set ere looking house contains 
some of the most delicate and precise of 
Robert Adam's interior decoration. Robert 
mid Ins father \\ illimn limit the house 
between / /" .'•; and 17IJO, and much of the 
furniture dates from this period. 
I .onl Hi n n i in/ 


Japanese art from the Mar// and Jackson liurke ( 'olfaction 

Aikiii i rl\ seventeenth 

cent ii n : I aj>aso<le (Whose Sleeves?), 

it screen, colour on gilded paper, 

''. niches. Heantij'ul kimonos 
dud a tube containing amulet hang from 
a clolhcs rack. \t the foot oj the rack is a 

a musical instrument Such screens 
are known by the title Tafj'a socle. The 
phrase implies longing for the absent 
a enrer, whose beauty is suggested f>y the 
exquisite kimonos and other feminine 

. J .,,.. T vp-m. — .. -, 

"here arc several reasons why winter-hound connoisseurs 
night have wished themselves in Florida during the last 
,vo months, and one of them was the truly marvellous 
xhihition of Japanese art mounted by the Loch Haven 
irt Center at Orlando. I )rawn from the Mary and Jackson 
llurke Collection in New \ < »i - k , one of the finest outside 
apan itself, the exhibition featured screens, scrolls, 
eramics and lacquer from the Kdo period ( 1(515— 18(>7). 
'he Guest Curator for the exhibit ion was Miyeko Mu rase. 
Yofessor in the Department of Art History at Columbia 
niversity. New York. The Burke Collection is notice- 
ably strong in lkiyo-e and Nanga painting, and these 
chools formed the core of the display. Many of the 
>aintings and objects exhibited from the Collection had 
lever been shown before, and, as this and the following 

pages demonstrate, all of exception;! 

( hina. or more propel Japanese cm pt of 

Chinese life. landscape osophy, do 

Nanga painting. Literally 'Son painting*, il 

loosely-knit group of self-ei artistic pan 

centred on the ancient capil of Kyoto in the 

eighteenth an<l nineteenth centi men imii. 

the Chinese wen-jen, a circle of hi ted men f r< mi 

all walks of life who chose to red centre of 

activity to contemplate the chances life from 

a distance, to note the many fac< sof nal cord the 

passing of the seasons. They were ac< 'ied poets. 

musicians and writers, and masters of ca 

Japan in the eighteenth century depende |\ on 

Chinese example, in political thought as inu 


. , , 

n i 

- j, -^\" s 


<ar left) 

N ishimura Shigenobu (mid-eighteenth 
•ntun). Brine maiden Matsukaze, 

' om the Noh Drama Matsukaze, 
, inging scroll, ink and colour on paper, 
■A'-'/v; X ll'/n; inches. The tiro sisters 
' latsukaze and Murasame gathered brine 
>r salt-making on the beach at Suma. Both 
iris fell in lore with the handsome courtier 
\ ukihira who teas in exile there. When he 
as pardoned and returned to the capital , 
e left his cap and gown as inomentos. 
le died before he could fulfil his promise 
> send for them. Grief-stricken, Masukaze 
listook the pine tree for ) ukihira. 


famamoto Baiitsu (1783-1856). 
landscape of the Four Seasons, dated 
iarly Spring, 1S4N. /<>///• hanging scrolls, 
nk on silk. Each scroIlItOViti X IS'-Vie, 
riches. The four seasons of the year 
rrogress from spring to winter. 


50 Shiseki (171 (2—86). Parakeets aim >ng 

Flowers, hanging scroll; ink anil colour 

in silk, 13> Vie, x J J > i inches. Shiseki 

studied the naturalism of the ( 'hiiig 

'. 'hinese painter When Nan-ping, 

who came to Nagasaki for trade in 1 731 . 

tion and ci ist om in t lie arts. ( esc habits ol oh dience, 
menial discipline and self -a ation appealed rough' 

to the .Japanese intelligent Mo made a prol 

study of every aspect of Chine-., anisrn. The N'anga 

painters produced in their w i imaginary if not 

idealised view of life and land- in China, of the 

mentso keenly enjoyed by their pal This style was 

subtly different from its Chinese in that so 

many other pictorial sources were a /a to them, and 

influenced their work. Native Japanese and imports 
from the Dutch made their mark, lendi I element 

of unpredictability to this charming and five form 

of art. Ukiyo-e painting presents a total c< Based 

on the city of Kdo, capital of the Tokugav mate. 

it celebrated life in all its sweaty brashness, deli: ting in 
the brothels and theatres, courtesans and actresses who 
provided wealthy townsmen with the sole soun I 

It was an expensive and even laborious business, m 
that courtesans had not merely to be paid at a rate 
appropriate to their looks and accomplishments, but 
sapped up to in a formal way. Wit, distinction of 
manners and delicacy of approach were essential 
qualities for the seeker out of sensual delights. These 
vividly colourful paintings give a sense of this mingling 
of coyness and suggestiveness, vigour and restraint. 



■ ^ 



■ I 




.' I 1 -','.'*' 




THE ( ONNOISSKI H March 1980 



i onymous artist of the Kambun 
, riod ( 10(51-73), Kanibwn Beauty, 
.niliiKi scroll, ink and colour on paper, 
[i/n; X l()'/s inches. Satned after (he 

imbun period when this type oj picture 
i wing a single figure of a beautifully 
■ : S sed woman, was very popular. Such 

intings of courtesans might have been 
,'d to visitors to the brothel district as 

•mentos of happy times there. 

1 11, i ■ 

Totoki B; W-1H04) Ju 

('I'm ( <»ii esaiul Ten I'l< ; 

dated, (dhu Two albums. 

ii ifh ten lea light mini, 

paper. Each It ' "< inches. 

The poems ipiotea 'no albums acre 

composed v. Ml < *c literal 

the Vh'inydynu "' tlHU 

when a visitor to th "try refuge 

lamented the inconi untry 

life, Li ansivered n ith 

extolling the pleasun icd hje 

oj (i lileratns. 








P.* .. <* 



.- XT 

i 111, i ONNOISSKI l< March i'.ISO 


Ko Imari (Old ! i) Plate with a 
design of ji tcsan and lier Attendant 

under a 1': porcelain, Arita ware, 

Edo fh ujhteenth century). 

Diameti iches. I he so-called 

1'iini.M teas enormously popular 

se mid Japanese export 
art's ill ttw lllid-eightci nlli 


Kosode with the design of a Plum Tree.ii 

Edo period (second half of the seventeenth . 

century), silk, embroidery and tie-dying 

Length: <>>> inches. 

Kosode is a kimono with narrow-cuffed 

short sleeves, irorn by ladies of the irarriorl 

class. ( 'hinese characters embroidered on 

the back and front read: Plum flowers fall 

over the koto, like a blanket of snow. 

All the objects illustrated are the property 
of the Mary and Jackson Hurke Collection. 





1*. f> 'So >» 




mm " fyj 

I 4 .3 

1 2« J 




Benjamin Zucker 


! mil resolved to briny a flood upon the 

l/i sent the (irchntiyel Raphael to 

. In tinny the message, 7 yive you a 

took a ilh all II and mysteries 

oj lln universe'. V , ' tool; the hook and 

studied it. I In honk uas made oj sapphire . 

All the 1 1 iin Ami/// spt ill i n the uric, it sen ed 

htm us ii timepiece, to distinguish night 

front day. lie fore his death, he e nt rusted tl to 

Sliem ni/il In in liirn to Abraham. I mm 

Abraham the sapphire descended through 

Jacob In Li i i anil then to Moses, Joshua iinil 

Solomon. Solomon learned all his ivisdom 

Irom it , Ins skill in the healing art , and Ins 

mast( /// 01 er the demons. 

(Legends oft lie Bible", Louis ( iinzberg. ) 

Sapphire, with its magnificent blue 

colour, lias ahvavs been central to the 

Ring, Kashmir sapphire. It)'// carats 

set i ii pi at i ii it in , 

with trillion-cut diamonds. 

(ireeuleaj and ( 'rosbg, 

kort Lauderdale. 

I A magnificent U' -carat gem Burma star 

sapphire, on loan to the American Museum 
of .Xuturul History. This stone is oil 
display next to the Star of India, the 
Midnight Star and the Delong Star Ruby. 
The Burma Star is considered the finest 
colour in a star sapphire on public display . 
j'liotoyraph; John Vubitto. 

.': The same U \ -rural star sapphire as 1 1 ) 
under a microscope . I he black dot . a 
zircon inclusion, in the upper port/on 
ol the stone, does not hate a radioactive 
halo around it. This absence indicates a 
Burmese origin for the stone. Inclusions, 
rather than the shade oj colour, are the 
best guide to origin nj sapphire. 
Photograph: Dr \ incent Manson. 

\ pair oj gem Kashmir sapphires 

I In si magnificent 
• gray, green or / lolet in 
tin in and are a spec tint n colour. 1 In 
iiunpie Kashmir colour is maintained 
in sunlight as well as incandescent I lylit 
ami fluorescent light. Burma, as well as 
( 'eylon , sapphires tend to appear to lose 
ir colour under dijferent 
i rmi nit nts. 
,•, 1/1 R Rutherford, VM.. 

human spiritual and aesthetic sense . ;i 
Marco Polo journeyed from Constantin- 
ople through Samarkand, across tin 
Gobi Desert into Cathay, with sapphin 
as Ins calling cards. The stones h< 
presented to the Khan, as well as hisjjl 
charm as a storyteller, earned him thep 
post of merchant-ambassador in the ; . 
court of the Khan. 

The country that was Marco Polo 
duel' source of sapphires (and rubies 
continues to be the principal source 
sapphires today. 

A few sapphires have survived fron 
Marco Polo's day. Some are embedded*! 
in bejewelled book covers, and a very I 
few have survived in rings or in loos 
form. I ntil the fifteenth century, it wasl 

irinsl impossible to facet (place flat 
( ;es) <>ii a sapphire. ( onsequenth . 
;■ I pliires were cut by hand in eaboehon 
( ounded top) form ( I ."> and Hi). 

V bishop's ring of the thirteenth cen- 
tiy shows a sapphire from Marco Polo's 
(1,(14). Perhaps it is one of the stones 
t. t Marco Polo himself brought back 
ill scattered before the incredulous 
jjnetian doge to prove indeed that his 
• lies were true. 

\n interesting sapphire in the form of a 

< ni-faceted eaboehon was uncovered at 
(■ archeological site of Polonnaruwa, 
i ■ thirteenth-century Buddhist centre 
i Ceylon. In addition to having an ainu- 
! c animal shape, this stone catches the 
1 hi because of its ridges and is the first 

< ample of a semi-faceted eaboehon ( IS). 
Interestingly enough, this sapphire 

i itches the treatment of a sapphire in 

ie Harari Collection (S. J. Phillips, 

>ndon) ( 1!) and L 2()).That stone is said to 

ve been set in Alexandria, a way 

: itien for gems between Ceylon and 

i rope. 

What were the qualities that Marco 
do and other gem dealers were looking 

for in sapphires? Basically, they were the 
same qualities for wlu< h their merchant 
counterparts search today: purity of blue 
colour. Sapphire is aluminium oxide, 
AI-'( )i. Tiny additional traces of titanium 
and iron oxide create the blue colour. 
Sapphire is in the corundum family. If 
chromium, titanium and iron oxide mix. 
a purple sapphire is the result. A yellow 
sapphire is created with iron oxide alone 
as an admixture to aluminium oxide. 
Ruby (red corundum) comes about when 
chromium mixes with aluminium oxide. 
Although sapphire comes in yellow, 
orange, purple and green, as well as blue, 
it is the blue shade that historically has 
been sought most. Marco Polo was 
searching for the pure, perfect and pla- 
tonic blue, a blue without any admixture 
of gray, green, violet or black. In Ceylon 
however, the majority of sapphires have 
an overtone of gray m them. Most of the 
historical sapphires in the crown of 
Charlemagne, for example, or in the 
magnificent mediaeval book covers in 
the Morgan Library, are pronouncedly 
gray ( Hi). 

For purity of blue, the Burma mines 

I gi 1 1 ' I 1 1 e re . a ■ I <U • of 

blue, a I ■ . I blue, was i n 
present in hire. Burma 

became - I l>\ gem c< 

seurs (.">). Typ a connoissei i 

take a Burma ud lay il aloi 

other sapphin mpare nuance*, of 

the shade of blu mportaiit than 

the size of the the question ol 

secondary colours. i vlon blue at its 

finest has a cornHow* i This is a 

lighter shade of blui ceedingly 

lively, whereas the ■ blue at its 

finest tends to be more 

After the faceting ol - un- 

proved in the fifteenth enth 

centuries, Ceylon stones wen 
elated even more. The illhel 
liance and life of a ( eylon sap] 
all the more impressive when flat 
were placed on the crystal rough. \\ hat 
the Ceylon stone lacked in colour, it 
more than made up for in fire. ( I ? ). 

These two sources, however, still do 
not produce the finest quality sapphire. 
Pride of place in the sapphire mining 
areas of the world is given to a remote 
corner of the northwestern Ilimalavas - 

A' ft) 
The interior of n Kashmir sapphire 

ten contains thin straight lines haenig n 
Duly edge to them. This phenomenon is 
ie to the colloidal suspension of colour 
ithiti the Kashmir stone. Kashmir 
ipphires also hare a relrety, hazy 
uiracter to their internal world, 
holograph: R. Rutherford, m.i 

,\ Sill;, ii Inch is n dense, crisscross pattern 
of rut ilc needles that crystal ised atony with 
the host sapphire while the sa 
groin my i n fin rum . The sil utility 

slum s that the stone amies I mm liar ma . 
I'hofoyraph: It Riitherjoril , \i,i.. 


A fine, yem-quality, royal blue 
iirinn sapphire. Harma stones at 
\eir 'yciinnicst' contain a shade of 
lie that is rich ami deep, 
'holograph: Ii. Rutherford, vol 

S: A fun Ceylon sapphire. I here is a hint 
of gray in this lilaisli colour. Cray is often 
charm I sapphi res mined in 

Ceylo u sapphires hart a great 

t ami 'fire 
I'hotograplr R. Rntherforif vol.. 


: A litpud 'leather' insult a Burma stone. 
his feather , a scalloped edge, is likened 
y Dr. Gnhelin, eminent Su iss ycniologisi , 
) a crumpled flag ami is characteristic 
I sapphires coming from llnrma . If tin 
'other has u rounded edge, the stone 
us 'horn ' in ( 'eylon. 
'holograph: 'Internal World of 
•emstoiics' , hy Dr. Eduard Cahelin. 

U: 7 , >r <;/ a ( 'eylon sapphire. 

I magnified . I lie rutile needles are 
en silk ami arc u sign that the 
stout <m ( eylon . 

ngraph: R Rutherford ', U.I.. 


Kashmir, In<li;i (>-. a rock slide on 

(In- high slop. Zanskar range i>l 

mountains sapphire-hearing 

rock. I'di aliinil titty years, s e extra- 

ordina r\ • re mined. The hlne in 

I lie K; -.a |i|ilnr<' hecame pr< »\ er- 

I iia I, ai -I', rich blue \\ Inch did not 

unlight or artificial light 
(unlike a Burma or a Ceylon stone thai 
i| to lose colour \\ hat gem dealers 
call bleed colour - slightly in artificial 

I he colour of Kashmir sapphires was 
so beautiful that the term 'Kashmir' was 
applied to Ceylon or Burma stones if 
they happened to have tins top shade of 
hlne. Kashmir sapphires are also some- 
what sleep\ in appearance heeause of 
internal inclusions (1). Notwithstanding' 
t his fact . however, the shade of Kashmir 
colour often makes other sapphire hhies 
appear greenish or grayish when the 
stones arc placed side l>\ side. (Jem 
connoisseurs in India state that this pure 
hluc Kashmir colour resembles the blue 
hue of the peacock s feathery neck. 

In the lUSOs. a new source of sapphire 
was discovered outside of Bangkok, in 



Thailand. \\ lule often having \ ery good 
lustre, these sapphires, alter cutting, 
lend to he blackish or greenish. Large 
quantities of sapphires in the rough form 
are coming from Queensland, Australia 
and going t<> gem cutters in Bangkok, 
where the\ are mixed in with the Thai 
material ( P2). Because both the Kashmir 
and the Burma sapphire mines are virtu- 
ally exhausted, gem connoisseurs have 
been hoping for new sources of supply. 
New mines have been opening in Cam- 
bodia as well as in Africa. However, 
the shad<' of colour - the Cambodian 
stones being somewhat inky and the 
African a bit waters - has not altered the 
'peeking order' of sapphire mines. The 
top quality remains Kashmir, the second 
Burma and the third Ceylon (,'}). 

Moslem cutters remain in Ceylon as 
part of a thousand-year-old tradition of 
faceting sapphires. Faceting secrets have 
been passed from father to son for all the 
generations since the Moslems came to 
Ceylon in the tenth century. I nlike 
diamond, where the colour is uniformly 
spread throughout the diamond crystal, 
sapphire rough poses a great intellectual 

10: A zircon inclusion looking meteor-like, 
embedded in a Ceylon sapphire, with a 
radioactive halo around the zircon . 
Photograph: 'Internal World of Gemstones' 
In/ Dr. Eduard Gubelin. 

II: A layout of sapphires for a necklace. 
Qualities of sapphire are always 
ascertained by comparing the colour 
of one stone against another. 
Photograph: Peter Schaaj, 
Precious Stones ( 'ompaill/. 

I I ( 'ommercial-quality Thai sapphires, 
cut for colour, not for symmetry. Large 
numbers of Australian sapphire rough 
stones are faceted in Thailand along with 
rough coming from I hat mining areas. 
Photograph: Precious Stones Company. 

challenge to the cutter. Colour is often ii 
one corner of the crystal or in greate 
concentrations in one part of the crysta 
than in other parts. The Ceylon cutte , 
must also cope with the fact that in al 
sapphires there are two dichroic shade: 
of colour - blue and violet — depending 
upon the direction of the optic axis of th( 
crystal rough. The cutter must orient th( 
stone so that the blue colour reflects 
through the top, or table, of the stone 
Typically, a sapphire looked at througl 
the side, or girdle, of the stone wil 
appear to be slightly violet or purplish- 
violet. In addition to orienting the stone 
correctly, the section of rough bearing 
the most intense colour should be facetei 
so that the most intense colour is reflec- 
ted through the table of the stone up 
wards toward the eye. 

'Idle concept of time is different in t lit 
Hast. Production-line technology doe 
not work in sapphire. Discussions among 
cutters in Ceylon can last many months 
until the stone is finished. All phases o. 
sapphire mining and cutting are re gar 
• led with religious significance. Before 
the mine is opened, the (generally 

Ii liiliist miners will consult ;ni as- 
t> oger and religions figure tor a propi- 
ti is date and hour to begin tne search 
{■: sapphire. Frequent offerings will he 
i de during the in ining period. Once the 
ri« cious crystals are wrested from the 
£i und, they will he given to a cutter and 
i lerchant who has 'a good hand Such a 
i n is typically a traditional merchant 
\ o, it is said, it he touches the stone 
\ h his hand, will bring it good luck. 

Uany Ceylonese have gemstones as 
t -ir personal names, (ienis are not only 
; irincipal source of wealth to the coun- 
1 but, more importantly, are regarded 
; a protector of the island, both in a 
< ritual and material sense In recent 
; ars. the Sri Lanka State (iem Corpor- 
i on has been set up to rationalise the 
I in industry in Sri Lanka (Ceylon). All 
: >nes shipped from that country are 
Kted for their genuineness by the 
i rporation's very able staff. 

The internal world of sapphires, that 

how the stones appear to a jeweller 

ling 10\ loupe or to a genunologist 

ling a microscope, is indeed extraordin- 

;!'v. The eminent Swiss genmiologist. 

Fduard (iiibelin, in his land mark stud\ . 
' The Internal \\ orld of ( ieiiistones'. 
presents an e\t raoi i lina i \ series oj pic- 
tures of sapphire inclusions. In a < eylon 
sapphire, one can see the remnants of the 
crystalisation pattern a diary of tin- 
gem s millions of years of growth (!0. It is 
common to find a microscopic /neon 
inclusion surrounded by a brilliant halo 
of light ( 1(0. ( Mien . in a Ceylon sapphire, 
one can also see a liquid lake with round 
edges that look like a leather. A sapphire 
from Burma, on the other hand, has 
within it densely woven crisscrossing 
rutile needles that are different in 
character from rutile needles in a ( 'eylon 
sapphire (<i and ?). Finally, a Kashmir 
sapphire will have long bands of colour 
that are colloidal suspensions of colour in 
a parallel form. 

Thus, while the gem connoisseur 
might say that a particular gem sapphire 
has a 'Kashmir colour", under a micro- 
scope, one can in fact tell exactly where 
that stone crystalised. Internal inclusions 
m Cambodian sapphires often reveal an 
included red crystal, free flowing as a 
meteor m space. I he landscape of these 

s are not o i 
but an Ms in sep 

t lief |c tl'ol st( Mies \ 

I iressi -, i ; ,, nistone.s in si 

lilies 1 lie | j| , I'lsscn >ssl !i, 

needles, fore * an illdlspl 

sign of geiiuiiii 'limes.: 

other hand, an it the sa| >| >h ir< 

has been create.! Il\ , Simila rl\ . 

include) I zirci mi cr a Uo pr< n if i if 


Recently, increasi s,i|i|>- 

hires ill the Far Fast i heat 

treated to improve ll This 

|M'i "ess, alt hough general 
be revoltil i< man and a dc 
I he last two \ cars, in fact is a 
cutters trick. Jean Baptiste I 
in describing I he seventeenl 
gem world in his book 'Travel* in I 
( l(i?(i), writes that in Ceylon, corn: 
was heal treated to intensify colour. 

In addition to being heat treated, a 
significantly large number of sapphires 
recently have been irradiated. \ ellow 
sapphires, for example, havinga watery. 
pale yellow cast of colour, appear to be 
magnificently vellow alter irradiation. 


1 The range of colours within sapphires. 
u the right are pale, grayish-blue 
ipphires from Ceylon, at the centre is 
i intense Kashmir sapphire and on 
e left is a royal-blue Burma sapphire. 
holograph: R. Rutherford, 'lion to liny 
nd Sell Gems', Seiv ) ork Tunes Hind: 
out pa uy. 


1: A In simp's ring from the twelfth 
■iiturij. Tins type of stirrup-shaped ring 
as presented to English bishops, u as 
orn by them and often buried with them . 
ieeause oj the bluencss of the sapphire, the 
lone was believed to concey the blessings of 
eaten. Examples of these rings are in the 
ietona and Albert Museum and the 
hitish Museum. Photograph: P. Sehaaf. 


5: A magnificent Renaissance sapphire 
nig. In sixteenth-century Italy, sapphires 
vere foiled on the bottom to gice them extra 
brilliance . The combination of the bluencss 
\f the stone plus the delicacy of the 
namelling made tins ring a magnificent 
culptured object, 
'holograph: P. Sehaaf. 

If',: The bottom of the bezel (top part of tin 
ring) nj the Renaissance sapphire ring. In 
that period . cecry portion of a ring nas 
lavishly detailed. Today, si in pier prong 
settings emphasising the stone are more in 

17: Ceylon sapphire in a diamond 
mount i in/ . / hese diamonds lend brilliance 
to an already brilliant sapphire and the 
gold pi c warmth to tin stone. 

The ensemble is a classic setting for an 
IS-carat ( ' i/lou sapphire. 

IS: A ( 'eylon sapphire that is both a 
eabochon and a rudtmciiturily faceted 
stone. I his stone was excavated ill a 
ut u rg site and rcpri s, 
in cutting caboclums ti 
jaeeted gems . 
Photograph : P Sehaaf 

nil-: ctiNNoissKI l< March I USD 

I i/alil i pplure. 

I he sapphi n hably set in the 

I in i L coin i ml nil 111 the fifth 

century I utiguc ring, we can 

see that ■ ii il cubochons u crc 

i i jim ', ijlun through tin 

\Inlilli ' til uropc. 

S .1 I .ondou . 


'i i \ i! sapphire 

Sapph 1 1 < • rn I, n ml 

ij used. 

Il iiinie 

i ill its 

than i/n 1 1 

I a/ the 

s .1 / I 

Wlnlc heal treatment "I sapphires is 
accepted by the gernmological commun- 
ity as not interfering with the naturalness 
' >l the stone, irradiation of sapphires to 
improve their colour (or irradiation of 
diamonds, for that matter) is not accept- 
able. Irradiated stones can fade over a 
long period of months; heat treated 
stones do not fade. Thus, to a connois- 
seur, irradiated stones are looked upon as 
synthetic stones and fetch very small 
amounts of money. Kxposinga 'possibly 
irradiated sapphire to twenty-four hours 
of longwave ultra-violet light or to 
several days of sunlight will often notice- 
ably fade irradiated sapphires. 

In Bangkok today, enterprising Chin- 
ese merchants, who often love gambling, 
will place a sapphire inside an oven for 
what they call 'cooking'. The stone will 
either crack or the colour will change, 
sometimes becoming more intense, 
sometimes less intense. Just as there are 
different cooking styles for food in 
(lima, so too are there secret recipes and 
many different methods of 'cooking 
sapphires. These Cooked' sapphires are 
sold and accepted as genuine sapphires. 
'Cooking' or heating sapphires dulls the 
life of the stone. To the connoisseur. 
therefore, while the burnt sapphire 
might be genuine, it is not quite as 
beautiful as an untreated sapphire. 
Treated sapphires will fluoresce slightly 
and exhibit tiny microscopic platelets. 

An iiicliisK.n in sapphire that is of 
particular interest is one of crossed ruble 
needles. When these hexagonal, criss- 
crossing needle-, m a sapphire are orien- 
ted correct h . the cabochon will exhibit a 
star w hen an outside light source, either 
the sin i or a flashlight , is shone upon the 
•-lone. A star Burma or a star Ceylon 
sapphire can he a most magnificent gem. 

I lie supply of gem sapphires is dwind- 
ling most rapidly Kashmir is exhausted. 
Burma is finished, ami Ceylon is rapidly 
declining as a production source. Kstate 
market jewellery - pieces containing 
stones from previous generations 
is being sought in auction houses and in 
retail stores throughout the world. 

\\ he,, Marco Polo travelled to the 
Kast . he was able to sell sapphires to the 
Khan for, in his words, "twice the value . 
This phrase puzzled scholars at first. It is 
to be remembered, however, that m 
Marco I'olo > day . we learn for the Hrsl 
of the crcat ion ol | laper mi mey . I lie 
Italian merchant, I'olo. described the 
Khan s in creating paper 

\ and making sure that it w as 
accepted upon pain of death throughout 

the Khan s kingdom in China. Becau 
the Mongol ruler would buy gems once 
year and because he himself create 
paper currency, it is not surprising th; 
he was willing to give Marco I'olo 'twit 
the v alue' in paper money 

Paper currency continued into th 
fifteenth century in Ming China. A 
explosion m inflation at that time cause 
the Chinese people to refuse this cui 
rency, a refusal that lasted for fix 
hundred years. Thisconflict between th 
value of paper currency and gems 
similar to the situation in the world ger 
markets today. 

In order to see what a gem sapphir 
truly looks like, one can visit a Hue reta ' 
store or a museum. At the America 
Museum of Natural History m XV 
York, one can see a magnificent Kasl 
mir-coloured star sapphire of 94-caraf 
(I and i). Similarly, at the Smithsonia 
Institution in Washington, D.c, th. 
Bismarck sapphire is of magnificent siz 
and quality. There are intense-coloure 
faceted sapphires on display in th 
jewellery collection room at Londonl 
Victoria and Albert Museum. Also therl 
are engraved gems. In the Muse 
National dllistoire Naturelle. in Pari 
the extremely Hue Raspoli sapphire* 
IS-2-carats from the time of Louis xi\ ha 

The word sapphire, 'sapir in Hebrew 
is a synonym for 'sippur', the Hebre\ 
word for story. Mystical Jews used tin 
word 'sefirot' as the emanations of God ij 
the L inverse. Sapphires have alway 
been regarded as the secret messagi 
from beyond. Persians believed that th) 
world rested on a giant sapphire. Th 
reflection of this stone coloured tb 
entire universe. Connoisseurs of sapp 
hire would all agree that sapphire, whe> 
it l- gem, gives the viewer a sense o 
peace, of infinity and of niagniticen 
beauty . 

Acknou leili/eme/its 

I would like to thank Geoffrey Munnfor 
Ins generous l/cl/>. The Sn Lanka State 
Can Corporation aided me in providing 
information and tours of relatively 
inaccessible mining areas. Dr. Alfred 
Moldoran proi ided inspiration. Finally, 
stones about gems were recounted to me hy 
the mar i el Inns official storyteller oj Neu 
York, Diane Wolkstein, and it is to her 
that I give my thanks. 


.1// episode ui American arts and crafts, by Carol liolidan 

' le communal philosophy as a solution 
I thf creative neeols of artisans is ;i 
Imilar aspect of the contemporary erafl 
I'vival, l>iit it is not a new phenomenon 
i tlit- history of American crafts. Artistic 
immunities sprouted at the turn of the 
intury. as American design emerged 
! >m the confusion of \ ictorian revival 
lyles to a unique and innovative style 
iov\ n as Arts and Crafts. 

The Arts and ('rafts style was based 
upon the principles of hand-craftsman- 
ship and forthright construction with a 
respect lor the nature of the materials 
employed. Inspired by the teachings and 
writings of John Uuskin ( 1SMM !)<><» and 
William Morris ( l.S.'H- 18!M) in Kngland. 
the movement flourished in America 
from r. IS?(i to litlfi. the period between 
the I'hiladephia Centennial Kxpositioii 

(where the renewed ap|»reciat ion for 
America s craft heritage began) and the 
First \\ orld War. It embraced artists and 
craftsmen of numerous inclinations, en- 
couraging a renewed respect tor I he work 
ethic of the Middle Ages, the period in 
w Inch I he ci nun in nal spirit resulted in I lit 
creation of some of mankind s greatest 
treasure, particularly tin ficeiit 

( iothie cat hedrals of Kurope. 

i| the most intere i< I oftei 

controversial craft coininunities o| tin 
peril h Roycrotl ol Kast .V 

New ^ oik. a suburb of Buffalo. The ide; 
for ti M'taut socieh -il 

w as de\ eIope<l by KM I bib! 

biisiin cprenci rip ti 

ting wit I 
\\ ill, i ris and i mimit \ o 

w orki establish ; 

book a based llpol 

ic and the orb that 
became lis Irademai'k were borrowed 

• up ol mediaeval book In 
and illuminators. V he name was el i 
according to Hubbard, beeau 
ified the best in books 
Hoycrolt ideal was to ma 
things as well as they coi 
This is the kind of sp 
tel'lsed the entire 

UK CONNOISSKl/R March I'.l.Sd 

II l)l)(l ill si i: •< III tin' 

■ ///// shall i • 
! linn ji and 
■ collect inn 

i lid mi i 

lilttck and a it Little 

Journeys' , illnstrati ikj title j>(i(/t 

William \l 

Jordan inlleri/. 

'I a a jit 

\ I ij t ,, J ill 1st Hi/till 

I'ri t nti collection 


Roycroft press was immediately 
•ssful, being the most important 
«|)eet of this con mi unity s activities and 
itaining a relatively high quality of 
production until Hubbard's death in 
I!) 15. The refreshing character of Arts 
and Crafts book design can only be 
understood in terms of the movement s 
protot against the advancing e\ iU ol 
industrialisation and mechanisation: 
the dehumanisation of the worker and 
the loss of committment to and pride in 
the product In the wish to recapture 
individuality ol expression. Roycroft 
books were printed by a hand-press, on 
imported handmade paper in old-style 
type. The earliest books were handset 
Although later examples were not always 
handset, all Roycroft books were bound 
in a variety of special bindings. ( ttten suit 
chamois (limp ooze) or split calf was 
employed, with silk ties. Handsome 
leathers, hand-tooled in the Roycroft 
leather shops (where a variety of other 
handsome products were fashioned in- 
cluding mats, book-ends, wallets and 
purses) distinguished the more expensive 

volumes. Many of these grander exai 
pies were also hand-illuminated in t 
mediaeval manner, with painted dee 
ation in the forms of flowers and fohaj. 
as well as stylised letters within deci 
ative frameworks that began paragrap 
and ornamented title pages. The use 
colour and texture is luxurious. Loci 
were employed for this task. 

As the number of artistic aetiviti 
grew and commercial success widened, 
became necessary to employ over fo 
hundred men and women to work in t 
various Roycroft Shops. The charisma 
Hubbard attracted amateurs and tale 
ted professional artisans as well. T 
printing shop blossomed into a compl 
"Roycroft Campus' which eventual 
embraced metal, leather, ceramic a 
furniture workshops, as well as an m 
which opened in 1903 and attract 
inquisitive visitors from all over t 
world. A significant number of eraftsm 
came from across the country to woi 
and an apprentice system was arrange 
thus the Campus embraced a number 
shops that could loosely be term' 



't ids'. As artisans mastered various 
s I s 1 1 was possible to move Iroin shop to 
s i i. Tlii' dil ire art ist ic, cultural and 
p. ■ cat ion a I lite of the community revol- 
v around Hiiltliard (who had dubbed 
In self the 'Fra ), anticipating the ^iiii- 
ill artistic and social structure of frank 
I vd \\ nyht s I 'ahesen. Lectures, con- 
c s and sports were all available and 
hinbard's wife Alice served as den 
n her whenever she was not busy 
ki piny the hooks or writing one of her 
n ny stones which were published bv 
t Rovcroft press. 

)ard Hunter came to Kast Aurora in 
1 L'5 at the aye of nineteen. A youny man 
< extraordinary talents. his work rep- 
rents the besl <>( what llie Rovcroft 
c nniunity was able to foster. Hunter 
( icklv developed a distinct style of hook 
( iigli. Ills 'oiie-nian hooks are ra re 
t lay; for these he designed, cut. cast 
i I set the types, made the paper- and 
| ntcd t he shed s. Ills uni(|Ue floral 
hrders I'eflect the rectilinear Arts and 
(afls style of (ilasyow and \ ieiina that 
lifinter al)sorhed throiiyh art journals 

I hat w ere a vailahle 'In- R< i\ croft 
shops. Hunter s coui| ii e \ olume. 
'I'aperiuakhiy: I In- Historv and Teeh- 
ii ii I ue of an Ancient < ra It . is eon side red 
a classic in the field i reprinted bv I )over 
Publications. s7 '.r I'hoiind I 

lliihhard thou; . , _ hl\ of 1 1 u 

work thai he allowed him to set up his 

ow n stlldio, IliakniU it possible !< i 
youny artist to desiyn furniture, 
objects and leaded ulass. 'I he u 1 1 1< 1 1 1 < - 
five-part hanyiny chandelier that ; 
the visitor todav in the Hoycroft Inn is 
just one of Hunter s beautiful designs. In 
her book about her grandfather Libert 
Hubbard ('Rebel with Reverence"). 
Mary Stott relates the famous story 

about lllllltels obsession with per- 
fection, especially in re yard to his ylass 
creations. 'I he intense designer created 
eiyht la rye windows for the diuiny room 
of the Inn - u ijiirlanil <>) liiin/strninirtl 

tlllljIS II ill/ till' SUII lllll\IIIIJ Hilt ll III lllllllll 

lii/l/ts in pinks, jiuriilis, hint's ii ml i/rirus . 

II took Hunter si\ months to complete 
I hem . and t he v were much admired. Rut 
Hunter was not satisfied. ||<- became 

and ah 
eol« 1 Novel he 

last e r 1 1 1 

smashed thei : ipleteK In 

1 1 ii titer w en I u a stud \ 

and the u ind r replaeei i 

I his same \ e., Karl Kipp. an 

ex-banker and at t small . 

arrived in hast \ irk ii 

bindery Shortly is inven- 

tive desiyner establish: Roycrof'l 

( Upper Shop, w huh ;; 
as man v as t hut v -five 
was a la v on rile medium 
duriny the Arts and ( 
Kmpliasis was placed upon 
once functional and beautiful 
humble metal seemed most appri 
to this ideal. Kiiylish yuilds in the I 
such aslhe Rroiiisyro\'e (iuild of Ap 
Arts (Worcestershire) had set a 
example m the execution of many hand 
hammered copper objects, an example 
\ ould be emulated in America bv 
the Ih iv crofters as well as bv (iiistav 
Stick lev s ('raftsman \\ orkshoits. 

IS TTa" — 7fSs — TT 77 ) 7~Z 2 

Hit Oft did il,r harvest in tin i 

' IJ~,, ' Oft did the h.i! \ est to their 

s, lk ,e yield; 
> : . • Their furrow oft 

horn K lche has 
: How hd they drive 

[, e . 
n cull tin 

i nol \mhition 
.: toil, 
['i'lW'i' Their homelv iovs 
*8»v ,M I tinv onsa ,' , 

Nnr (ii indeur hear, v\ ith .i » 

1 1 smile, 

ot the i 

['hi ho ist of her ildry, the 

pomp of power, 

\n.l all in it hciutv • 

Noi rim ye proud ' imp i r • 







Although « ■ •('! s u civ designed 

and mail' |> himself, mosl often 

Kipp ii design and then 

tnnicd tin .'pe over to an assistant . 

special tools to execute 
il . Ri i ipper was exl remeh popu- 

igues offered a \ ariety of 
i ibjects, including vases 
- a ndlesticks ca skel s. book- 
and smoking set > \ ivith 

ug murks nt I in ici upon it 

salient characteristic of Royeroft 
copper is t he oven ative texture 

■ ii I 1 1 1 n .1 . _ ' ring and plan- 

ishing. The entin i of each ol ijeet 

winilil lie ciivi i ill this distinctive 

hand-haininered texture: one tra\ could 
command as main as ."i.iillll 'wallops. 
Kaeh piece was also distinguishe<l by a 
special softh glowing patina of a some- 
what dark, mediaeval character that is 
part icularlv < • < < luplicate t< >day. 

Because the ( opper Sho|i was a busy 
- products arc more 
ile than others and each must be 
its own merits. Public demand 

liammen Utmp, the shade 

/ III an , c. /.''/.'. 

I ■') I lirlu v 

I III pi ( , 

• 1 1 I'll , c ,' 


camples of Royeroft copper did not 

always permit painstaking care of cre- 
ation. The basic philosophy underlying 
these production methods was a demo- 
cratic one. Uoycroft catalogues ex- 
plained: Beautiful objeets should be mi ned 
I/// the people. They should be available as 
home embellishments and placed it ithiu the 
reach oj all. The Royeroft artists in metal 
believe this so they design and create 
hand-hammered copper rases, trays, bowls, 
candlestick's, lighting fixtures and a 
hundred and one other objets dart — 
iinlii idual pieces of craftsmanship that arc 
lasting, beautiful and worthwhile. 

Some of the must outstanding Royeroft 
copper objects are the unusual lamps that 
were perfected in Kast Aurora, a fine 
contribution to the oeu vre of the Arts and 
(rafts period. The most sophisicated of 
these were designed by Dard Hunter. 
\\ hose lamps are exquisite combinations 
of leaded glass shades with Arts and 
(rafts motifs (often stylised roses) on 
intricate copper bases. Simpler lamps 
were also made, some with solid copper 

shades resembling helmets, others w 
copper shades having windows of pan 
incut or mica. The golden glow of t 
light shining through the mica was 
perfect complement to the oak furniti 
and panelled interiors of the Anient 
bungalow of the period. 

The Royeroft metalsmiths also work 

in brass and silver. Kipp himself desi^. 
ed several beautiful copper objects whi 
employed silver inlay in the \ ieinn 
manner, a result of his friendship w 
Dard I lunter. 

The Roycrofters also produced simj 
hand-crafted oak furniture; the furniti. 
shop, built c. l!)()-2 3, represented 
outgrowth of the need to furnish the In 
This furniture is usually marked with t 
Royeroft name carved in a promint 
place, such as across the crest rail ol 
chair or the headboard of a bed, or 
identified by the Royeroft orb incis 
somewhere on the piece. \ cry little is\ 
known about the sources for Rover 
furniture designs, but many are strong 
suggestive of English Arts and Cra 


c igners, especially Mackmurdo. The 

it 'oduction to a reprinted \'.)\^ Hove roll 

jiiniture catalogue states: Santiago Cad- 

:, • taut/lit a dozen or more Hogcrofters to 

, Lr furniture hi) hand, and to make it as 

i / as they could. . .Roycroft furniture was 

,,'iriilual - eaeli piece was made by one 

, n and each man could make one piece 

the lumber was weather-seasoned for fire 

, \rs and then, before it was worked up into 

] niture, icas kiln-dried for three months 

, a temperature of 1<U) degrees - 'Ours 

ils together'. It icas made by 'Honest 

fluids' - and all the hogs working at it 

re 'Honest Hoyerofters'. Visitors ire re 

ited to inspect the shop - they had no 


Like the furniture of contemporary 
ts and Crafts designers, such asdistav 
ickley , Charles Hold fs and ( i reene and 
reene . Hoy croft furnit u re was const ruc- 
rlof solid wood - the best quarter-sawn 
k and African or Santo Domingo ina- 
igany — and was held together l>\ 
loden pegs, pins and mortise and tenon 
tints. The philosophy of honest and 

stream-lined const met u >n para Heist hat of 
today's finest designer I'm niture. 

Klbert Hubbard has been called 
'Pragmatic Romanticist" mid Knlight- 
ened Businessma .<■ labels sum- 

marise the essential ilichoton 
cont roversia 1 diameter, a 
irreconcilable duel of career el 
that plagued nian\ theorists, desi> 
craftmen and craft co-operatives of the 
Arts and Crafts period. Hubbard is - 
times criticised for the self-sen in; 
1 icily he generated in the forms 1 >| 
tours, his magazines the Fro and the 
Philistine and Ins numerous l>o<>k^. such 
as the famous "Message to (iarcia that 
brought him unprecedented attention. 

Complete dedication to William 
Morns' ideal of hand-craftsmanship had 
spelled financial doom tor many Such 
groups as the Hose \ alle\ ( < miiiiiiiiil \ . 
Hose \ alley. IViinsylvaiiia. founded in 
1!)01 and based upon a I topian social 
and creative work theory, did not 
flourish lor lack of funds. It was also 
difficult tn merge Morris social principle 

< I Aft) 

Lamp with haiid-haiiiiiii n 
Steuben broiru uurcne glass 

c. I'.ilH. 

Heigh/: I I , inches. 

I'n rate collection . 


Lamp, copper base with leaded glass ■ 

Designed by Dard Hunter, e. I'.llU- : 

Height: .'■> inches. 

Diameter of shade: I , V; inches. 

Mar// Hubbard lirady. 


. ■ ~3* 

I lit < nwoissi i n March l' 

... : i /, . quarter su n u 

a hih' on it ii ith brass studs. 

II, itjln Width: /v uirhes. 

i Jn a \ nl jir I mill 11/ . 

I ■ II 

gfijazine pedestal, quarter-sun n white 

,,l, C. I UDS- 1 >. 

li/ht: (hi inches, liuse: IS » IS niches 

j >: /V v X IV -niches. 

i I irginia Museum oj line Arts, 

I( hmond, Virginia; 

I )tograph: The Jordun-\ olpe (iullerg. 


I /croft armchair with leather seat 

q <rter-saun white auk, c. 1'JKI. 

1 'i/ht: i »'' inches. Width: .'S'/j inches. 

j nth: >V .inches. 

j dan-\ olpe Gallery. 

of art lor tin- many with the idea of one 
craftsman making ijecl as well as 

lie could. To bridge the fatal nap be- 
tween economic and social Iheon and 
reality, it was old rssarv lo com- 

promise the craft i< leal. This |>i 
further n litigated hv die conflict o\ 
proper use ot the machine that cli 
t crises many ol the w ritinysof the pi 
( )f Roycroft, Susan (Mis Thompson 
writes: Despite his protestations uliont the 
calue of handicraft , Iluhhurd found it 
necessary to compromise between tin 
and the machine. \s described in the 
Philistine for December I'.H 1 ,: 'My 
intent, iras to print entirely by hand. Hut 
gradually we got ocer the idea. . .with quun- 
tities that we nerer possibly, could hare 
turned out by hand'. I his compromise 
between hand a ml machine is essentially the 
familiar battle between quality and quau- 

, . ideal 1 

1; I 
ceessthal 11m 
w as alile I so loll) 

yoim^ craft miii <ij;ii('Mnui 

ami creat ivec 

hire t heir talents. > I e essenl i 

portance of I In uity . I he 

prodnctsof I he A 1 era must hi 

judged indi\ idual rilsol'acs- 

thetics and consl t he\ are 

I he results ol revohil 1 iniiova- 

tive period in America uts. in 

w Inch social t henry, era 
,iest het ic design conce| ' 
liny art istic philosophv on 
leenth century, making nn 
1 11 issihle. There is a uiii(|iie < 
attached to this \ erv ferf ih era 
todays sensitive artists, craftsnii 
ci illecti us can all relate 

Kl!>erf Hubbard and his wife Alice 
were Inst on the Lusitania in I9I.V 
although Klbert's son carried on the 
Roycroft Shops until I9.SN, the (pialitv 
of the objects made after 191.") suffered. 
In 1971 the Roycroft Campus entered 
the National Reyistrv of Historic Places. 
Todav many of the original structures 
remain; the remarkable Roycroft Inn 
offers comfortable accomodation 111 the 
form of rooms filled with original Ro\ - 
croft furniture. The 'John Ixiiskm Room 
on the Inn's second floor has been 
completely restored, do\\ n to the original 
oak panelling and vaulted ceiling. 

A cioii|i called 'The Rovcrofters at 
Larye hopes to foster ;i Roycroft 
Renaissance by briiiyinti artists and 
artisans back to Roycrofl to produce 
and sell their work, making the 
Roycroft Campus once aji'ain, a centre 
for quality arts and crafts. Nancv 
Hubbard Rrady. uranddaujjhter of 
Klbert 1 lubbard, hope * entiially 

with grants she will be able In niter 
scholarships to aspirins.; craftsmen to 
work mi campus. The new yronp is nut 
limited In area residents, and is not 
profit-making. Hopefullv however, the 
craftsmen attracted to the Campus by 
the a 11 to produce under a new 

Roycroft trademark (two 'lis back to 
back within the orb) will be protil 
niakmy. If will be a successful business 
climate thai will ultimately maki 
break tla Roycroft Renaissai 

lor an application form to /, 
Roycrofters-at-Large or to h 
patron member, write tu 
at: SID Centre Street. / , 
Xew York I 'pi:,. 1 . 

Ilk ( ONNOISSKI I! March J'.ISD 


\ irginia /• itzRoy 


I HI. \ i;i. - VOR'I HERN x iiooi. 

.'.mid: the 

• i it Id'- Mn -ce 


.' w ork by 

i i| Brejon and Nicole 

mil. I lii (I become 

■ a century 

I. mui- I >' iut incom- 

of 1944. 
I»ei ile moil if icat ions 

■ i-inii - collection during that time. 

I liree hundred pictures have cute red the 

sixt\ sent out on loan nearly' a 

rjuarter of the total of I 154. Establishing a 

_ in- of this importance was of course not 
just a matter of making an inventory of new 
acquisitions former attributions had to lie 
verified, sigriatures, date-, measurements, 
provenances, checked, subject matters - and 

i\ correct titles identified. In the past, 
attributions tended to be generous or, at least, 

uoii- Each catalogue since the first 
published repertory of the (ierman, flemish 

and Dutch paintingsof 1854 has become mc 
restrictive, more severe. The final judgeme 
on a painting comes not from instant expert 
or the use of miraculous laboratory equi 
ment. but from years of research by specii 
ists. the verification of archives and a lo 
experience of the history of art by t 
museum curators. In order to explain to t 
public something of the complexities f'aci' 
the authors of such a catalogue, the Louv 
has organised an exhibition in the Pavilion i 
r lore from December to March 1980. 
selection of 80 Dutch and Flemish paintin 

(i >plemente<l by photographs) was taken 
fi i the reserves, many having never l)een 
> i before l>y the public. The t i r-->t fjronj* of 
I ■ ures was chosen to represent acquisitions 
., c IJhM from purchases, usufructs, be 
i stsanddonations, the most numerous - t.~> 
I itings alone from the l><- I Kspine-( ro\ 

! ection, formed in Brussels and Parisat the 
< i of the nineteenth centun An important 
1 1 urn was the foreign section of the Musee 
( Luxembourg, housed in the Jen de Pan me 
il the Luxembourg was dispersed in I9.S7. 
it her source of enrichment was the assign - 
i nt to the Louvre <>l pictures recuperated 
f n Germany winch had remained 1111- 
i imed 1>.\ their original owners after the 
I mud World War. Some of the 10(1 or so 
I htings were found to be copies. Many. 
I vever, were by little-known Masters or 
i lor artists whose work would not have been 
i anally considered important enough to 
I i - e been bought by the museum, but w hose 
| 'sence added variety and interest. 

This !!)?!! catalogue gives, for t he first time. 
I ist of all the Dutch and flemish paintings, 
I ii n nl seven hundred in all, which have been 
> it int on permanent loan b\ the Louvre 
f m 1S.")II on. It can be seen that the bulk of 
\f Northern School paintings, as indeed 
t ise of other schools, was sent to pro\ incial 
iiseunis in IST-i. IS?(> and 1H!),">, following 
t • Louvre's policy of redistribution of col lec- 
tins too big to be shown in their entirety m 

ns fins policy has been continued in re- 

cent years, in order t . . i i new collect ions, 

in complete or replace those devastated 
dii ring the w ar. or In de\ clop a t heme - 
still-hves, seascapes hunting scenes - m 
which certain museums specialise. Mthougll 
the principle is excellent, it has mi (hat 

certain painters a re not now re pre sen tec 
Louvre itself. Man.v irreplaceable woi i 

destroyed in the pro\ u ices during the la 
World Wars. Some paintings have 

pea red. been da li 1. 1 li < I. ol lost their ide 1 1 

less excusable circumstances. The Loiivn 
tee Is it is their ■ lilt \ to try to recuperate fri Hi' 
churches, ministries, embassies or museum 
basements an,\ neglected paintings. 

Another interesting aspect of the new 
catalogue is the inclusion of earlier ommis- 
sions: paintings which entered the museum 
between the seventeenth and the nineteenth 
centuries which have never before been 
published, either because lhe\ were not 
exhibited (the old catalogues being intended 
just as guides to the pictures on view in the 
mam galleries) or because the\ were in too 
poor a condition or considered secondary. 
These have at last been brought to light 
( 'andidates for inclusion in a cat a login- should 

not be left to the arbitrary ci ■»• of the 

Keeper on the spot at that particular moment 
m tune. Future generations will almost cer- 
tain I y be interested 111 all artist , a school or a 
period ignored by their predecessors. The 
Louvre have taken care to give even the most 
minor or damaged canvases their place. 

(/•'«» left) 

Rembrandt van liijn ■ I 

Donated to the I .mi i 

this lute, hut heauiijul . lit 

heen seen in I'uris , si net 

l\i ihsui list a in in .\nistertlitiit 

I'n in //ears 


( in ueille V all Spaclidolick \ .. 

lueorreeth/ identified in the IS.', I 

eattiloi/ue us he/in/ hi/ (lerurtl run S/itit 

llimther of Cornelius). Sent on depot in i 

the Miiustri/ of the Interior, it then 

tl ' i so ppetiretl. [ftcr its reeent tliseoeeri/ III 

tht re, in fioor eondition , its ettrreet su/naturt 

a us fiuti/l // rend 

Uielmt | 

>u ( ossiers Smokers. I'reeiousli/ 

iniseutulot/iied us helm/ hi/ .Inn I 'ossiers , n host 
n ork eo n he Joint tl in numerous l.uropean 
museums It u us perhaps u del iherate 
misti nth in/, this palatini/ is the mill/ one 
knoii ii hi/ Simon ( 'ossiers. 

UK ( owoisski'H March I'.isu 

( Jerrit llui I '• nt icn i it ;i Renaissance 

I i,i lac< i Dutch 

din iiij i.tiihr collections 

I n ii( ll 'i ol nt loiionj arums in the 
Hili/il, [ItlmiK/li iiiiiiii/ /Huntings ii ere 

ml still tn he 
i a the I 

comings-and-goings of tin- museum's 
ctiou ami its changing attributions will 
ate tin- public. Against 17 paintings 
(ml of the Northern school to l>e placed 
in other schools, ."i? arc now catalogued as 
Dutch or Flemish, the earlier art historians 
too often having failed to take into account 
the change in style of artists working outside 
their own (in int ncs, or that a typically French 
subject could be treated l>,\ a Dutchman, or 
that a Flemish could be influenced by an 
Italian painter. Amongst those paintings 
which have remained in the Northern School, 
there have been considerable modifications 
as to the au t heirship, particularly amongst the 
Flemish primitives. In all, nearly S;><) paint- 
ings have changed attributions during the last 
century! It has sometimes been a matter of 
checking signatures and dates, false, per- 
haps, or hidden under a layer of dirt, or even 
simply misread or overlooked. Research into 
the iconography of the paintings has helped 
too. although this has not been done system- 
atically. As the authors of the catalogue 
themselves say, the identification of every 
landscape, portrait or allegorical scene would 
have delayed publication for several years. 
Rut there is no doubt that when a mure 

precise definition of the subject has beet 
found, it has often helped identity th ■'. 
painting's title or provenance. 

Provenances: another thorny problem i 
writing the catalogue. The term *earl;l 
collections', for instance, used for the firs 
time in the Napoleonic Inventory drawn un 
c. 18 10, almost certainly designated painting 
siezed From the great houses and chateaux oj 
eiuigrees during the French Revolution. Th>i 
museum administrators preferred to leaV'j 
the provenance vague m cases which couli| 
prove litigious. The same ambiguity applieJ 
to paintings brought back from Revolution 
ary and Napoleonic conquests in German! 
and Austria (the origins of the spoils from till 
Italian campaigns, on the other hand, hav ' 
now been clarified thanks to recent research I 
Even such a collection as renowned as thi 
of Louis \i\ - some 103 Northern Schod 
paintings - remains little known tine to th 
lack of precision of early inventories. 

The catalogue is a summary, not a fu 
catalogue raisonne. Rut the clarity and metho 
of the text and annexes, as well as the fact thi 
every painting is illustrated, will be appn 
ciated by all scholars and students. 

Lynne TkornU 

\rlhur Rackham 'I'll.- I I -.t'lli. ! 

',. Tin' ('limits' hi) Churl, 1/ i Kdinirih 

\rlhur Rack ham !S(i7- 1 !!:',!) 
Illustrations, I !r;i« in^'s and Witercolour- 

\ it 1 1 1 1 1- Racl - sinuous illustrations to , Looks I i ; i \ •- 

been popul; ince Ins death in hl.S!) - m this con 

has made a his exainination of Ins «, shortcoming 

rectified In ;i ihition of his work organ: ftield Cit,\ 

Art ('alleries ,hown at the ( 'raves, and 7 \|>nl , at the 

\ 'ietoria and Mb rl Museum. London Kaekh on the 

({iioiih's, fairies iches, and gnarled anthrop' which 

I pie his illusl to Hip Van Winkle*. 'A r Night's 

Dream'. Tet< I Kensington ("-aniens". ''1 h<- ■ H.-auU 

and many other tales, published between I9(l.i 
intimate side to his art is seen in the landscapes pa 
home, m his figure and (lower compositions and in 
which he was at last able to do at the end of his life for "I'll. 
Willows' A small hut useful catalogue l>.\ .lame- iiamil: 
panics the exhibition Briony I 

(Bcloii I 

Frank ( 'on nelly. Discourse on Method ">. lithot/rapli . 

'Visual Comments' is currently on view at the Curwen ('all. r. 
U March. This exhibition consists of three artists, Les Biggs. Krank 
ComielK and Paul Nelson. Their work has a literary basis This 
exhibition shows their prints and drawings. 

A, * > - 







The Arts Rt 

]•>■ i 

\ : \\ 

, /> 
JKS ^ Wai si\\ 1 1 hrarv 

>t draw iii_- ' ■ ■ 

1 • - 

I L r - '--,.. 

L' 1 ! ' Dllti 

rti>t> [t « - < Augustm e last Polisl 

. - - >■ The 

: ri>t and H 


i : ■ 

-•- : Ii s. Tin 

City Mum ( iallery. 

: '■ - s A 1" he N al fin 

I > Ma.\ I tie I tz\\ liai M im in ( an 

li M - I ■ \ ■ I \\ ale*. Card I 

•2.") .1 u lit- - 'M\ .) /"./('. 


■ man from I 
\ lit ight 1 1 . niches. 

Forgotten Mediaeval Sculpture « ill be shown at The Sainsbun ( cut: 
m Noi I March until 4 May. Several hundred pieces* 

mediaeval sculpture have been stored in the choir gallery at Norwic 
Cathedral, and finally they are to go on show to the public Tl 
delicately carved twelfth-century carved capita 
and \ - om the original cloisters, chapter house and infirmai 

which have since been rebuilt or pulled down. Some have trae< - 

: decoration. A few minute pieces of Purbeck marb 

.re are the only remains of the rich thirteenth-century work 

the cathedra! The largest pieces in the exhibition are fourteen!] 

century reliefs, from the Kthelbert gate, taken down when the gate w; 

restored in 1864. A section of the twelfth-century cloisters, individu 

figures |i corative panels will be reconstructed. Relevant dra\ 

uiscripts and photographs depicting life in Mediaev 

Norwich will help to put the sculpture in its right context. When tl 

is over, it is intended to mount the sculpture permanently 

Norwic] ( al edral. Virginia FitzRo 



The . \rts l\ci icirctl 

1 ■ ^ 

'clou) \\ ilhain Hogarth. Conversation Piece 

ith Lord Hervey, siynal'W. Hogarth.' ~><i • ',(> inches 

he National Trust, Ickicorth. 

his picture, which has also been entitled the Holland I louse Group, 

>rtra\s a number of leading \\ lug politicians and intimates oi Lord 

ervey , seen here wearing his key of office of \ ice ( 'hamherlain lo the 

ing. Standing in the centre, lie is probably rejecting a plan winch 

enry Fox (later Lord Holland), is holding up. Fox owed lus 

ppointment as Surveyor of the Kings's works in ITS' entirely to 

> [ervey s influence. This picture is pari of an exhibition. 'Fnglish 

'ictures from Suffolk Collections', on show at Agnew, l.'i Old liond 

treet. London Hi. until -iH March. The catalogue is being sold, in aid 

f The Suffolk Historic Churches Trust. The Old Masters Section 

icludes works by Stubbs, Reynolds. Law rence and Romney. There is 

special seel ion given to Gainsborough and Reynolds, and a modern 

ection. The Toner. All Smuts', Stansfielil, by John I'iper was specially 

■ainted for the exhibition. Virginia Fitz/ioy 

I licloir) Dai nl (iarrick us Hayes, /In kinyliatil' 
Rehearsal . i alcrcaloiir ilrauiny hy Jun, lor lite cny 
frontispiece ' 'In //lay, in 'lull's lintisli II, 

To commeinorate the bi-eciitcnary of the d< ! (iarrick in 

!??'.(, the Rritish Libran have arranged an which opened 

last year in tin n naileries in the Rritish Museii inues until 

II Ma\ l!)K<). (iarrick was the most celebrated a< I teenth 
century. His naturalistic style of acting and his |>n lensa- 
lion, quite different from the solemn declaration linn I r ,■ >k 
the slage b\ storm and established him wit hoi it a riv;i 

From 1747 for twenty nine years, in partnership with Jai 
ran the Drury Lane Theatre, and great l\ improved the 
acting, production, scenery anil lighting. Altera tempeshi< 
with the actress IVg Woftington he married Kva Man 
beautiful Austrian dancer, with whom he was very happ,\ 

(iarrick s career as an actor and manager is illustrated in 
exhibition with, notably, two of his costumes, mezzotints and < 
ings of him in various roles, such as the dramatic (iarrick as Hichari, 
after Nathaniel Dance, ceramic tiles copied from such engravings, and 
porcelain figures of ( iarrick and his acting colleagues as a character in 
a pla\ He was an avid collector of Shakespeare's plays; he revived 
main and often reintroduced the original verse into the con tempo ran 
bastardised versions of them He hail risen to fame on Shakespeare - 
back and. in return, idolised him. He commissioned the Huguenot 
sculptor. Roubiliac, to make a marble statue of him. completed l>\ 
I7.")S. hi stand in the Temple he had built in the grounds of his villa, 
Hampton House, by the Thames. The statue, accompanied l>\ its 
maquette. forms the centrepiece to the exhibition. Amoi 
Shakespeare relics which (iarrick housed in the Temple 
made from the wood of a mulhem tree supposed ited l>\ 

Shakespeare - this also is in the exhibit ion 

(iarrick s funeral procession to \\ est minster Abbc\ w;i^ w at died by 
huge crowds, a mark of the extent to w Inch he was lionised. I'.n graved 
funeral cards, mourning rings, and several other objects n the 
exhibition poignantly illustrate this. linonij Ueieellyn 




W " " ' """' fii "i'ir . iT ?'i p' 7,*" ' T r^ " 'rr '*^> . "^ r ' *T-'-"- -"-'"^"^'-fJ-VP'r -' 

g: £,-, 

I ;i I'll I 'i rni' .1 

I Heart. 


1 1 n 

: ' I 1 1 •< ' \ 
illlll (.1 

'it : \i> sin l inn; 


,i IWell Krith 

.' .i\ Station. .w/"i 

■ ')'.! ■' : inches. 

These paintings w ill In 

la on I? March l!)> 
mi ist important sale of \ irti >ria 
lie held at Sothel»\ s, Be 

ielow) Paul (laiiguin. Horsemen on the Beach sii/ned tiinl tinted \'MH, 
i ■ 16'A' inches. Ihe Sationnl (lallcri/, London 

'his late work has been lent to the National ( iallerv ami ran lie seen 
iitil the end of March. The picture is on loan from the Stavros S 
tiarchos Collection and has not been seen in London since I !).">N, w hen 
| appeared in the Arts ( 'nunc 1 1 exhibition of the Niarchos collection at 
: le Tate< Iallerv. It was painted the year be fore (iaupi in s death and is 
fine example of the artist's decora I ive use of colour and line. 


THK inwotssKI K March 1US0 


at the 

an Book}-.; 
) Books, Maps and I'rints, 
• Rembrandi I 

Road, Lon 

i Ipftositottw V 

Vlarch20th, 1(1 a.m. 



AP : : I ARTS 

irot 5 


vols in 4 

\ £(i25. 

Rice The Birth of W 
, Eft5. 

•t'ues on request. 
■ preferably by ap] 


Market Place, 

St. Ives, Cornwall. 

(I ie J.'!i , abort') 

I( i Frederick Lew is 

A Intercepted Correspondence, Cain 

ii ed and dated 'ISliU', on panel, 

>< .i~> inches. Christie's. 

(Ir left) 

J> 11 Frederick Lew is 

L i. in Auratiini . 

SS led and dated 'IS,] ', 

» ercolour heightened n ilh white, 

1 x / .)' . inches. ( 'bristle's 

| •/; 

J in Frederick Lew is 

le Carpet Seller 

I ■nil and dated ' lSllll' , 

I </?'/.' inches Sothebi/s. 


■I < > 1 1 1 1 Fre(leri<'k I ,ew is 

Lord I'onsonhy's horses held 

b\ grooms at Stamboul, 

iratereolonr heii/hteiied irith ir/ntt . 

IW v> .'.', , inches Sotheby's, 


.lohn Frederick Lew is 

A study oi two camels and a sleeping dn\ er 

pencil. body colour and white on I ml I paper. 

// ■ /.'<< inches Phillips 


Ii i rick I ,c 

Lo \rl Market 

In M.i > last \ car at a < ction sa le i it 

\ ictonan pictn res. an l>\ John 

I' retlenck Lew Is. . \n / , <pmi- 

deuce , ( 'nirii, start led tin <l l>\ 

fetching t.\''.'0.000. nearh tin l ,• lop 

estimated price tor it .an -ord for 

I he art 1st and lor a \ ictonan . 
I 're- Kaphaelitc pa mt m^ of n >t 
it.\ to he sold at auction, it m 

more but . unlike ma n\ ol L< 
in^s. lew I're Uaphaelites remain in pi i 

\n Intercepted Correspomlcnce is 
painting with all the ingredients winch ha\e 
made Lewis ;i popular artist in his own da.\ 
and sine It depicts a Mimptllolls Fnyptian 
interior, the bright sunlight outside deflected 
b\ the nioiicharabie windows In cast dappled 
patterns on the rich garments of the li^ures 
H\ I Soil when the painting was exhibited al 
the Royal Academy , such compositions con 
•j the lan^oiirand luxun ol the Fas! had 
established Lewis' reputation I he lirsl hail 
been I he lllitirciiii winch caused a 
when he sent it to be exhibited 
W.tler ( oloiir Society in IS.VI 
t I .0(111, already a hiyh price aterial for 

In- pictures c.iiue from the ten \cars that he 
had spent in Cairo from IS4 I , living according 
to I he custom sol the count r\ and spend my his 
lime, w rot. Thackeray, like a lanipiid lontns 
enter / . Im './/, tnl" : le . lie a Ki i 

made i ketches in chalks or 

waten I lie i tine! iitcctnrc, t>l 

III, . ul .' resi/neness , t>J a ■ colour ami 

In/hi n ii I hat coiili I In oiind m Cairo 

I'rou I urn to Km.' i I *."> | until In 

death Lewis exlub led uolliii 

Fastei I -. the Im- iderei 


ole. Ills cat ion ol I he 

w.i i I hat w hen he 
resiju r ( )l,l Wa iloiu Society 

in ISaS hi ntireh to oil 

paint in I ndeed, he 

often previous n h 

i o| hull res on t he let 
'/('(/ ( 'orrespoie: 
n i he yroiip in I lie same | n 
i : ilea fl\ twel 

-i cue- ol I ,e\ ant ine 
- iiil'IiI alter toda\ than w 
lliein. il I he hiyh prices in I Ii 
am tiling to jj-o b\ . As with u 

i w il h an Fastern II: 
i hesc Lew Ises have bee i 
I ■resence of Arab i 

UK ( llWdlSSI t It March I USD 

\ i--. tlic |>un 


t«i i ; i \ i 



I he him 
I trunk I Unit )/t 


S .'.mi 
I ' ' : ' - ■' 1.' wa> 

I /. 

' t Wu-i 

:- and 

It \\a« 








I I 
l!)7!i ! : 



It I .» A : - 

I V I) Scribe i 

/ ■ 

John Frederick Lewis. 
The Mid-Dav Meal. Cairo. 


The Arts lit 

■a; -rn Lew i» w atern .1. » » 1 r- — ' aryii _ 
ie At Phillips' a >k- ' 

;. ,7; * ■ ■<„. Desert. f\ .ited at - ; .. i ' 
i -..'". m 1 S.").") 

\ ■ • \1 tT.stui 

. ■ John Murti 'i; Morris > Tin 
la it Christie's Tin I s 
la : ' 1 ' 1 s ■"-'". eh; 

»l« cnhe with tun \ i\ arioiis young girls, was 
« id lit anonym. 
'A mi) But highest i.l . e £?."). tlOO 

t<! estimate 1-HU ion s ,. a k. 

sl\ . tor Tfu M '-Dai, V i 
T 'A a- -!_ ■ • ■■ il \va> 

•e ' .(lured in an (. 
^i is. ami si .Id 

eh 's Belgra\ ia a t'< ■ I 

sto ishing price 

if ' U-*. ill was cloying and eh 
u there wi 

ii vitality i it" ei .1. mr wl . 


\- a:. • -- 

' :. iarkt t, in til. 

.rettier L< > 

. . i i :( de t> mil 

■ • to S iau 


\ Si 

tin Christie's Ni .\ emher w 
ua« In --'HO 


■ I 
■ ■ I 

k I it w earlier 

■ ' 1 iggu is \rt 

\ m liedl W 

sales s \\ ill 

I .. « - Son. 

eat Doorwi 

I.l .Vis 


: -i- it* 

JK ;£-»>. i 


III i ( i\\i n>sj i H March lUSil 


r- ^ 

r 1 

Normal \e\ s Ltd. 

8 i I I.i U i Knightsh 


/ / , / i;/ me iiinl 


I hos. Agnew & S< I. 

43 ( )ld Bond Strei I > >n w i 

Id: n| f, 19 6176 

Paintings, I Vii 1 1 i Drawings and 

'■mo- oj all 

Alexander (> 

13 I Hike Strcci id< m sw i 

I d: 01-93i 

line I ih and 19th century Paintings 


29-31 ( Street, I ondon w i H si'i 


/ 'hit, glass, paintings, 

Asprey & Co. Ltd. 

163-169 New Bond Street, 
London wl V Oak 
r c l: o 1-493 0767 
t abl< -- ( Alliens, I ondon 
Lclex: 23110 

Antique silver, jewellery, miniatures, fine 
J fumituri clocks ami watches, objets 
d'arl and P'aht 

Bentley & Co. Ltd. 

Bond Street, I ondon w i Y9IM 

\ntique watches, jewelled 
\rt, Russian enamels 

H. Blairman & Sons Ltd. 

1 I ondon w 1 ~i SMU 
lei: 01-403 0444 

iu y i urnitiire, 
aid IVork ' ; 

Blond Tine Art Ltd. 

• . I ondon \X 1 

h painting 

t & Sons Ltd. 

m w 1 

( ) 


Brod G; 

1 S t 1 . 1 ' U 1 1 A 



The Bruton Gallery 

High Street, Bruton, Somerset BAI00AB 
I el: 074 OS 1 2205 

Specialists in European sculpture of the VHh 
and 20th centuries: Ayrton, Barye, 
Bourdelle, Carpeaux, Carrier Belleuse, 
Dalou, Daumier, David d' Angers, 
Despiau, lalguiere, Maillol, Moore, 
Plazzotta, Rodin, Wlerick 


14 Old Bond Street, London W 1 
Tel: 01-401 7408 

Vine Old Master Paintings, Drawings and 
Prints, Oriental Art 

Crane Arts 

321 Kings Road, London sw? 

Tel: 01-352 5857 

Varly Xaive Paintings. Also young artists 

with irreverent flavour 

Crane Kalman Gallery 

178 Brompton Road, London sws 
lei: 01-584 7566 

20th century British and European Masters. 
Younger British artists. (Also unjustly 
neglected painters i 

Andrew Simon Crosby 

PO Box 510, Edinburgh 10, Scotland 

Tel: (031)447 8000 

C hiental Carpet hooks and hooks on ( ilass 
Collecting, ('dialogues tree on request. 
Dealer in Turkoman Carpets from the 
presynthetic period 

T. Crowther & Son 

2S2 North End Road, Fulham, 
London sw6 1 mi 
Tel: 01-385 1375/7 

I 'ery fine and extensive stocks oj Ceorgiau 
period furniture, carved wood and marble 
chimneypieces and accessories , oak and pine 
room panelling and garden ornaments 

Euston Gallery 

126/130 I )runiinond Street, 
I ondon N\x 1 Tel: 01-387 6134 
Extensive range of Old and Contemporary 
Paintings and Prints, 50 page catalogue 36p 

Fine Art Society 

148 New Bond Street, London ivi 
rd: 01-629 51 16 

British . \rt oj the 19th and 20th centuries, 
Painting . Watercolours, Drawing- and 
Sculptui ative Arts 

Fischer Fine Arts Ltd. 

30 Kinl' Street, St James's, London sw 1 

■ 1942 
20th . eutur) Masters and Contemporary 

Fox Galleries 

5/6 Cork Street, London wi 

rd: 01-734 2626 
Cables: Foxart London wi 

lelex: 268048 Extldng 

Vine Paintings British and European 1 <l) 

to 1965 

S. Franses 

71 Knightsbridge, London swi 
Tel: 01-235 1888 

C )riental and European Carpets, Tapem 
and Works of Art 

Frost & Reed Ltd. 

41 New Bond Street, London wi 
Tel: 01-629 2457 

18th- 19th century English and Dutch 
Paintings, Contemporary English and\ 
Modem Erench Paintings 

Fry Gallery 

58 Jermyn Street, St. James's, 

London swi 

Tel: 01-493 4496 

Cables: Fryart, London 

English Watercolours and Drawings oj i 

18th and 1 9th centuries 

The General Trading Company 

1 44 Sloane Street, Sloane Square, 


Tel: 01-730 0411 

18th and 1 9th century English Furnitu, 

Porcelain, Pewter, Prints. Decorating. 

quality modern China, Crystal and Ci 

Christopher Gibbs Ltd. 

1 18 New Bond Street, London WIS ■ 

Tel: 01-029 2008/9 

Old Masters and Works of Art 

Richard Green (Fine Paintings) 

44 Dover Street, London wi 

Tel: 01-493 7007 

18th and 19th century English Painting 

17th and 18th century Dutch, Flemish 


11th to 19th century European Paintiiv, 

Grey-Harris & Co. 

12 Princess Victoria Street, Clifton, 


Tel: Bristol 37365 

A hading West of England repository ji 

Jewellery, Old Sheffield and quality El 

Halcyon Days Ltd. 

14 Brook Street, Hanover Square, 

London WIY IAA 

18th and early 19th century English 


Papier Mache, Tole, Ereen, Tortoises! 

Porcelain and prints. Pine contemporary), 

Bilston enamels 

. [arris & Son 

I'. New Oxford Street, London 
. IES 

H-636 2121 
i 18th century English Furniture and 
) s of Art 

. :. Harvey & Co. (Antiques) 


- 1 Chalk Farm Road, 

i on nwi .San 

1 llth to early 19th century furniture, 

i and Works oj Art 

:ii Gallery 

rmyn Street, St. James's, 
i on swi 
|}l-493 0688 

i Master Paintings and Sculptures in 
t'e, bronze and terracotta 

iie Henderson 

ount Street, London wi 
1)1-499 2507 

\ese and Japanese Paintings. Japanese 
'.is and prints, Oriental Embroidery 

>neil Ltd. 

Wk-c Street, Berkeley Square, 

i|on WIY 2NY 

1 11-499 3011 

que and Modern Jewellery and Silver, 

cstic Silver by the Hennels from 1737 


Id Bond Street, London wi 
: '1-493 1394 

Hery, Antique, I "utorian and fine 
yh Silver 

rge Horan 

ental Antiques) Ltd. 

Kensington Church Street, 
Ion w8 
101-937 9532 
ppointment to the Corps 
omatique.Fine Oriental Ceramics, 
zes, Jades, Ivories, Carvings etc. 

i Antiques 

jd 1 1, Antique Hypermarket, 
.ensington High Street, London wH 
1 01-937 7435 
ycentury English animal paintings 

n Jacobs 

iike Street, St. James's, London swi 
01-930 3709 

/'( Using in 17th century Dutch and 

i using m i itn century u\ 
ish Old Master Paintings 

xander Juran & Co. 

Jew Bond Street, London wiy gnn 
01-629 255O 

and Antique Caucasian and Oriental 
s and Carpets 

A. Lee 

Bruton Place, London wi 
01-629 5600 and 499 6366 

ks of Art, Fine Furniture, Clocks and 

Little Gallery 

5 Kensington Church Walk, i ondon wX 
Tel: 01-937 8332 

Tuesday to Saturday II a. in to 6 p. i 


19th and 20th century Watercoloui: 

I .idon Art Centre 

15/16 Royal Opera Arcade, Haymarket 
Pall Mall, London swi 
Tel: 01-930 7679 

II //y pay more' 1 t'25 for exquisitely, hand 
carved framed traditional English oil 
paintings on canvas 

D. M. & P. Manheim 
(Peter Manheiin) Ltd. 

69 Upper Berkeley Street, Portman 

Square, London wi 

Tel: 01-723 6595 

Member BAD. A. Specialist in line 

English Antique Porcelain, Pottery, 

Delftware and Enamels 


6 Albemarle Street, London Wix }in 
Tel: 01-629 5161 

Cables: Bondartos 

Fine impressionist and 20th century 

Paintings, Drawings and Sculptun 

( Graphics and Photographs by leading 20th 

century Artists 

Roy Miles Fine Paintings 

6 Duke Street, St. James's, London swi 

Tel: 01-930 8665 

Cables: Miles Art London 

Gallery hours: Monday-Friday 


5 p.m. 

[ ictorian Paintings and ( )ld Masters 

John Mitchell & Sons 

8 New Bond Street. 1 ondon wi 
Tel: 01-493 7567 
Old Master Paintings 

Morton Morris & Company 

32 Bury Street St. James's, 
London swi y fiAU 
Tel: 01-930 2825 

English paintings and drawings of tin 
IStli ana early 19th centuries 

Gerald Norman (Fine Art) Ltd. 

93 Jermyn Street, St. James's, 

London swi 

Tel: 01-930 3222 

Specialists in 18th, 19th and 20th 

English watercolours. Art consultai 


James R. Ogden & Sons Ltd. 

42 Puke Street. St. James's, London 

swiy fin | 

Tel: 01-930 3353 

Specialists in Amient Jewellery. 

Jewellers and Silversmiths for four 

generations Also at Harrogate 

Park ilk , 1750) 

2 All v eet, don wi x 

Tel: 4 K)6 

Mann ililitai I al ana 

Sports ', until. ■■ • . I uid 

Watei . < )*/<; M \lodel md 


David eel & Co. L 

2 Carlo, Place, Mounl 
London w l 
European 11 ork 1 1 

Phillips & Harris 

54 Kensington C lunch Street. 

Ion W«S 

'37 3133 
Selected European, < )riental furnitw 
Works of Art 

Piccadilly Gallery 

1 6a ("ork Street, London wi 
Tel : 1 -629 2875 and < > I -499 4032 
British Figurative Painters, International 
Symbolist, Jugenstil Works, Museum 
quality. British and Continental Drawings 

Pitt & Scott Ltd. 

20/24 Eden Grove, London N7 Ned 

Tel: nl -007 7321 

Telex: 21857 

Packing and shipping of fine-art works 

througliout the world 

H. W. Poulter & Son 

270 Fulham Road, ! ondon 

Tel: 01-352 7268 

18th century Chimney Pieces, < Urates, 

Fenders ana (Chandeliers, Restorations in 


G. T. Rate! T Ltd. 

Durwards I kill, Kelvedon, 
Essex coi 

Enormous Fumiturt 

showroom . 'ition inclua 
decorated p\ 

Howard Ricketts 

180 New Bond Street, Loud i wi 

Tel: 01-4: 

Fine Europ i id I : 

and Work nly Ph 


Frank T td. 

I ondon wi 

Tel: II 

English <lours and Fun 


Spink & So.i Ltd. 

i t, St. James's. 
1 ondon sw I 

I 1 -031 1 7888 
( ahles. Spink London sw i 

, Medals and Order 

ii Furniture, Pain 
and Silver 


r 1 



Staii It 

nt Sti 

mi) \ .11 
r ^ 

r ^ I <ir ]r I). V mclekar of 
Kn idge 

I ,ii U 
i | \ i i 


William Walter Antiques Ltd. 

. I .(in 

Weston Galler) 

Lou i, Norfolk 

iorw ich Si 

; / • ! /7///-/V/; 1 

Xorwii h h 

I' \Lhlc> 

i Whitford Gallery 

Ics Street, I i 

1 ; i <;r/y . 'CV/i nglish and 

I ■• i iwfo [>/ 

/ Middle I i res/ 

Wildenstein & Co. Ltd. 

m 'in! Street, 1 < 

I ! ondon w i 
Navild (. 

/ Impressi* > tilings and 

W'i Hiatus & Son 

(. London \v i x 3 1. B 

liu i nglish and European 

Paimiw, >th and 2<)th centuries 

Temple Williams Ltd. 

I launch ol Venison Yard, Brook Street, 

lot IAI 


Winifred Williams 

3 Bury Street, St. |ames's, Lond 
Tel: 01-930 4732/0729 

Important IHth century English ana 
(Continental Porcelains and Enamel 
Collectors' pieces oj Museum qualit 

W. H. Willson Ltd. 

15 King Street, St. [ames's, 
1 ondon swi Y6QI 
| c ] : 01-930 6463 

line Stock of Antique Silver 

Christopher Wood Gallery 

15 Motcomb Street, London swi 
I el: (11-235 9141/2 

I ictorian paintings, drawings and 
u'atercolours, studio pottery , works i\H 

Harriet Wynter Ltd. 

352 Kings Road, London SW3 
Tel: 01-352 6494 
Telex: 21879 Harriet 

Antique Scientific Instruments at 
secondhand and Antiquarian Bookn 
history oj science and technology 

Charles Young 

Second Floor, Old Bond Street F 
6-8 Old Bond Street. London w 
Tel: 01-499 11 17 and 491 3430 

English Paintings 1600-1900 




rsity of 



Old Master Paintings 

26 Surinamestraat, The Hague, Holland 
Tel: 070-601.620 


of Kent 







/./■ 1)1. 1 A FARM I s T. 1 VI . LEEDS. St MAIDSTONE, KENT 
lone Maidstoni 861997/65709 (Evenings only) 

Vorkiiiiff Wood ax iniirnam()va| journal for mi 


ill Man September, and | Quailcraf L Pankridge Street, Crondall, 

0s oph\ |Farnham, Surrey, England. (Dept. HR67) 


I A: 

• £19.30; 5Year £31.00 

I Town 


5 Vear £ 64. j CouRty ' or S,ate 

S^l " CS 55; 5 N ode , or Zip 


*/ 1 
*» 11 I , 


°'"lo/s s< . ln 


' , < 

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suit. ices assume .1 glowing patin, Renaissance was 
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world leader in conservation research, ,\n<\ with the 
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sle Inc. 

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i.idy Galleries, Inc., Jack 

Mips Auctioneers 
Phillips Ltd., S.J. 

1 re Hotel 
Plaza Galleries 

K.itcliff Ltd., G. T. 
Rosenberg & Co., Paul 

Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts 

Shrubsole Ltd.. S. J. 

Simpsons of Kent 


Stockholm Fair 

Si i assel C "o. , The 

I horn Galleries, Frederick 
I rosby Auction Galleries 

University Hospital Antiques Show, 


Wakefield-Scearce Galleries 

Wellington Antiques 


Williams & Son 

Withmgton Inc., Richard W. 

Woods Ltd., Ann 

Working Wood 

Wyoming Foundry Studios, Inc. 




P\l L 




RK, NEW YORK 10021 
(212) 472-1134 

( <////<■/ 




Private collector will pay top prices for exceptional quality 

19th-century finely detailed oil paintings. Elegantfigures, 

Romantic, Genre, etc, scenes. D. Ridgeway Knight, De Blaas, 

Brunery,Alma-Tadema, Ludwig Fischer, Ludwig Deutsch or 

similar. Send photographs, description, size, price, P.O. Box 

414273, Normandy Branch, Miami, Florida 33141, U.S.A. 

Phone : (305) 868-71 08 or (305) 868-4361 






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thl teat urn or ad 1 ertisiny, literary or pictorial matter whatsoever. 




or important American art 





■ m\MmW 


Mary Cassatt (1844-1926) 

Mother Holding Her Nude Child Whose Left Hand Rests on the Mother's Chest, c. 1914 

30 x 25 '/ 2 inches; pastel; signed lower right: "Mary Cassatt" 

Catalogued: Mary Cassatt/ A Catalogue Raisonne of the Oils, Pastels, 

'ercolors and Drawings by Adelyn Dohme Breeskin, Washington, 

Smithsonian Press, 1970, page 215, number 601; Reproduced: 

Figure 601. 


Co-Publishers of The American Art Journal 

57th Street (5th Floor) New York 10019 (212) 541-9600 
fuesda) - Saturday 9:30 - 5:30 






Bit .« 





Auction Thursday 1 7th April, at 2 pm 




ALFRED STEVENS, Elegant Company promenading, a pair 

ALFRED PROVIS, A Continental Cottage Interior 

If '" 


J, A 

Tw'i -rtlMJIfi 





' ^^M 

t ^f3 




it^sT - 

l»*»f ' 

■ AJ 1 

" ; *dr ^J 




JOSEPH van BRADAEL, 'Summer and Winter', a pair on panel 

LUDOLFBACKHUYSEN, Dutch Shipping Offshore 

. • . 



JOHNBERNEY LADBROOKE, 'Winter Landscape', a pair 

On view Wednesday 16th April, 11 am - 5 pm 
and morning of sale, 9 am — 5 pm. 
Illustrated Catalogue £3.75p (including postage). 
Further information available from Peter Brooks 
at Lawrence Fine Art. 

Evening Landscape 



'Home and the \ R A. 1856 



Street, Crewkerne TA18 7JU. Tel. ( .-wkerne (STD 0460) 73041. Telex: Crkne 46251. 




1 1 trial Assistant: SARA NICHOLSON 


A • rtisement Manager: J. T. CARTER 
A i \tant Advertisement Managers: 


I auction Controller: VICTOR HASKELL 
i, ress Manager: ED CADMAN 
itant Progress Manager: SALLY HAIC. 

I' Trial and Advertisement Offiees: 

>l onal Magazine House 

7 1 roadwick Street 

I don wIvSbp 

h phone: 01-439-7144 

l,z: 263879 Natmagc. 

rican Editor: MARIO AMAYA 
1 phone: 212 262-6518-9 

1 .:: Cosmo 423932 

( -espondent for France: LYNNE THORNTON 

A x-iate Publisher in the ISA: JOHN JEFFCOTT 

2 West 57th Street, New York. NY 1001 9 
1 -phone: 212 262-6518-9 

] -x: Cosmo 423932 

A ertisement representative in Holland: 
( \rnold Teesing B.v. 
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1 8G ''. Amsterdam 

1 -phor.e: 020-26 3615 

2 tx: 13133 

ertisement representative in Scandinavia: 
I Olof V. J. Ericsson 
I < 1229, 221 05 Lund 1, Sweden 
B ephone: 046/733973 
r l egraphic address: Robottype Lund 

J lertisement representative in the Far East: 

J rian Batten 

i Jaffe Road, 2/f Hong Kong 

ephone: 5-749264 
1 ex: 75358 group hx 


B Connoisseur, founded in 1901 , was acquired 
William Randolph Hearst in 1927 and is pub- 
led monthly in Great Britain and the lsa by the 
tional Magazine Company Limited, England. 

inaging Director: MARCUS MORRIS 
Iblishing Director: ROGER Q. Barrett 

4 ond class postage paid at Sew York, NY, USA. 
I nted in Great Britain, ISSN 0010-6275. 
( PS 563-320). 

( The National Magazine Company Limited. 
April 1980. 

April 1980 Volume 403 Number 818 


449 The Kabul War 1980 
An album of photographs taken on a frontier expedition , by Will Allan 

437 Russian Icons from the Harm Collection 

.1 major auction to be held this month in Xeir )'ork, by Jerry E. Patterson 

445 Lord Leverhu line's Legacy 

A forthcoming exhibition at the Royal Academy, London, 
by Edward Morris and John Hardy 

45.3 A St. Cloud Necessaire de voyage circa 1750 

Son- on shoiv at the Victoria and Albert Museum, London, 
by Charles Truman 

450 Land Yachts 
The era of Car rossiers and Custom-made automobiles, by Walter E. Godsen 

400 The Forbes Magazine Collection 

Faberge collected by Malcolm Stevenson Forbes, by Mario Amaya 

470 American Artists and the British Market 

The pros and cons of buying for investment, by Antony Thorncroft 

470 Nothing so gay and splendid 

Spanish, Italian and Ottoman textiles for sale in London, by Raymond Head 

485 Amadeo Modigliani and Jeanne Hebuterne 

The reattribution of works to Modigliani's Mistress, by Carol Mann 

494 Mariano Fortuny: The Magician of Venice, by Lynne Thornton 

494 The Exotic Timber Trade, by Ben Bacon 

494 Books 

498 The Arts Reviewed 

Front cover: 1934 Lincoln 14-cylinder coupe, body by Dietrich Inc. 
Note how the sharply V-shaped windshield cleanly blends into the 
compound curves of the roof lines. 
(See article 'Land Yachts'). 

Early consideration will be giieu to MSS. accompanied by suitable photographs. Although due care 
is taken the publishers do not accept responsibility for \iss <>r photographs which must be submittal 
at the owner's risk The Editor's decision is final in all editorial matters. 

frculation Information 

meat Bun us Smgle copy price £2.oo, The 
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Established 1878 

Alexandria Ba\ 

George Inness 


Size: 16x24 inches 

Recorded and Reproduced The Works of George 
Inness In LeRoy Ireland. No. l M4 

19 East 66th Street 

Telephone: (2 1 2) 87 9 -2700 

New York City 





y >^ ^ 



(J") C ©■ o] 



*— 1 f ' 

51$ -- CBLfl 






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with original covers and bases. 

Of the K'ang Hsi period. A.D. 1662-1722 

Heights: 10 inches. 




12 EAST 56th STREET, NEW YORK, N.Y. 10022, U.S.A. 

Telephone 21 2 758-0937 Cables "Ralima" New York 



Sold by order of the 

U.S. Bankruptt y Court for the District of Massachusetts. 

(Chapter XI 79-1382-JG, Chapter XU 79-1383-JG) 

Free and clear of all ownership and lien claims 

Edgar Degas (1834-1917), Madame Ernest Ma y. 

pastel, recorded and illustrated in 

Deg as et son Oetivre . by P. A. Lemoisne, 1946 

30 Green Street, Newburyport, Massachusetts 
(617) 462-3171 
Saturday, April 26 (10-5) 
Sunday, April 27 ( 12 noon-5) 
Monday, April 28 (10-7) 
Tuesday, April 29 (10-5) 


Friday, May 2 (9-3) 


Paintings: Friday, May 2 at 6 pm 
Furniture: Saturday, May 3 at 10 am 

INQUIRIES: Peter Fairbanks (212) 570-4848 
Lynne Kortenhaus (617) 227-6145 

CATALOGUE: $12 by mail 
Catalogue admits 2 for the Exhibition and Auction 

Phillips standard c harge to the siller is a commission of Wi in addition to the 
10% premium paid In the Inner in pari of the pun hase price 



867 Madison Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10021 
6 Faneuil Hall Market Plate, Boston, Massachusetts 02109 

Tropical Bar Scene' c. 1948 


301/2 x 43 V2ins (77x1 10cm. 



27th MARCH -2nd MAY 1980 






TELEPHONE 01-493 1572/3 


TELEX 298226 






















29-31 george /treet lonoon win spi- 
te I. Ol -486 678 

rine antique furniture 


obiet/ d art 

A veryfine Inlaid Marble Pietra Dure. Centre TableTop 

decorated with in la id flora I and foliate designs. Probably made 

in England by Italia n Craftsman under patronage, c. 1850. 

Illustrated in "English Furniture 1800-1851" by Edward T.Joy 
Size 51 V 2 "x 30 3 /4" 131 /78cm. 


^WMMWWWWWWW ppjiniiiippia pp p riip pi pi pj pi WW WMMMM 


10 Minutes from JFK International Airport 





01 589 4128, 2102 


A high point of the silver collector's life is the Queen Anne octagonal teapot A Lis' so many arc spurious. The one on the left 
mine md worth several thousands of pounds: the one on the right is cunningly made from .1 contemporary tankard. It is 
k .t is illeg.ii' 1 he BAI>A has experts 111 all fields and you can trust them to tell you the difference. 

A list of mcmlxTs will be sent free on receipt of a stamped and addressed envelope. 



\ \ i- 1 \ tint- .mil e\i irmt-K rare Queen Anne Iciur- poster bed. ha\ i n t^ the or initial i anop\ and head I rd: the forme i 

I uu-d on the inside wit hold ( hinoiserie da mask over elaborate c. a r\ ed wood panels, i ildinfJ and shells: the lattei 

i n\ered with tin- original red silk damask I In- remaindei ol the bed hunt; with \er\ hue mi idem silk hangings 

retaining the original braids and I ringes [".nglish. < in a 1 700 

l.engthbft Hins Width 4l't 7ins \la\inium height Oft 



Also in NEW YORK : MALLETT of LONDON, P.O. Box 396 NY. 10028. Telephone : (2 1 2) 876 9033 Telex : 62580 

Exhibition of 
Islamic Art from India 
24th April - 10th May 

An exhibition of metalwork, jade and other 
hardstones, miniatures, textiles, ivory 
and wood. 

A wooden cabinet inlaid with ivory in floral 

patterns and arabesque, and with its 

original fittings. 

Mughal, 17th century. 

Height: IOV2 ins. Width: 15% ins. 

Depth: \2 ins. 


Spink&Son Ltd. M. King St. St James's, London SWl.Tel:01-9307888(24hrs)Telex:916711 
English Paintings and Watercolours . Silver . Furniture . Oriental and Islamic Art . Medals . Coins Ancient and Modern . Banknotes . Jewellery . Paperweights 



1018 West Main Street, P.O. Box 3606, Charlotteville, Virginia 22903, Telephone (804) 295-6089 

-as - 


/j "jt»%* 


f . / mm 



186"- 193!> 

American impressionist and muralist 

Oil on canvas, ""1 x 38 inches 

The artist's garden in Giverny 

Signed and dated 1900 

Exhibited: Art Institute ot Chicago, 1901 

The Incurable Collector Inc. New York, 1964 

Provenance: Estate ot the artist. 



A pair of celestial and terrestrial globes 
made by Dutch cartographer 
William Janszoon Blaue 
in the early Seventeenth Century. 

i iei 26 Hutu-. 




E DE LA GUERRA/ SANTA BARBARA. CALIFORNIA 93101 (805)966-1400/965-4058 

y Carlo Gmliano 


fl* ^^oiitrniritf 
.//A/ U«"" Elu-b,,h II 


493 "41/2/3 

«/ AfpoMmnt 


^^^ LONDON Wi 


y Carl Faberge 

c 1850 

by Carlo Gmliano 
c. 1870 

t * 

by Carl Faberge 

Russian, first half of 
the eighteenth century 



by Carl Faberge 

by Carl 

by Lawrence Hilliard 
A lady aged 67 
signed and dated 
Agtatis suae 
67. L H ,no 1644 

by Nicholls 
and Plinke, 
Samuel Arnd. 
St Petersburg 
c. 1850 

by Gervase 
signed and 
dated 1752 

All objects shown are reduced in size. Overall height of Russian reliquary 2? inches. 


Tuesday May 20th at 11 a.m. 

Fine English Paintings 

This sale has been changed from 6th May to the date above 


Wyckliffe reading his translation of the Bible to John of Gaunt, Chaucer and Gower, 

inscribed on board (1 8cm X 25cm) 7 X 9| inches. A letter, in the artist's hand, attached 

to the reverse of this picture claims it to be 'a small oil first sketch' for the later fully 

worked up painting which now hangs in the Bradford City Art Gallery Museum. 

Viewing: Thursday prior 2 - 5 p.m. Friday 9 a.m. - 5 p.m. 
Saturday 9-12 noon. Monday 9 a.m. - 5 p.m. 

Illustrated Catalogue £2.50 (£3 by post) 

• further information regarding this Sale please contact 
Nicholas Wadham, Tel: 01-629-6602 

Phillips, 7 Blenheim Street, New Bond Street, London W.l. 

■ i 

Jollys. IOI,IKm>> 
-".I! II ill! I 

Know k- Uksl Midlands 

l,-HMi4.llil." 1 | 

North. Hepper House 

l7,vL(Ml'ar.«Jf I teds 
U 1 1. Ml' 41 XL*. I 

Scotland. (ioGeorjjeSt 
lei 0,31 22522M 

iilso.ulWilm Cieneva 
Xmslerdam Montreal 


Members of theSouetyoN me \ri Wnonee 

n exceptionally fine 
3th century sideboar 
i in top quality Cuba 
y. A most shapely p 
„rpentine front and _ ._- 
as shaped and inlaid dra 
'ith original interiors and 
rasses, and a fluted apron 
nderneath. The whole standing 
n eight fluted legs. Circa 1780. 
gth 63", depth 27", height 37% ". 
nting by Pierre Bonnard. 


MlOhLStOhLTl —JDOSyVClll /TIC 11V2 East 76th Street, New York, NY. 10021 ' by appointment (212) RE 4-77§7 


Berry-Hil I Galleries, J qc. ., 



enue, V* V.ik. \.V. 10022 • (212)371 '.777 

Member of the National Antique and Art Dealers Association of America . 

Chill(\Se KXPOI'I Sclldol WMmpoa:TheAndmage circa 1835 Oil on canvas, 18 x 31 inch* 

Exhibiting fit the International Asian Art Fair, Hong Kong, May 15-18 


Danny Ale&sandro, Ltd 
Edwin Jackson, Inc 

1156 Second Avenue, New York, NY 10021 

(21 2) 421 -1 928 (21 2) 759-821 

Member of Art A Antique Dealers League ol America. 

Sculpted and signed in 1863 by H. F de Fauveau. 
Born in Florence 1799; died in Paris 1886. 
Statuary white motifs of the sea. 


Length of shelf, 71%" x 68 W. Width of shelf, 16" x 18V4V Height of shelf. 55 V<: 

Width of body, 68'/*: Opening width, 47." Opening Height, 43 W x 407 

Projection for facing, 6V!»'.' 

Subject to prior sale. 

America's largest fireplace specialists since 1879 

Also, antique and reproduction 18th century marble and wood mantels, 

club fenders, andirons, firescreens and hearth accessories. 



ish pub rebuilt from orig 
pvalier portrait on glass. 
, Yorkshire, England. 77" 
»ng, 97" (292.1cm) wide. 







It was the turn of the century and whiskey 
cost a dime. Rich mahogany saloons were 
packed with gentlemen snipping their 
cigars and discussing the latest scandal in 
Hearst's EXAMINER. 

Those were the days. 

And once again, it's John P. Wilson's time 
to bring them back. With the 10th Annual 
Golden Movement Emporium Auction. An 
auction event so unique, you've probably 
read about it in such publications as 
JOURNAL. The business that began with 
a thousand pull-chain toilets worked its way 
up to the largest collection of architectural 
antiques in the world. 

This year, $10,000,000 worth of beautiful 
architectural antiques will be auctioned off 
by the Golden Movement Emporium. 

The collection includes the largest assort- 
ment of documented Tiffany glass to be auc- 
tioned since 1964. The most extensive array of 
stained glass ever assembled anywhere in the 
world. There will be interiors from Lloyds of 
London and the Bank of Scotland from Lon- 
don's Trafalgar Square. Greenhouses and 
completely assembled restaurants and 
saloons. 200 semi-trailer loads of architectural 
antiques. Or, to give you an even more 
graphic idea of scope, the Golden Movement 
Emporium merchandise will occupy 250,000 
square feet of display space once it's all 
assembled for this vear's auction. 

If you enjoy the things of the past, put the 
most exciting auction event in the world in 
vour future. 

inan fruitwoods from the landmark Krueger Castle in SJewark \< \ |ersey Built in 
S3. 04cm) of shelving and display. Heights from WVz" (306.07cml lo 12'1I" (393.7cm) 
d shop intt 

B( Try-Hi] 1 Galleries, Inc. »- , 


nue. New York, N.Y 10022 • (212) 371-6777 

Member oj the National Antique and An Dealers Association of America . 

( II 1 1 1 K 'SI ' KX| X III Scl If )( )| Whampoa: ThB Anchorage circa 18.35 Oil on canvas, 18 x 31 inches 

Exhibiting at the International Asian Art Fair, Hong Kong, May 15-18 



Danny Ale&sandro, Ltd 
Edwin Jackson, Inc 

1156 Second Avenue, New York, NY. 10021 

(212)421-1928 (212)759-8210 

Member of Art A Antique Dealers League ol America. 




Sculpted and signed in 1863 by H. F de Fauveau. 
Born in Florence 1799; died in Paris 1886. 
Statuary white motifs of the sea. 


Length of shelf, 71%" x 68V4: Width of shelf, 16" x 18 1 /4'.' Height of shelf. 55V47 

Width of body, 68V2'.' Opening width, 47" Opening Height. 43 V x 40'.' 

Projection for facing, 6V4" 

Subject to prior Ml*. 

America's largest fireplace specialists since 1879 

Also, antique and reproduction 18th century marble and wood mantels, 

club fenders, andirons, firescreens and hearth accessories. 





Documented as Tiffany by Dr. Egon Neustadt. From the 
former home of the Heinz foods family, in Pittsburgh, this 
window displays a superb example of Tiffany's drapery 
glass. 7'W (214cm) high, 5' (152.4cm) wide. 

"Cavalier Bar,' an enclosed Eng h pub rebuilt from orig- 
inal pieces, with 17th Century Cnalier portrait on glass. 
The bar came trom Brighouse ir Yorkshire, England. 77" 
(213.36cm) high. 10' (304.8cm) long, 97" (292.1cm) wide. 







It was the turn of the century and whiskey 
cost a dime. Rich mahogany saloons were 
packed with gentlemen snipping their 
cigars and discussing the latest scandal in 
Hearst's EXAMINER. 

Those were the days. 

And once again, it's John P. Wilson's time 
to bring them back. With the 10th Annual 
Golden Movement Emporium Auction. An 
auction event so unique, you've probably 
read about it in such publications a^ 
JOURNAL. The business that began with 
a thousand pull-chain toilets worked its way 
up to the largest collection of architectural 
antiques in the world. 

This year, $10,000,000 worth of beautiful 
architectural antiques will be auctioned off 
by the Golden Movement Emporium. 

The collection includes the largest assort- 
ment of documented Tiffany glass to be auc- 
tioned since 1964. The most extensive array of 
stained glass ever assembled anywhere in the 
world. There will be interiors from Lloyds of 
London and the Bank of Scotland from Lon- 
don's Trafalgar Square. Greenhouses and 
completely assembled restaurants and 
saloons. 200 semi-trailer loads of architectural 
antiques. Or, to give you an even more 
graphic idea of scope, the Golden Movement 
Emporium merchandise will occupy 250,000 
square feet of display space once it's all 
assembled for this year's auction. 

If you enjoy the things of the past, put the 
most exciting auction event in the world in 
your future. 

A complete library of exotic Gar-ian fruitwoods from the landmark Krueger Castle in Newark, \ew jersey. Built in 
1888, the library contains 48' (14 04cm) of shelving and display. Heights from lO'Vz" (306.07cm I to 12T1" (393.7cm) 
One of 39 total rooms and perio --hop interiors 

B( t ry-Hi 1 1 Galleries, Inc. ™ * ^ 


k, N.Y. 10022 •(212)371-6777 

Member oj the National Antique ami Art Dealers Association of America. 

CllMCSC K.\|M)I'I School Whampoa: The Andmage circa 1835 Oil on canvas, 18 x 31 inches 

Exhibiting at the International Asian Art Fair, Hong Kong, May 15-18 

Danny Aleasandro, Ltd 
Edwin Jackson, Inc 

1156 Second Avenue, New York, NY. 10021 

(21 2) 421 -1 928 (21 2) 759-821 

Member of Art & Antique Dealers League ot America. 











Sculpted and signed in 1863 by H. F de Fauveau. 
Born in Florence 1799; died in Paris 1886. 
Statuary white motifs of the sea. 


Length of shell. 71 V x 68Vt". Width of shell. 16" x 18V Height of shell. 55 W: 

Width of body, 68 Vt. Opening width. 47" Opening Height. 43 '<2 "x 40 

Projection lor lacing, 6VK 

Subje c t to prior sale. 

America's largest fireplace specialists since 1879 

Also, antique and reproduction 18th century marble and wood mantels, 

club fenders, andirons, firescreens and hearth accessories. 

Totally original and complete, this turn-of-the-century American drugstore came from Newport, Kentucky, where its 
ornately carved sections and wall of stained glass graced the City Commons. 139'5 1 /2" (4250.69cm) of display. 


You don't have to wait until the Golden 
Movement Emporium Auction to see the 
most extensive and valuable collection of 
architectural antiques assembled from across the 
United States and Europe. 

You can preview 300 of the close-to-4,000 archi- 
tectural antiques in our 1980 Catalog. A collector's 
item in itself. The photographs you see here are 
only a small sample of the entire collection. In 
the catalog you'll see much more . . . 300 four-color 
photographs of the richest architectural antiques 
John P. Wilson has ever gathered under one roof. 

Close to 4,000 items, 150 pages of valuable arti- 
facts for any collector. With full descriptions and 
dimensions of each pictured item. 

Our 1980 designer's edition catalog marks the 
10th Annual Golden Movement Emporium Auction. 

If you were among the 1,200 people at last year's 
spectacular event, you saw $8,000,000 worth 
of architectural antiques go to private homes, 
restaurants, hotels, shops and amusement parks. 

This year, John P Wilson will auction-more than 
$10,000,000 worth of architectural wonders on 
June 6th and 7th at the landmark 57-acre former 
Uniroyal Tire Company in Los Angeles. 



Take a sneak preview ofi the single most impor- 
tant event in any prestigious collector's year. 

RIUM AUCTION CATALOG and put a $10,000,000 
collection of turn-of- the-century antiques 
on your coffee table. 

Manufactured in H 
of $750, this Wootej 
walnut burl and bj| 
on display at thff™ 
high, 3'3 3 /4" (100'' 

grade" desk is made of 
laple. An exact duplicate is 
ian Institute. 6' (182.89cm) 
le, when closed. 

.ross, Guisley, 
I oil paintings. 

\ Neustadt. This pair 
pears as the frontis- 
iny Glass." Each win- 
l, 19%" (49.21cm) wide. 

ions ^of documented ti 

Documented as Tiffany by Dr. Egon Neustadt. A rare "triptych," these windows from the private museum of Thomas Fawick, 
Cleveland, were designed as a unit. Center measuring 9'3" (281.94cm) high, 4'3" (129.54cm) wide, sides each measuring 5'2W 
(168.12cm) high, 2'8" (81.28cm) wide. They contain much double-plated, "fractured," rippled, undulating and drapery glass. 








i .HH i l < HWI* 1 



• » * 

URTON ALES" pub, a fully enclosed English bow-front pub 
ith stained glass bridge. The bar was rebuilt with original 
imponent parts. 8'3" (251.46cm) high, 16'10 r /2" (514cm) long. 

15'10" (482.6cm) long Coca Cola Soda Fountain from 
lomaston, Georgia with onyx columns and stained glass 
nels and domes, ^3" (281.94cm) high. 

All original stained, jeweled and beveled American glass. 
The oak entryway frame is new, recreated by 
craftsmen. 10'3" (312.42cm) high, 1'5" (43.18cm) wide, l\t 
(340.36cm) long. 



ffi's Tap" Bar, since 1933, Dyersville, Iowa's neighborhood tavern. Original booththis Louis XV room became the board room of Silver Cross, Guisley, 
>ar 20' (609.6cm) long, 10'9" (327.66cm) high. One of over 117 Taverns, Bars, PubiThe room is over 100 years old and contains 10 original oil paintings. 

273" (830.58cm) long, (furniture not included) 


al glass from a Birmingham England chapel atrium. Fire 
yed the church in late 1800's, the stained glass, stored 
irs has been rebuilt into a total greenhouse, 31' W 
jcm) long, 12'8" (386.08cm) high, ll'l" (337.82cm) wide. 

r * -as 

Documented as Tif 
scenic windows frc 
1920, there is exten 
mottled glass. The 
(104.14cm) high, A", 

It. Designed 
ut home 
e Crescent," 

From the La Salle 1, 
"Birth Of Venus" s 
dow is a variation < 
Botticelli, 6' (182.88; 

Documented as Tiffany by Dr. Egon Neustadt. This pair 
of Wisteria windows, circa 1895, appears as the frontis- 
piece in Mario Amaya's book, "Tiffahy Glass." Each win- 
dow measures 4'10" (147.32cm) high,T9-V (49.21cm) wide. 

'eare always interested in purcnasing fine examples oj cngiisnjurnuure 


> - 


Q 1 

For $25 you can buy a collector's item. 

A guide to the most significant collection 
of architectural antiques ever assembled 
in this country or in Europe. 300 of our 
4,000 architectural antiques, restored and richly 
photographed, documented and sized for you to 
preview before the Golden Movement Emporium 

• Turn-of-the-century rooms — completely 

• Greenhouses. 

• Saloons. 

• Shops. 

SINCE 1964. 

The largest collection of stained glass ever 
assembled anywhere in the world. 

$10,000,000 worth of fabulous ideas for your 
home, restaurant, hotel, amusement park or shop. 

Great design ideas collected in one 9"x 12" 
richly composed and photographed catalog from 
the Golden Movement Emporium. 

And if you missed last year's Golden Movement 
Emporium Catalog, there's still a limited quantity 

The 1979 catalog available now — while supply 

We are always interested in purchasing major 
collections or individual pieces. Please contact 
Robert Berman at Golden Movement Emporium 
(213) 396-3193. 


2821 Main Street 

Santa Monica, California 9040^ 

or please call (213) 3W-9384 




Please ship me, postage-paid, the Golden Movement Emporium Architectural Antiques Auction 
Catalog. Available after April 1st. 

. iCalilornu Residents a<(] 

copies of the 1W0 Catalog <<> $25 each— 150 Pages, 300 Five-Color Photographs. $1.50 sales tax). 

Call (213) 399-9384 or send in this coupon now. The 1980 
catalog available after April 1st. 

Copies Ot 1. 1st year's Catalog '" $20 each While supply lasts. (California Residents add $1.20 sales tax) 

check or money order enclosed: Amount S 
Charge to my: 

Master Charge Account Number _ 

Visa Expires 

American Express Master Charge Bank Number 

Signature - Date- 


Company - Type of Business- 

Address Phone (H) -(W)_ 

City _ State _ Zip 

(PI 1 W- I'KIM I EGIBL1 1 

Printed in I 





Tel. 01-499-1784/5 

Member; The British Antique Dealers' Association Ltd. 

The National Antique and Art Dealers Association of America 

An important oval Looking-Glassi 
carved gilt frame. An earl's coronet 
surmounts the arms of the 4th Earl of 
Sandwich. English; Circa 1735. 
Size: 5' Iff' high by 3' 6" wide 
(178cms x 107 cms) 
Provenance: The Earls of Sandwich 
The Late The Hon. Mrs. Nellie Ionides 
Peter Morris at Y ester House. 
Illustrated: 'English Looking Glasses'. 
Geoffrey Wills. P. 85. Fig. 59. 
Exhibited: Somerset House Art Treasures 
Exhibition 1979. 

We are always interested in purchasing fine examples of English furniture 

Second Annual 




A gathering of the worlds major 

Oriental art dealers and collectors 


in Asia's art centre. 

May 15-18, 1980 

Hotel Furama Inter • Continental 

Hong Kong 

For information on 

exhibiting or attending contact: 

Andamans East International Ltd 

6 On Lan Street, 

10th Floor, Hong Kong 

Telephone: 5-252446 

Cable Address.- ANDAMANS Hong Kong 

Telex: 85213 AGELL HX 

Official Carrier A gjeat wa\ to fly 



Pair of red velvet cushion covers with pattern 
in yellow and cream silk and green velvet 

Turkish, 17th or early 18th century 
55x49 in. 

Imperial Ottoman Textiles 
April 23 - May 23 

Illustrated Catalogue available 

14 Old Bond Street, London Wl telephone: 01-491 7408 

THE connoisseur April 1980 


Thursday, April 10th at 12 noon 


r U 


Ruth sdvei lea & coffee sm'it 
circa 1928 

Pan o\ /<niv collection 

Thursday, April 17th at 12 noon 



i. ; o' 

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l;-i v ' 

[ 7iv Tin 





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Antique Karabagh scuttci 4' v 6 

French bronze & enamel 
mantel duik, circa 1^7^ 

lumlarci i harge to the sel/ei is ucummissum u/ /0" / " in uiUitum in fhc J 0% premium paid by the buyei as part o] the purchase price 

406 EAST 79TH STREET, NEW YORK • 1002 1 • (2 12) 472-1000 • CABLE: PLAZAGAL, NY 



A pair of fine George II salvers 
London 1735 by Louis Pantin 
Wt:- 65.85 ozs. 
Contemporary Heraldic Engraving 

Our London and New York collections feature antique silver of the highest 
quality and always include exceptional and rare pieces of interest to the 

serious collector. 

Our collection of Old Sheffield Plate is also one of the largest in the country. 


LONDON 43 MUSEUM STREET LONDON WC 1 A 1 LY TEL 01-4052712 NEWYORK 104 EAST 57th STREET NEWYORK 10022 TEL 0101 212-75-38920 
Member of the British Antique Dealers Association and the National Antique and Art Dealers Association ol America 







As a special offer to Diners Club card-holders, 

we're offering a 12-issue subscription to 

HARPERS & QUEEN (the world's glossiest magazine 

at last year's rate - the Postmaster-General 

notwithstanding - and we'll send you FREE 

a copy of Travel Editor Rene Lecler's notoriously 

idiosyncratic hotel guide THE 300 BEST HOTELS 

IN THE WORLD with each subscription. 

The offer holds good for a gift subscription, too, 

for a friend, relation or business associate. 

Fill in the coupon below. 

lOffiRN/SM * 1V0RKINC 



UK Subscription rate 12 issues: £16 post paid inland. 

( )verseas subscription rates (except USA and Canada) 12 issues: 

Overseas surface mail £19. 

Airmail /one A I Middle East and North Africa) £39. 

Airmail zone B i Rest of Africa, South Asia, South America) £45. 

Airmai zone (' ( Far East and Australia) £53. 

ISA AND CANADA 1 2 issues air speeded postpaid £19. 

Send to: 

I.\ ml. t Sevenoaks, Harpers & Queen, National Magazine House, 72 Broadwick Street, London W1V 2BP. 

Please send me one year's subscription to Harpers & Queen. 


3b 11 311 3£b 2010 

1 It riRMWIEM'S 

UC IKK ™SS ll«MM' oi £ 04/1 

1 Number 




ript ion m\ me 



Telephone: 01-352 0f>44 
01-352 3127 

Cables: jkremique, LONDON, s.w.3 


Members of The British Antique Dealers' Association Ltd. 

A highly important English Regency period Rosewood and brass inlaid 
cabinet on stand. Date Circa 1810. 

DIMENSIONS: Height 61 W 1m 56cms. Width 433/ 4 " 1m 11 cms 

Depth 19" 48 1 /2cms 





(Sint-Pietersabdij - Sint-Pietersplein 9) 


Open to the public: Daily 3 p.m.-lO p.m. 

John Keil 


Member of the British Antique Dealers Association 

A fine George III Regency period roseu <ood writing table with gilt-metal mounts. Circa 1810. 
Width 4 ft. 1 1 sin. (151 cm). Depth 2 ft. 5 in. (74cm). Height 2 ft. 4 in. (71 cm). 

10 QUIET STREET BATH BAi 2JU TEL: BATH (0225) 63176 



"Dressedforthe Ball" 
William Powel Frith, R.A. 1819-1909 
Signed and dated 1846 
Size-1 3 1 A"x 1 V2"-334 x 26 5cm 
Outside frame-16V4"x13V2"-41-3x34 3cm 

"In Toronto" 

Fine Paintings by 

recorded artists 

Abbey Altson, A. W. Bayes, Berne Bellecour, A. de Breanski, Wright 
Barker, E. C. Barnes, Edgar Bundy, W. W. Caffyn, I. Chelminski, Ivan 
Choultse, G. J. Delfgaauw, Wm. Dommerson, Dietz Edzard, 
E. Eichinger, Paraj S. Fabijanski, W. P. Frith, F. Goodall, R.A., Paul 
Grolleron, Joseph Highmore, Georges Haquette, L. B. Hurt, Yeend 
King, Aston Knight, H. W. Koekkoek, Sir Peter Lely, A. A. Lesrel, 
Constantin Makovsky, Hans van Meegreren, M. Moretti, G. W. Mote, 
E. Niemann, E. Parton, Philippe Pavy, Henry H. Parker, Antonio 
Piotrowski, A. Prieckenfried, George Romney, Guilo Rosati, Ferdinand 
Roybet, W. Dendy Sadler, H. Schafer, E. Semenowsky, Wm. Shayer, 
Wm. Thornley, J. Thors, R. Watson, James Webb, and others. 


1 94 Bloor Street West 

(just west of Park Plaza Hotel) 

Toronto M5S 1T8. Canada 

Telephone: 416-921 3522 
Area Code: 416 








French.Engllsh.a Continental Large ft Varied Selection 







31 2/337-4052 MON.-SAT. 1 0-5 


We are interested in purchasing worthwhile ART of all periods. 



JflhtnrpB JKlnn 


Possibly the largest and 
finest collection in the world 

310 N. Rodeo Dr. 

Beverly Hills, California 

(213) 273-0155 

We purchase Estates and Quality pieces 



ssufre (jywiUfL and t&ntiti&ntai cUwtr. cMiniatut y e& 
c/fntcgue Heu>eld, &vne o/nuff- 23ox&6 




QUE* \ M\RY 








George II Silver Epergne 
by Thomas Gilpen, London, 1753 

Height: 1 1.50 inches Weight: 11 2. 25 ounces 

From our collection of Georgian silver. 

Valuations for Probate, Insurance and Division 

Ttlrphonr 01429 A26I Ttlttraphic Addrrts "Euclatt Louden W.V 




Of Gradousness. 

The historic Kentucky countryside showcases the 
Wakefield-Scearce collection of English antiques 
representing generations of gracious living and 
elegant craftsmanship. The collection encom- 
passes furniture, silver; Old Sheffield. 18th- and 
19th century paintings and prints, brass, lamps, 
mirrors and decorative accessories. Included also 
Is the work of all the important Limited Edition 
Studios. The dining rooms of Science Hill Inn and 
the shops of Science Hill are also a part of the 
Wakefield-Scearce experience — a "day in the 
country" that has charmed generations of the 

Fine Georgian silver single entree dish on 
Georgian Sheffield warmer. 
Paul Storr. London 1814-29 
Georgian silver dressing spoon. 
Paul Storr. London 1830 











D-8000 MUNICH 2 






Af.f^ns-' 1 


r //// 





01-493 5288 

Late 19th Century Turkish Kelim 

Carpet woven with precious metalthread 

12'1"x5'9"(368cmx 175cm) 







16th April- 17th May, 1980 
Mon.-Fri. 10a.m. -6p.m. : Sats. 10a.m. -lp.m. 

Hamadryas Baboon by Rembrandt Bugatti, c. 1910 



(Telephone: 01-4990365) 

Select collection of 


- jiirin^i 

Apostles Peterand Paul, 17th century. 
31-27cm. North Russian 



. .'mtmentonly 

Santhorstlaan 52 




C^/ic f f lanorcslouse 
>hone Hiichin 2067 ZSLerlJordshire 

A walnut armchair on cabriole legs, 
the seat and back covered in period 
needlework of a pictorial design, 
circa 1710. 

We shall be holding an 

Exhibition of Beds and Bedroom Furniture 

1700 to 1830 

at the Manor House, Hitchin, 2nd to 30th June. 

:th it iti -in/.-? 


_r*L_ r» **• i_ 

r*....i^_. ' i 

Most attractive 
desk with satin 
wide, I8V2 inch 



^tair 8c Company, 3nc 

Established 1912 










New York 





The Dominion Gallery with Rodin's "Burg her of Calais" and Henry Moore's 
"Upright Motive" in front of its building has 17 rooms on 4 floors 

bronze, 21j x 
17 x 7 inches 

BRUNO F. E. KRUSE "Bacchante", 1893 

Great European Artists 
19th and 20th Century 

Old Masters 
200 Canadian Artists 




TEL(514)845-7471 and 845-7833 




Ramistrasse 8, P.O. BOX, 8024 Zurich 

Galerie Keller, New York Office Inc. 

575 Madison Avenue, New York, N.Y 10022 




MAKc ( II.U.A] 









• ■-;■ •■■• . ; 

< L< « Kami BAROMETER signed Surinam, 

i ; - . Gilded broil, t w iih plaquettes ot' 
I" >ri (.l.uii 

-^f" •---&<* 

ALTARCROSS, Southern Germany, 

17th ct., rock-crystal and silver setting, partlv 
gilt. ht. 100 cm, w. ■> 2 cm. 


circa 1720, by [ohann Christoph Coil 
i cm high, 9c gi 


Important Amer 


Ramisirassc S, P.O. B( >X, S024 Zunc 

Furniture, May 8th and 9th 


AUCTION SALES May 8th through May 31st 1980 



o 87501 

Preview April 2 > th through Mav 6th, daily from 1 o a.m. to 10 p.m. On Tuesday, May 6th, last day oi exhibition 
from 10 a.m. to (1 p.m. ( )n Sundays, April 27th and Mav 4th. I mm 1 o. so a. in to 1 o p.m. After Mav 6th and until the 
day ( it the sale, app< >intments may be made f< >r private viewing. 

Important PAINTINGS of the 16th through the 1 Sth centuries: Amigoni, |. F. Beich, P. Brueghel d. [., van Cuylen- 
borch, F. Franeken, E. van Heemskerck, Meister der von Gmotesehen Anbetung, Saverv, Verburgh, Verhaecht, 
Watteau, Wvck, Trey. 

Paintings of the 19th and 20th centuries: Brainier, Chagall, Corinth, (aunt, Derain, van Dongen, Guillaumin, 
B. C. Koekkoek, Loiseau, Luce, Manguin, Monticelli, Pippel, Poliakott, Pougny, Renoir, Rouault, Seitz, Schisch- 
kin, Stademann, de Stael, Toulouse-Lautrec, Utrillo, Valtat, Vlaminck, Vuillard, Wierusz-Kowalski, Ziigel. 
WATERCOLORS and GRAPHIC WORKS of the 19th and 20th century: Bourdelle, Marc Chagall, Charles Des- 
pi in, Lyonel Feininger, Alberto Giacometti, Paul Klee, Pablo Picasso, Auguste Rodin, (maim Sou tine. 

[Rare French FURNITURE of the 1 7th, 1 S th and 19th century, many pieces stamped. 

A large collection of RUGS and carpets, TAPESTRIE. Rare CLOCKS. Bracket clocks, SCULPTURE and 


A large collection of GLASS and ART NOUVEAU. 

IMPORTANT COLLECTION OF ORIENTAL ART: Tibet, Nepal, India, Thailand, India, China and Japan: 
Sculpture, lacquer ware, ivorv, jade, snuffbottles, netsuke, paintings, tsubas. FAR EASTERN CERAMICS. 

Important JEWELS. 

Over 40 VINTAGE CARS, exhibited Mav 1 Sth through 51st in the big mall of the -Clan ■• Shopping Center. 


■to ik '. ivx «r 1 

*&; H f^ „«!i 

BOl LLE BI REAl Louis XIV with chunv and brass maruuetrv. 
Pans ca i 68 

Auction sales May Sth 
through Mav 31st 1980 

Calendar of sales: 

Furniture May Sth and 9th 

Rugs and carpets Mav 10th 

Jewels Mav 1 3 th 

Paintings May 16th 

Graphic works and 

sculptures Ma\ 

( )riental art and Far Eastern 

cerain May 29th through 2, 1st 

Vintage cars May } 1st 




Jewels, May 13th 



* -f 





:_ Z 

Paintings, May 16th 








-> ? *rtrt 

I N D I 

\ L( II I- W \\ !<] 


signed I. Dubois, Pans, ca. 1750. 

\( , DESK, signed S Oeben, Paris, ca. 1765, with 
• he same period. 

imporruni nmwi 

rHOMASNX'YCK [kverv ijk ab<>ni id id id-- Haarlem 
)il <ni canvas, signed 4~ * 4 ' em 

C r.tlcric Roller, New York ( )l"fii i In< 

57^ MadisoiM Avenue, New York, N.V. IC 22 

Paintings, May 16th 

1 V 


/, »*■ 

VI ( \'rHkIN">MAKTVRlX)M.S(, i(>th 

(.elltlin 1 ■■ m LIT nt the n 

I ■ panel <m ,s ■ >" ■'• (ll )T.ii ni 



o 87501 


MARQlARDTKIA i"i ; Bamberg 1-9(1 Oil mi eai 
mc signed and dated 1 — t.tlu mher signed with initials M 1 \ p 



Paintings, May 16th 

1937/1938, Oil on canvas, signed. 
34,5 x 54,5 cm 
Hi l-il 1 1 igraphy: P. Court hum, Nr. 217. 


Important Amer 


Ramistrassc 8, P.( ). BOX. S024 Zurich 


Auction sales May 8th 
through May 31st 1980 

Calendar oi sales: 

Furniture May 8th and 9th 

May 10th 
May 1 3 th 
Mav 1 6th 

Rugs and carpets 

Jew els 


Graphic works and 


Oriental art and Far Eastern 

ceramics Mav 29th through 3 ist 

Vintage cars Mav ] ist 

Mav 1 7th 





i urn 

We are publishing the following ca- 

Pictures, 16th to 20th century, Graphic Art and 
Sculpture, 19th .uid 20th century 

: catalogues per vcai 

Furniture, Arts and Crafts h .u il.uu hikim. 

< liu ks Silver, Brmi es, ( arp< is \rnis ni.l Y\ . ip 

Tapestries, Bunks. Spurting l'mn . Pi iui it. 

2 catalogues per v ear s] i 

Asian and Far Eastern Works ol Art, including 

j catalogues pel vcai si i 4 

Jewels 2 1. 11. 1I1 igui ■. pi 1 \ ear s| ; 

Veteran-, Vintage and Classic Cars in 

gue s| 1 i , 

Overseas pi istagi in 11 im luilcil 

Catalogues mav be ordered trom 
the following addresses. 

Ramistrasse 8 
CH-8024 Zurich 

W (01)47 -5040 
Telex CH 58 500 

Zurich Inc., New York 
575 Madison Av. Suite 1000 
New York, N.Y. 10022 USA 
© (212)486-1484 
Telex 12,~ 699 

PAR \( KLSl S, Philip lli.nph Bomhasi ol HoIkiiIrihi 
( ic 1 icv. 1 1 (>s s 2 volumes hound hall-call 

^ieriunnrt rtiitfi Mc gc lcontbcitt>cr ctmuun 




■ ■ 

STl'MPFJ< Hi : -s , ..< hmni, k ^-mcincr lohln . jnosschatTi 

: ■ ■ I ! ■, him. 1 

Bev Chnstotlcl Frosehau 1 . /urn. h 1 s 4^ 




' .' 



1075 Pdseo de Peralta 

Santa Fe. New Mexico 87501 




Windy Hilltop.. Amagansett, Long island woi oi 20"x30" 



New York 

Thursday, April 1 7 and Friday, April 1 8 at Christie's East 

and Saturday, April 1 9 at Park Avenue 

at 1 a. m. and 2 p.m. each day 

The Estate of Kathryn Bache Miller 




Raoul Dufy : "At Maxim's" watercolor, circa 1950, 
49-5cm x 65-5cm 

This was a stage design for Jean Anouilh's Ring Around the Moon, produced by Gilbert Miller in New York 

The sale wijl include an important pair of Chinese export porcelain wall sconces, 

mid- 1 8th century ; modern pictures including works by Renoir, 

Boldini, Guys, Fantin-Latour, and Diego Rivera; European porcelain including 

Meissen, Sevres, Worcester, Chelsea and Derby; a fine Kegence ormolu 

Boulle bracket clock, bracket signed Thuret a Paris ; a fine Franco-Levantine 
inlaid parquetry commode, late 18th century, English 18th century furniture 
ling a pair of George II pine fauteuils, a Queen Anne small lacquer 
reau on stand and fine 1 8th Century Chinese mirror paintings. 


New York 

Thursday, April 1 7 and Friday, April 1 8 at Christie's East 

ana Saturday , April 1 9 at Park Avenue 

at 10 a.m. and 2 p.m. each day 

The Estate of Kathryn Bache Miller 

Queen Anne Japanned bureau cabinet, the mirrored doors 

painted with chinoiserie scenes, 

72.5cm wide, 176cm high 

Catalogue $14, order by "Gigi" with cheque, bank draft or money order denominated in U.S. Dollars only 
Catalogue also available from Christie's, 8 King Street St. James's London SWl . 

All sales subject to conditions printed in the catalogue. 


New York 

Monday, May 1 9 and Tuesday, May 20 

Sale on the Premises 

Sewickley Heights, Pennsylvania 

The George R. Hann Collection (Part Two) 

Pair of gilt-wood figures of 
Saint Peter and Saint Paul 
South German/Austrian, late 
17th century 144cm. high and 
138cm. high 

Polychrome terracot 
group of the Virgin 6 
Child. Emilian, late 
15th century 
128cm. high 

stry, late 

■ 173cm. 

York : 502 Park Avenue, New York 1 0022 ; tel: 2 1 2/826-2888 ; cable: Chriswoods, New York ; 
international telex:New York 62072 \\domestic telex: New York 71 0-58 12325 
Christie's East 219 East 67th Street, New York 10021 ;re/:21 2/570-4141 
California: Suite 328, 9350 Wilshire Boulevard, Beverly Hills, California 90212; 
tel: 213/275-5534; telex: 910-490 4652 
:ic: Mr Paul Ingersoll, 638 Morris Avenue, Bryn Mawr, Pa. 19010, tel: 215/525-5493 
• 1 dward McCcrmick Blair, Jr., 46 East Elm Street, Chicago, Illinois 60611 \tel: 312/787-2765 






Old English 

Our collection of Antique flatware features services of the highest quality represented by the 

three sets illustrated 


Service for 12 comprising 60 pieces plus 2 Sauce Ladles. Date 1808. Made by William Eley, 
William Fearn and William Chawner of London. Weight: 92ozs. 


Service for 12 comprising 60 pieces, plus 2 Large Serving Spoons. Date 1827. Made by 
Charles Eley of London. Weight: 86 ozs. 


Service for 12 comprising 60 pieces. Date 1854-60. Made by 
George Adams of London. Weight: 87ozs. 


Telephone 01 242 3248/9 Telegrams WALTER STRONGROOMS London WC2A 1 QS 

;econd decorative arts fair 

APRIL 10th— APRIL 13th 1980 

1 1.30 am -7. 30 pm Sun 2.30 pm -7. 30 pm 

The only International Fair in Britain 
for Art Nouveau and Art Deco 

Exhibitors include: 

Adams Gallery, Catspa Antiques, Sheridan Coakley/Tony Coakley, Cobra, 
I )ecor Gallery, Editions Graphique, Gallery 1900, Gallery 25, David Gill, 
Patrick Gould, Haslam & Whiteway, John Jesse, 
Lewis M. Kaplan Associates, 

Dan Klein Ltd., Gerald Larner, L'Odeon, John & Diana Lyons, Martins- 
Forrest, M.D. & J.S. Pruskin, Sims & Reed Ltd., Upper Chenil Gallery 



Admission 50p 

01-435 2643 


tish Antique Dealers' Association 


i 337952 


15th-18th cent. 

We announce the publication ot our 
book: "Ikonen uit de collectie van 
Ikonen^alerie Wortmann", by J. R. 
Wortmann. Translation of the in- 
troduction has been added. 136 
Pages of high quality art-paper with 
60 colour-illustrations of icons, de- 
scribed and dated, with price list. 
Send £12 or S25 in cheque and we 
send you a copy by post 

Tei &\wtynami 


Slotlaan 128 3701 GR Zeist-Holland 



A fine George III mahogany bu 
bookcase; the broken pedin 
with egg and tongue carved in< 
ings, centred on a carved gilt\ 
IIolio bird; the shaped mirrors 
rounded by a carved and gilt tin 
ing; the finely-figured tall fron 
closing a well-fitted interior; 
4 long drawers and ogee feet. 
English, circa 1765 
Width: 3ft. Sin. 
Height: 8ft. 





alternative entrance at 22 Albemarle Street. London W1 
Telegrams: Culleus London Asprey S A Geneva. 40 rue du Rhone. Geneva Telex 25110 

Telephone 28 72 77 


A Russian icon of The Mother of God appearing to 

St Serums of Radonezh The icon of The Old Testameni 

Trinity is in the half roundel above the figures 

Egg tempera on wooden panel 12 inches by 10 inches 

Late lHth-or early 19th-centun 

CdttilogHi ciiuilabli on request 

Hull anb Hear AntiniWB 

P.O. Box 1049, Fvanston. Illinois 60204 

Telephone: (312)675-0137 

10 a.m. -5 p.m.. fuesday-Saturday 





Sublime Little Pleasures 

Collectors Harvest specializes in surprises. Our only 
business is buying and selling antique jewelry, 
Faberge, art glass, Russian enamel, cloisonne, ivories, 
"ades, silver, bronzes. Surprise the one whom you 
J earest. Or, surprise yourself! 

Grown Center Hotel 
Lobby Level" 

** rshingRoad j[ 

~ty, Mo 64108 

Michael Hedgecoe 

Antique Furniture 

The finest quality 

period furniture restored 

with skill and care 

by the most 

experienced craftsmen 

Carnage available throughout the country 
Regular London Collection 

Please write or telephone for an appointment: 

Burrow Hill Green, Chobham, Surrey 

Telephone Chobham 8206 

T. Crowther & Son Ltd. 

282 North End Road, Fulham SW6 1NH. Tel: 01-385 1375/7. Telegrams & Cables: Antiquity Ldn. 

II e are especially interested in 

purchasing fine pieces of 

1 8th Centm\ furniture, bronzes, 

wood and warble Chimney pieces, 

grates, fenders and fire irons, 


H ■":::■-: est 
[ } 


"pai .4- milST 



"<//: and pine panelling and 

( uirdeu Ornament*, to 

supplement the extensive 

stinks already urn liable 
I 'row our djoirroows. 


An important Regency period mahogany partners desk applied with fine 
classical brass mounts. The top, lined with green leather, is fitted with 
drawers; the pedestals are fitted with doors enclosing cupboards and drawers. 
Top 6 ft 1 in < 3 ft 3i in, height 2 ft 5? in. 

iiik coxnoissei n April 1U80 


Sotheby's london 

Tuesday 15th April, 1980, at 10.30am and 2.30pm 


including the property of the late Lord Cunliffe, R.H.I, dela Mare, Esq., and the late S.H. Pao 

'^v*r>^r?*£' v*r 

An early blue and white jar, guar) (kuan), mid- 
fourteenth century. 28cm. high, 35cm. diameter. 


An early blue and white meiping, third 
quarter of the fourteenth century 41 -3cm. 

in of ,i Bodhisattva, eleventh/ A Korean blue and white dragon jar, seventeenth/ 
in AD. 117-5cmhigh. eighteenth century 41 -2cm. high. 

Sotheby's London 

Thursday 17th April, 1980, at l().3()amand 2.30pm 


A North ( oak figure of St. Paul, late 1 5th 
century, I lmzh 

A I mioses enamelerui itix figure , 13th cent urv, 21 .Hem. 


An imposing North Italian walnut figure of Fire, from I A South German polychrome wood pieta, probahlv 

circle ot Filippo Parodi. 1700, 210( Bavarian mid lHth centurv, H 1 

i re Elizabeth Wilson 

I UK ( nwi USSF I H April 1UW) 

teby's spring islamic sales 

Monday, 21 st April at 1 1 am 



Monday, 21st April at 2.30 pm and the following day at 1 1 am 



Tuesday, 22nd April at 1 1 am and 2.30 pm 



Wednesday 23rd April ac 1 0.30 am 


Wednesday, 23rd April at 2.00 pm 



A portrait of the courtier Sharif Khan; 
leaf from an album executed for Shah Jahan during his princehood, 
vlughal, early 17th century. To be sold on Monday 21st April at 1 1 am 

Sotheby's london 

Wednesday 23rd April, 10.30 am 


If Mm 



A tine and unusual (ihashghai rug, 4tt. 5m. by 3ft. 5in. 
(135cm. by H)4cm. ), c. 18H0 

Enquiries about this sale should be addressed to Jack Frames 

I'll- ( ONNOISSKl H .\//r// /.'<><> 


Sotheby's london 

Friday 9th May, 1980, at 1 1 am 


A Charles II oak bench, c. 1661 
104 cm. wide 

An early 1 6th century oak coffer, 
French/Flemish, 72 by 122 cm. 

II oak chest of drawers, 
1 05 by 1 19 cm. 

AJames I oak table, c. 1635, 

juiries about this sale should be addressed to Jean-Marie van backer 

Sotheby Parke Bernet A.G. Zurich 

Sotheby Parke Bernet A.G., 20Bleicherweg, CH-8022 Zurich Telephone (I ) 202001 1 Telex: 52380 ABINI CH Telegrams: Abinitio, Zurich 

Wednesday 7th May, 1980, at 18.30 hours at Villa Rosau, Baurau Lac Hotel 

EUROPEAN IRONWORK from the Drcsse de Lebiolcs Collection 




A 17th century iron cupboard lock, 
59 cm. long 

Seventeenth and eighteenth century hoof 
cutting tools, approx. 35 cm. long 

A collection ot German seventeenth and 
eighteenth century Saws, approx. 40 to 70cm. 

A collection of sixteenth century 
German axes 

Enquiries about this sale should be addressed to Elizabeth Wilsi 

THE COXX'OISSKl'K April I'.isn 


eby Parke Bernet newyork 

Saturday 12th April, 1980, at 10.30am and 2pm 


Illustrated catalogue $7 by mail, $8 overseas, order by sale no . 4359 

with cheque, bank draft or money order denominated in U.S. dollars only 

to Sotheby Parke Bernet, Department CON 

The standard commission charged to sellers is 10 per cent on each catalogued lot sold for over $500. 
All property sold is subject to a premium of 10 per cent payable by all buyers as part of the purchase price. 



~Z\ ire ■; 

A Louis XV/XVI ormolu mounted kingwood and bois satine 

parquetry commode, attributed to Charles Topino, 

third quarter of the 1 8th century 

\ pair of Louis XVI ormolu mounted 

rock crystal urns, last quarter of the 

18th century 

A Louis XIV ormolu mounted 

purplewood and ebonized 

commode, first quarter of the 

1 8th century 

Enquiries about this sale should be addressed to Thierry Millerand 

Sotheby Parke Bernet new york 

980 Madison Avenue, New York, N.Y. 1 0021 Telephone: (212) 4723400 Telegrams: Parkgal, New York Telex: 232643 SOL UR 

Monday 14th April, 1980, at 2 pm and following day at 10. 15 am and 2 pm 




On view from Thursday 10th April 

Illustrated catalogue $8 by mail, order by sale no . 4360 with cheque, bank draft or money order denominated 
in U.S. dollars only to Sotheby Parke Bernet, Department CON 

A Worcester powder blue ground part tea and coffee service, First Period, 1 865 -75, 
23 pieces, from the Estate of Mrs. Francis P. Garvin 

Enquiries about this sale should be addressed to the Porcelain Department 

rilE < ONNOISSEl H April IUXU 

' J ■ 

eby Parke Bernet new york 

. Y Ioo21 lihphoH,- (212)4723400 7V/c.\ 232M3SO! UK rclcyaiih I'.irkgal, New York 

Saturday 26th April, 1 ( JS< I, at 2 pm 


( );/ view from Sitturdiiy 19th April 

i i'i'i/i s'/ /))' ///c///, S'»V overseas, order b) sale no. f "M>7 With cheque, hank draft or money order denominated 
in I '..V. 1 1 id Inn only toSothehy Parke lie me I . Department COS 

m ,i sci ol'six(icorgc II carved mahogam dining chairs, corresponding topi. IX The Gentleman and 
Cabinet-Make) ^ Directo) l>\ Thomas ( Chippendale. 1 754 

Enquiries about this sale should he addressed to Gerald Bland 

Sotheby Parke Bernet newyork 

980 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10021 Telephone: (212)4723400 Telegrams: Parkgal, New York Telex: 232643 SOL UR 

Thursday 8th May, 1980, at 10. 15 am and 2 pm 


On view from Saturday 3rd May 

Illustrated catalogue $8 , $9 overseas, order by sale no. 437 1 with cheque, bank draft or money order 
denominated in I '.S. dollars only to Sotheby Parke Bernet, Department C( )N 


( ii 


A Ming Huang Huali side cabinet, 17th centui y, 
length 149.8cm., height 88. 3 cm., width 48.9 cm. 

Enquiries about this sale should he addressed to fames Lally 

i Hh ( ii\\i ussk i u April I'.iSU 


by Parke Bernet new york 

venue, New York, NY. 10021 Telephone: (212) 472 34(H) Telegrams: Parkgal, New York Telex: 232643 SOL UR 

Wednesday 14th May, 1980, and following two days 

Wednesday 14th May at 10.15am 

Illustrated catalogue $10, sale no. 4376 

Wednesday 1 4th May at 8 pm (admission by ticket only) 

Illustrated catalogue $12, saleno. 4377 

Thursday 1 5th May at 2 pm 

Illustrated catalogue $8, saleno. 4378 

Thursday 1 5th May at 8 pm (admission by ticket only) and following day at 10. 15 am 

Illustrated catalogue $12, saleno. 4379 

Order illustrated catalogues by sale number with cheque, bank draft or money order denominated in U.S. dollars only to 

Sotheby Parke Bernet, Department CON. 
Catalogues also available from Sotheby Parke Bernet, 34-35 New Bond Street, London W1A 2AA 





.mil tit 

|(ihns. In Memory of My Feelings - Frank O'Hara, signed 
led, 1961, oil on canvas with objects, 101 .6 by 152.4 cm. 

iimlli I 1 irro, Two Women ma Meadow; Sunset at Eragny , oil on canvas, 
signed and dated, IH97, 64 by 80 cm. ' 

Sotheby Parke Bernet newyork 

980 Madison Avenue, New York, N Y H«i2l Tekplww: (2I2J47234IKI Tekpemi Park^a!. New York Tehx 232M3SOI UK 

Thursday 29th May, 1980, at 10. 15 am and 2 pm 


On view from Friday 16th May 

Illustrated catalogues available . Nineteenth Century European paintings (not iticludingthe Turner), S8; special < iothbound catalogut 

for the Turner only, S5 ; both catalogues $ 10. Order catalogues by title with cheque, 

bank draft or money order denominated in I '.S. dollars to Sotheby Parke Bernet, Department CON 

The standard commission charged to sellers is Wpercent on each catalogued lot sold for over S500. All property is sold 
sub nit too premium of 10 per cent payable by all buyers as part of the purchase price . 


Joseph Mallord William 1 timer, R. A. Juliet and he) Nurse, oil mi canvas, H9 by 1 2(1.5 cm. 

Exhibited at the Royal Academy, London, 1 S36 (Butlin &: Joll no. 3(>5), 

the property of Mrs. Flora Whitney Miller. 

A portion of the proceeds is to benefit the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York 

Enquiries about this sale should be addressed to Judith Landrigan 

i in i oNN'nisst i u April I'.'mi 

B Eighty-Four newyork 

A division of Sotheby Parke Bernet Inc. 

Street, New York, N.Y. 10028 Telephone. (212)4723583. Telex: 232643 SOL UR. Telegrams Parkgal, New York 

Wednesday 16th April, 1980, at 10 am 



( lood Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Porcelain, Silver, European and Oriental Decorative 
Works of Art, Sculpture, Furniture, Rugs, Carpets and Paintings 

( )n view on Saturday 12th April from Warn to 5 pin, Monday 14th April from 9 am to 7.30 pm 

ana following day from 9 am to 2 pm 

Illustrated catalogue S7 by mail, $8 overseas, order by sale no. 753 with cheque, bank draft or money order denominated 

in ( '.S. dollars only to PB Eighty-Four, Department CON 

The standard commission charged to sellers is II) per cent on each catalogued lot sold for over $500. All property sold is subject to a 

premium oj 10 per cent payable by all buyers as part oj the purchase price. 

¥ I ' ' A 


iLh hitr and gilt-bronze gueridon, third quarter of the 19th century, probably Russian 

' out lias sale should be addressed to Margaret Caldwell (Furniture Department) or 
it Silver or Jay Weinslein (Decorative Works of Art Department) 




A ilver chocolate p< it I >v 

I nry Daniell, Dublin. Height 10 inches. 

d e George EI. 1727. 

T Arms are those ofTrench, lor Frederick Trench 
E . ofGarbally, Co. ( Jalway, a Member of Parliament 
i( 'o. Galway and Colonel ( Commanding the County 
N tia. He was born in 1681 and married, in 1703, 
E abeth, daughter of John Eyre of Eyrecourt, 
Galway. He died in 1752. His grandson was. in 
l< . 'levated to the peeragi of Ireland as Baron 
i innel and in 1803 further advanced as Earl of 
31 lcartv. 

Garrard are also interested in buying fine pieces in silver or gold. 


The Crown Jewellers 

■ ' H\ < .1 S I SI kt r I I ( >M>< )N W 1 \ II J I M (I'M ON I (II M4 7112(1 


New York, N.Y. 10021 


Chinese Export tureen and stand 
in Tobacco Leaf decoration. 
Chien Lung. Circa 1736-1795 

Tureen 14" x 8", Stand 15" x M^k" 








50 Ea>t 57th street Sew York. N Y. 10022 (212) 753-2570 

Louis XV/XVI 
Bordeaux mahogany 
Width 44" 
Depth 20" 
Height 70" 



ladison Avenue, New York. \ Y 10022 (212) 288-4948 

ng an ivory field, 
• navy and brown. 

-T 1 "*, 



Association Secretary 

59 East 57th Street 

New York 10022 


Jwmberq & rftidel, Q?ru 


32 East 57th Street New York, N.Y. 10022 (212)753 

Louis XIV parquetry and ormolu commode. 

French, Circa 1720 

Height 34V2" Width 57Vi" Depth 25" 

European Works of Art Catalogue II, five dollars 


781 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10022 (212) 752-1727 

Gilded silver cibortum. 

Lisbon, 1st half 

of the 18th century. 

Height: 14 1 /2" 
Recorded: Rosenberg. 


W. F. Cook, London 


Victoria & Albert 

Museum, London, 1881 


229 North Royal St., Alexandria, Virginia 22314 
(703) 549-4432 or 548-5675 

A fine George 
walnut cabinet on 
having a fitted in 
and retaining 
original handl 
English. Circa 1725 
Height: 6'8" Width 
Depth 22" 


5 i t 57th Street, New York, N.Y. 10022 (212) PL 3-6562 



inlaid shelf clock 

Made and signed 

hy Aaron Willard, 

Bi isti m, Massachusetts, 

circa 1800. 

ytnlww (ylr{ 


c Association 
of 4nimcq, 


Established 1898 

49 E. 53rd St. 2nd Fl . New York. N Y 10022 '212) PL R 

mm. • m 



= r ^ i ■ _■ c- ft ft _-; , 
► * - „ - - r . 

if" - .-N 

• » 1 

.. - * ■ 

Antique Tabriz prayer rug i) " ■ ')1 Delicate ivory 
on rust background Accents of turquoise, p 
brown and naw Farsi poetry within naw border 


East 5 7 th Street. Nev\ York, N Y 10022 212' 486-9767 

An extremely rare delftware porringer. 
London Circa 1680. 
Bowl diameter 5W 



',7th Street, New York, New York 10021 


o lutt0xnt 

Y 10022 (212) PL 2-6166 



D M U P 


1604 Pine Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 19103 (215) 735-1 i 

A Hepplewhite 

armchair in 

the French manner 

English, Circa 1785, 


Antiques Corporation 

46 East 57th Street 

New York, N.Y. 10022 

(212) PL 8-2986 

One of a pair of 

Whieldon wall pockets 

moulded with satyr 

and dolphin heads, 

Green, blue-grey and 

manganese on cream ground 

Height 8%". Circa 1760. 

^J&u^^^- $£*"^ 

IS East 57th Street 

New York, N.Y 10022 

(212. 759-3715 

A Nineteenth Century 

Bessarabian rug 

measuring 11' 5" x 4'2" 

on a Tete-de-Negre 

ground. The child-like 

floral devices 

are very reminiscent 

of Western 

European carpets. 


- * ML,. «i!Mfe ..vr 7 

ft- 85 *1 

This pair or silver sauceboats was made by 

William Pitts towards the end of the reign of George III, in 1814. 

Each one measures 7 1 1 inches in length. 

CARRINGTON An Associate <>fMappin& Wi bl 

Now at 

25 Old Bond Street, London W1X 4 A I .Telephone: 01-493 6123. 

.-RJ |S 


ial exhibition or cngusn watercoiour ur a wings 
14th April-9th May. 

Paul Sandby R.A. 1725-1809. 

London from near Charlton. 

Pencil and watercoiour. 4'/Y' x 5Vi" (I 1 .4 x 14 cms). Inscribed as in title on original wash mount. 

Francis Danby A.R. A. 1793-1861. 
A fishing village with a figure climbing a sea wall. 
I and watercoiour heightened with body colour. 4' A" x 7" (I0.8x I 7.8 cms). Signed. 



Bv appoinimrnt B\ appointment 

tQ Htr Stamu TktQuttn t»/IRH fkt DmJu oj Ed,nbnrtk 
Wtdolt'iti Mcdalhiu 

td. A King St. St James's, London SWl. Tel: 01-930 7888 (24 hrs) Telex: 916711 

Will Allan 


i.rly photographs are now accorded full status as art 
i jects. Even a few years ago it was possible to buy prints 
jnm the very early days of photography for a com- 
] ratively modest sum; today good quality prints from 
i y point in the last half of the nineteenth century fetch 
I *h prices, and represent one of the most dynamic fields 
< collecting. 

Some years ago I saw a fascinating volume of photo- 
{ iphs taken in Afghanistan in the library of the Royal 
I ciety of Arts. They are so topical, and of such 
1 narkable quality, that we have reproduced a selection 
i this issue. We are very grateful to the Curator Librarian 
c the Royal Society of Arts for permission to make use of 
t s marvellous album. 

Little is known of the photographer, lie signed his work 
i! Burke', and was evidently an army man. It was 
pmmon practice in the Indian army to photograph 
f ntier expeditions; indeed, the best precedent for the 
1 ghan photographs is the series madeduringthe advance 
t Magdala in the Abyssinian war of 1808, in which the 
potographer stressed the grandeurofthe landscape while 
j inting out the appalling problems of fighting in it. 

These photographs have a special relevance today, in 
t it they are a poignant reminder of the sinister quality of 
tissian patience, and of the fundamental virtues of our 
fepasionally erratic policy on the North West frontier of 
Ilia. The Kabul war was the fruit of just such an erratic 
rnment. Successive Liberal governments and their 
\ :eroys had adopted a cautious policy towards Afghanis- 
mi, in the belief that handouts in the form of gifts and 
n ney would keep the Afghans just suffieently friendly to 
P'vent them heeding Russia's blandishments. All this 
c uiged between 1874 and 1880. Although there had been 
r ssian agents in Kabul since the 1830s, Russian pressure 
w s not overt until the arrival as Governor of Turkestan of 
tb formidable General Kaufmann. An ardent champion 
o Russian expansion, he possessed energy, skill and 
nhlessness; at a time when British policy was one of 
tt *terly inactivity (this much used phrase was coined by 
Lrd Lawrence in the early 18?0s), Kauffinann brought 
tissian armies to India's northern gateway, the route 
U.en by all invaders since the Mongols. But in 1874 
Csraeli became Prime Minister, and in due course 
i >ointed the brilliant and eccentric Lord Lytton to the 
V eroyalty. In July 1878 the Russians sent a full-scale 
isisory mission to Kabul, led by General Stolietov, a 
i ciple of Kauffinann. Lytton immediately requested the 
Vhans to receive a similar British mission. This thev 

n: connoisseur April 1980 

courteously declined to do. So we sent in an army, to 
forestall the Russians. The Amir, Sher Ali, fled to 
Turkestan and we put his son Yakubon the throne. Peace 
seemed secured. But in September 1879 the head of the 
British mission, an Irish-Italian called Sir Louis Cavag- 
nari with a major's commission and a talent for sly 
diplomacy, was cut to pieces along with his staff and 
escort. Yakub wrung his hands and denied all knowledge, 
claiming that it was all the work of the Russians, stirring 
up hatred of the feringhees and supplying modern 
weapons to the tribesmen. 

So it was back to war. Sir Donald Stewart occupied 
Candahar, Massey took the Shutargardan Pass, and Sir 
Frederick Roberts, 'Bobs', prepared to fight his way to 
Kabul. Burke's photographs were taken during and after 
Robert's advance, and give a vivid impression of the 
hostility of the mountainous country, dwarfing the sold- 
iers. Some of the photographs were taken after Roberts 
entered Kabul in October 1879, but the majority were 
taken after the turn of the year during the second 
occupation of the city, from which Roberts had prudently 
withdrawn as the main Afghan army approached. The 
huge panoramic photographs were taken in April, just one 
hundred years ago. Fighting carried on right through to 
October. The British were harried continuously; our 
Indian troops came to dread the Afghans, for their speed, 
stealth and bravery. In July came the inevitable disaster: 
General Burrows' column was ambushed and cut to pieces 
at Maiwand, losing over half his force, most of his rifles 
and the colours of the Berkshire regiment. Sherlock 
Holmes' friend Dr. Watson got ajezail bullet in his arm. 
Once again the Afghans demonstrated their astonishing 
power of recovery. It took all Robert's skill and self- 
confidence, and his famous march from Kabul to Can- 
dahar, to restore the position, and we never again 
embarked on a full scale invasion of the country. 

G.A.Henty, Foreign Editor of The Standard, wrote that 
the strength of the Afghans lies in their personal bravery, their 
determination to preserve their freedom at all costs, and the 
nature of their country . Their weakness consists in their want 
of organisation, their tribal jealousies and their impatience of 
regular habits. I Ienty further noted that our retirement after 
victory has at least shown them that we have no desire to take 
their country; while on the other hand they know that for those 
upon whom Russia has once laid her hand there is no escape. 

Tlit allium is currently on display in the libn 
the Royal Society oj Arts, London. 

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Jerry E. Patterson 


£ \ickley. Pennsylvania, a well-to-do 
s urb of Pittsburgh, seems an unlikely 
s rce for the most important collection 
o Russian icons to be sold at auction in 
n ny years. Nevertheless, on I? April. 
C ristie's New York will sell over one 
h ldred icons and other Russian im- 
p ial art belonging to the estate of the 
1; • George H. I Iann, a longtime resident 

sor does I Iann ( 1 S9(> — 1977) conform to 
n st pre-conceptions of the collector <>t' 
( i Russian art treasures. A *\ ale-edu- 
ced lawyer, I S. aviation pioneer, 
ft nder of Capital Airlines, and director 
numerous corporations, he was ;i 
F'sbyterian. a Republican, and a 
yhtsman. ^1 et Treetops, his twenty- 
tl ?e room house in Sewickley built 
a ng the lines of a seventeenth-century 
4'lish hunting lodge set on fifty acres of 
unds. was such a museum of Russian 
a: and mediaeval and Renaissance 
Eropean works of art that it required the 
Stvices of a resident curator and was 
v.ted by scholars from all over the 

'he Russian collection's origins lay in 
a ip that llaun made to Russia in the 
Os during the famous period when the 
ntry was so desperate for foreign 
reney and so indifferent to its national 
isures that objects were being sold 
■ctly from its public museums Ilanu 
ii le extraordinary purchases in 19S5 
f r n the Tretyakov Museum, Moscow, 
tY chief repository of native Russian art. 
N trly all the icons in the I Iann Col lee 
ic still bear the labels of the Tretyakov 

he consideration of icons as works of 

ai as well as religious objects came very 

sl'vly in Russia. Partly this was due to 

"< gious scruples and partly to the physi- 

• id 1 1 ion of most icons. 'I' he trail it ion- 

avy varnishing and overpainting, 

li metal covers, and. especially, the 

usal positioning over candles and oil 

la ps have darkened and often serioush 

i onxoissei R April lUXu 

deteriorated icons. It was only v. 1900, 
that reliable methods of restoration were 
developed, and cleaning anil restoration 
have remained exceptionally important 
in icon collecting. The Tretyakov, origin- 
ally a private collection, was the pioneer 
in the rescue, study, and restoration of 
icons. The first exhibition or' icons as 
works of art was held there m 1905. 

Because the art of icon painting has 
been an intensely conservat ive one. icons 
offer special difficulties in the way of 
dating. The painting, which tried to 
depict the perfect world, was always done 
according to established precepts. Addi- 
tions, renewing, and overpainting were 
commonplace. I nder the circumstances, 
it is suprising that there is. m fact, a 
considerable variety of styles, subjects, 
and compositional characteristics Little 
is known of the icon painters. It was 
considered desirable to suppress the 
artist's individuality: he was merely </ tool 
l ii the lid mis nj (lod. 

Among the icons in the Ilann Collec- 
tion from the Tretyakov is a sixteenth- 
century Novgorod School work depicting 
I he h icrij Ascent of the Prophet Elijah. 
According to Bronislavv Dvorsky. the 
Christie's expert in charm' of the sale. 
Russian peasants believed that thunder 
was the sound of Klijah s chariot rolling 
across the skv . and there is probably also 
an ancient connection with the pagan 
Slav deitv Perun. god of thunder. 

Other Novgorod School icons include 
l)cscent into Hell ami Resurrection , a 
fifteenth-century festival icon for Kaster. 
also from the I'retvakov, and a series of 
fifteenth-century panels of incidents 
from the lite of Saint ( ieorge. a favourite 
at Novgorod, depicting the saint slaving 
the dragon and putting demons to flight, 
and his martyrdom. An important six- 
teenth-century Novgorod icon of The 
I. ust Judgement was acquired by Ilann 
from the Russian state Antiqiiariat in 
19S(i after restoration l>v the leading 

Russian conservator. CO. (lurikotl. 
Two panels measuring ~o X IS inches 
each of the Archangels Michael and 
Gabriel from Novgorod or Pskov, four- 
teenth-fifteenth century, are among the 
earliest surviving full-length icons from 
Russia. The Collection also contains ex- 
amples from the other two principal 
schools, Moscow and Strogonov. 

Icons have a rather skimpy history of 
exhibition in the West, hut the Ilann 
Collection played a considerable part in 
bringing them to the attention of scholars 
and the public at a tune when they were 
almost completely unknown in the West. 
Between I [H I and 19^7 Russian experts 
gathered icons from barns, lofts, and 
forsaken churches. In the latter year the 
Tretyakov put on an historical survey of 
icon painting, and in l9"29/.'$0 the Soviet 
gov en i n lent sent this exhibit ion to half a 
dozen Kuropeaii and American cities. 

I hiring its forty year sojourn in Sewick- 
ley the Ilann Collection was visited by 
scholars, and a number of the icons have 
been illustrated in standard works in the 
field. Ilann himself returned to Russia in 
the 1950s, travelling with experts on 
Russian art from the West. The first 
public exhibition was in 1944 when t he- 
icons were shown at the Carnegie In- 
stitute. Pittsburgh, and the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art, New York, and there 
were occasional later exhibitions in St. 
Louis. Buffalo, and New I lav en. to 1905. 
Lor most of the forty years, how ever, the 
art works remained in the Ilann home, 
where they were incorporated into the 
decor in nearly every room, suitably 
displayed and lighted 

Ilann also owned an important collec- 
tion of Russian ecclesiastical em- 
broideries, works of art, and Imperial 
lain which Christie's will sell on 
IS April, the i lay after I lie icon's. Works 
of art include silver-gilt wedding crowns. 
chalices, cam -. and an Imperial 

chaniplcee enamelled gold presentation 

Crucifixion, Novgorod School 
double sided, fifteenth century 
overprinted seventeenth centui 

■>h>/.:Y. MVx inches. 

lamp dated St. Petersburg, IKf>0. com- 
missioned l>y the I sar to commemorate 
die lurtli of a son. Numerous unusual 
items include a presentation silver trowel 
ot 'I sar Alexander n dated IS?,"). Signed, 
inscribed, and dated works of art arc 
present in unusual numbers in the I Ian ti 
( oiled ion. 

Porcelain which was commissioned by 

tiit- Tsarina Catherine II, the Great, 

particularly attracted llann. Prom the 

Gardner factory, privately owned by an 

Pnglish family in Russia, he owned soup 

and dinner plates from the banqueting 

ce of the Imperial Order of St. 

Andrew the first Called, commissioned 

plates for the Order of St. 

\evsk,\ : soup and dinner 

' the < )rder of St. George the 

id various pieces of porce- 

missii ii u( I for the ( )rder of St. 

c to the Apostles, an order 

atherine the ( ireat herself 

"ins m the I 'nited States 

tried | [aim ( ollection as a 

tor had a great distaste 

distract art of 

institutions are 

W I irator approached 

ction, Hann is 

he would 

inn if it got rid of 

Christie's says that the icons are // 
most important private icon collection ever, 
come on the market and that, due to rigi 
Soviet export laws relating to nation! 
treasures, it is unlikely that such a eollei 
tion will ever be formed again in th 
West. In the last decade the most in 
portant icon collections to be sold ii 
auction have been those of Professrj 
Bertel Hintze of Helsinki, which was sol 
by Christie's in London in 1971 and ths 
of Ambassador Jean Herbette, who « 
presented Prance in the Soviet Unior 
1924/30, and formed his collection then 
which was sold by Christie's in Diissei 
dorf in 1973. Christie's is confident tht 
the Hann Collection will surpass bothc 
these in results and in international in 
terest. The Soviet government, whici 
has recently placed great emphasis on th 
national artistic heritage, has been bill 
ing a few things at auction in the West 
and it seems likely that representative 
will be present when the Hann Collectioi 
is offered, near, incidentally, Russia! 

The mediaeval and Renaissance work) 
of art in the Hann Collection will be sok 
on the premises of Treetops by Christie! 
in May, and the house itself is being sold 
bringing to an end the curious saga of thi 
Pittsburgh lawyer who made one of thi 
great private collections of the art of Ok 

Saint George slaying the Dragon, Novgorod School, fifteenth century, 27 X SSVzinches. 

:onnoisseur April 198<. 


X Russia , sixteenth century (overpainted) ,2Wz* %k Vi inches . 

v ** 









* • .^ 


Mother of God - Tenderness, Moscow School, sixteenth century, 23 % X 30 3 A inches. 

me connoisseur April 1980 


nt Basil. 

nes from his life, 
vgorod School, late fifteenth/ early 
teenth century, 32 'AX 1^2 % inches. 

John the Baptist. 

Scenes from his life, 

Central Russia, fifteenth century, 

29 3/8X35V8 inches. 

connoisseur April 1980 

i £ — LJ. M*j-L~< 

Edward Xouns & John Hard// 


Lord Leverhulme, a great Edwardian 
collector and builder was the founder of 
the Lady Lever Art Gallery and Port 
Sunlight. The current exhibition at the 
Royal Academy of Arts, London, illus- 
trates two aspects of Lord Leverhulme's 
taste; first there are some of his late 
eighteenth-century portraits and land- 
scapes; like other collectors ot his 
generation - above all Lord Iveagh and 
Baron Ferdinand de Rothschild whose 
splendid portraits by Reynolds and 
Gainsborough are still exhibited at Ken- 
wood and at Waddesdon - Lord Lever- 
hulme admired the classic and ordered 
splendour of eighteenth-century English 
life and art. 

Reynolds' Portrait of Elizabeth (iiiu- 
ning. Duchess of Hamilton and Ari/t/ll was 
exhibited in 17(50 at the first exhibition of 
the Society of Artists of Great Britain, 
the earliest serious exhibiting artists' 
society in England and the principal 
source of the Royal Academy founded 
eight years later, and Reynolds was 
concerned to establish himself publicly 
with this portrait as the most significant 
English portrait painter in the grand 
classical manner; Elizabeth Gunning 
therefore has loose classical dress l»e- 
neath her peeress' robes; a classical relief 
showing the Judgement of Paris at which 
\ enus was triumphant alludes to her 
beauty, while doves, the usual attributes 
of \ enus, coo beside her; the pose is 
simple and dignified and the dark sky 
and ideal landscape give it dramatic 
force. Elizabeth ( i unning was one of two 
sisters from a respectable but im- 
poverished Irish family brought up in a 
remote part of C'onnaught. Their simple 
manners and striking beauty made them 
the sensation ot the London season of 
1750 and in I7.V.> Elizabeth married the 
sixth Duke of Hamilton at I ->..'«) in the 
morning in the May fair Chapel with a 
ring oj the bed curtain on her linger. Thus 
Lord Leverhulme on emerging 

from \ ictorian ipriety the portrait 
offered a happ> and irresistible combi- 


i\ Al'tc 
■ )' cm. I 







nation of aristocratic romance, licenci 
and pomp. His other grand classic; 
Reynolds' full-length portrait, the Mn 
Peter Beckford of 178^2 shows Mrs 
Beckford making a libation to Hygeia 
the Greek 'goddess of health, as sh 
suffered from persistent illness. Sh 
also practised necromancy with he 
husband's cousin the great VYilliar 
Beckford of Fonthill and as his intimat 
friend around 1779-84 encouraged hi 
rather unconventional behaviour i 
other respects as well, although he,^ 
identity as Beckford's femme fatale onlj 
emerged after Leverhulme s death. Loral 
Leverhulme bought both portraits at thjl 
second great Hamilton Place Sale oH 
1919 in the euphoria of the post-walB 
boom. Four months earlier he had bid fo \ 
the Duke of Westminster's Mrs. Siddon jl 
as the Tragic Muse. Reynolds' mos 
ambitious painting in which he rivalle 
Michelangelo, but Lord Leverhulm ' 
withdrew at 50,000 guineas and th 
painting ultimately went to Henr 
Huntington - not even Lord Leverhulm 1 
could match the wealth of the America j- 
railway magnates and his heroa I 
failure foreshadowed the cominM 
supremacy of the American privatl 

Although the eighteenth century wal 
probably Lord Leverhulme's favouritl 
period he had begun his career as 
collector with contemporary art; tradl 
itionally the successful Lancashire bus. J 
ness man collected contemporary art - i 
least by the middle of the nineteent. 
century; attributions presented no dif 
culties and values seemed to be rising 
Lord Leverhulme had, however, 
special reason to be interested in moder j 
British art - relying on its popularity an, 
topicality he used it for advertising hi I 
soap in the late 1880s and early 1890s anj 
earned himself the reproaches of Fritj 
for sub-titling Frith's New Frock of 188 1 
'So Clean' on one side of the frock an 
'Sunlight Soap' above her head in hij 
advertisements reproducing the picturc 
Frith was no more amused than J. El 
Millais had been a year earlier whe 
T. J. Barratt of Pears Soap treated hij 
Bubbles with no more respect. But Lor 
Leverhulme soon became a collected 
rather than an advertiser and when hj 
wished to reproduce Briton Riviere ! 
Fidelity as prizes for those who collecte 
so many soap wrappers he went to gre*| 
trouble to obtain the artist's approval an j 
to ensure that the prints were of higS 
quality. Fidelity has an easy sentimental 
appeal - some of Riviere's poachin' 


Frederick Leighton. (ianlen of the 
Hesperides, IS'.)',, Diameter: UiUcm. 
Bought by Lord IjCirrhuhiw in V.I Li 
for L.'.CUO:! >:<}. 

■ ■ m i mwi- iv TT'*w»T*w'y»»rtt> - 

•m^e ^ ty mm'm ' m m't m m ■ ■ » -■ > '■ ■ 'm rnim 


i ^> 

.1 *v./ 


S rt^ 


•- • £ c 

^ z. ~~ -e 

r = x $ 

!\ 1 


- Z.L 'Z ~. 

J! Zr ^v 

// Lord h< erhuhnc 

scenes were much more in the traditi 
of Social Realism - and shows Levi 
hulme still with a popular market 
mind. E. J. Gregory's Boulter's Lock 
IS!)?, although again acquired primari 
for reproduction, is very much more th; 
just an evocation of the greatest age 
Thames pleasure boating - when on 
typical Ascot Sunday 800 boats and ' 
steam launches might easily passthroug 
Boulter's Lock. The figures are sharp 
characterised; the woman energetical: 
paddling her own (Canadian) canoe mu 
be the new woman of the period while h< 
less emancipated sister in the foregrour 
sits with her lap dog delicately touching 
tasselled steering rope while beiv 
propelled by others; the artist himse 
reclines lazily in the stern of his boat t 
the right looking over his shoulder; whi 
the man in the punt vigorously workii 
his pole is another - but quii 
different - demonstration of the artist 
command of pose and anatomy. Boulter 
Lock was probably the last o 
Leverhulme's 'advertising' pictures k 
cept one which never appeared in anf 
form of advertisement although the ur 
censorious might think it the perfec 
soap advertisement - Alma-Tadema 
Tepidarium. The girl is relaxing in the he 
Roman bath; she holds in her right ham 
the strigel used for scraping the skin afte 
soaping and oiling it. Pears Soap bough 
the picture in 1890 but they had ahead 
been criticised for using nude chili 
models and evidently did not dare to us 
this picture for their predominant!; 
female market. Alma-Tadema' 

Sculptor's Model had already of'fendei * 
Victorian propriety and his Tepidariw 
with its enticing variations of textun 
between skin, marble, rug and cushioi 
and its slightly shocking contrast bet 
ween archaeological precision and livin, 
flesh suited the public image neither o i: 
A. and F. Pears nor of Lever Brothers 
which took over Pears in 1914 enabling 
Lord Leverhulme to buy the picture. 

Until 1911 Lord Leverhulme ha 
bought eighteenth-century art for him : 
self and modern art primarily for ad 
vertisement. In that year, however, he 
placed on public display a substantia 
part of his collection in a large redundan' 
staff restaurant next to his Port Sunlight ! 
works while in 1913, on the death of hi 
wife, he conceived the idea of a new large 
public gallery in Port Sunlight village to* 
perpetuate his collection as a memorial tc ! 
her. He therefore started buying for the f - 
public not for himself or his firm and.*' 
returned to the idols of his youth; in the ? - 

1!: )s he had bought new but of course 
\rv late works by Millais and Lord 
Ii^hton, who were by then very old 
n>i. Now with greater maturity of 
jiljment and partly to till in gaps he 
bight Leighton's Garden of the Hes- 
p- des and Millais' Lingering Autumn 
bti from the collection of George 
]VJulloch the Australian sheep farmer 
w > found the Broken Hill Silver Mine 
o, his land and spent much of the 
p ^eedson the last and perhaps greatest 
o the great Victorian collections of 
c< temporary art. The Garden of the 
h perides is a marvellous design with 
tl snake's shape repeating the flowing 
li s of the bodies of the Hesperides and 
tl circular shape of the painting follow- 
ii the undulating draperies and figures, 
b it is much more than that - it is the 
ri Victorian vision of a lost golden 
cl isical world of peace, abundance and 
h. mony, a pagan Garden of Eden and it 
e: lains the vast emotional importance 
oicla sical antiquity to the Victorian 
md. Lingering Autumn could not be 
mie different; Millais preferred Scottish 
w'ters to the Riviera, and Ins detail, 
pi haps inspired by Barbizon painting, 
rejrds that other great Victorian 
olession - fidelity to nature, not slavish 
bi always evocative. 

,ord Leverhulme always emphasised 
th value of art as spiritual refreshment 
air business toil and perhaps for that 
re-ion the poetic and mystical side of 
P -Raphaelitism particularly appealed 
tohim. He owned over one hundred 
platings and studies by Burne 
T<es - none finer that the Beguiling of 
Mini, recording with intense feeling at 
>re Merlin's fatal subjection to Nimue's 
aihantment long ago and the artist's to 
■ h of Maria Zambaco in the late 1860s. 
H finest Rossetti was The Blessed Dam- 
>z in which the artist illustrates one of 
ii earliest poems - the Damozel in 
Hiven passionately awaits her lover 
;ti on earth. If then Lord Leverhulme 
■Med collecting on established lines 
i for prosaic purposes. Ins final 
icievement was far more ambitious as 
r visitor to the Lady Lever Art Gallery 
»ro the Royal Academy of Arts exhibi- 
i< will be able to testify 

)uring the second half of the nine- 
eith century a new interest was taken 
nhe applied and decorative arts, whose 
ilory was one of obscure workshops 
J artisans not one of studios and great 
Jsts. In keeping with this spirit Lever 
4i one of the earliest, and perhaps the 
latest, of all collectors of (.eorgian 

I ONNOISSEIR April 1980 

lioseirood dressing table n ith 
gilt enrichments, attributed to 
I'homas Chippendale, c. 1760. 


>r> 1 

Particularly in the decade 
lie Lad\ Lever Art 
i Hi'i'-i, lie |»iircliase<l a consid- 
. r (if all the masterpieces 
itury cabinet-making, 
appeared (in the market. The 
age of Lnglish furniture was 
lered then to lie the period from 
i he date of publication of the first 
edition of Thomas Chippendale's fur- 
niture pattern book. The (icntleman 
and Cabinet Maker's Director' until 
171)1 I when Thomas Sheraton's "The 
et- Maker and I pholsterer's Draw- 
ing Book' appeared. Indeed, mam ol 
r's acquisitions were attributed to 
nas ( hippendale at the time they 
bought, lint only two pieces have 
survived the more scholarly vetting of 
modern furniture historians. One of these 
is a lady's rosewood dressing-table in the 
[{ocoeo style with Chinese fret-work 
ornament and a pagoda-shaped canopy. 
It dates from c. 17(10 when Chinoiserie 
furnishings ha<l become fashionable for 
bedrooms and dressing rooms. Indeed 
John Shebbeare complained in his 
Letters on the Lnglish Nation". 1756, 
that the simple and sublime had lost all 
influence: nl must everywhere, all is Chin- 
dot hie. Ei ery chair in tin apartment , 
srs mill tallies must he 
Chinese, the nulls covered with Chinese 
paper filled with fit/arcs which resemble 
nothing in Cod's creation, and which a 
■ it nation would prohibit for the sake 
uj preynant women. ( hippendale illus- 
trated a design lor a dressing- table in the 
third edition of the 'Director*. \HH and 
ented: the draieei above the recess 
liulli all conveniences for dressing, and the 
i/lnss , n Inch comes 
i i\i folding lunges, (hi each side is 
■/, (/•//// glass floors, ii Inch naiij be 
uspurcnt or silvered; and in the 
pigeon holes . He also 
tno rosea mid 
design , which gin e 
1 1 is ver\ possil tie that 
is one of those to which he 
because it originally 
I )u ndas familv i >f 
Midlothian, who are 
ised ( hippendale 
of I he first edition of 

I Mills a number 
< Pierre Lang- 
London and 
for elalx irate mar- 
th i irtnolu mounts. 
ar\ ed mahog- 
nder drawing 

rooms and bedrooms. The London cabi- 
net -maker and upholsterer James Cullen 
mentioned this new style in a letter to 
Lord llopetoun in 17(iS: Herewith arc the 
designs for tlie commodes in the Craud 
Bedchamber one of which is intended to 
introduce different collonrd |sic] woods 
which with good brasses has an effect that is 
generally approved here . . . these in grand 
apartment are more intended to furnish and 
adorn than for real use. 

The second Lever item attributed to 
Chippendale is a Neo-classical commode 
of the type described by Cullen. Its 
marquetry decoration and ormolu 
mounts are similar to that found on 
furniture which Chippendale supplied to 
Harewood House, Yorkshire in the early 
1770s, and, in addition, the commode is 
related to two of his manuscript designs 
and an engraving for a commode in the 
French style which appeared in the third 
edition of the 'Director'. It is thought to 
have been supplied for the principal 
bedroom or dressing room at Apsley 
House, London, whose interiors had 
been designed by Robert Adam. 

Indeed, it is one of the finest of the 
many commodes being exhibited at the 
Royal Academy which display the wide 
variety of marquetry decoration that was 
popular around the 1770s. 

The exhibition is at the Royal Academy i 
Arts, London, from 1 2 April to 25 May 
1980, presented by Unilever Limited 
as part of their celebrations to mark tfie 
50th anniversary of the formation of the 
company created in 1930 by the merger oj 
h>rd Leverhulme's great soap-making fir 
Lever Brothers with Dutch Margarine 
Union; the exhibition consists of 
paintings, sculpture, furniture, Wedgwoi 
and ( 'hinese porcelain, nearly all ofwhic 
will be borrowed from the Lady Lever Art 
Gallery, Port Sunlight - which was 
endowed by Lord Leverhulme with the bes 
works from his huge collection; there will 
ulso be an architectural section devoted to 
liis model village. Port Sunlight, and his 
other building projects. 

Marquetry commode with 
ormolu decoration, attributed to 
Thomas Chippendale, c. 1 775. 

Charles Truman 



CIRCA 1750 

ie decision in 1909 to divide the cura- 
1 Mai departments of the \ ictoria and 
. bert Museum by materials - wood. 
I ctiles, metal work, ceramics and soon - 
l her than by periods was a novel and 
1 gely successful move within a museum 
( icerned with a relatively short time- 
s in However, no divisive system in the 
Eis can be totally successful and there 
m been, inevitably the occasional casu- 
c.y. One such isa rosewood necessaire de 
i iage, lined with silk and containing 
I rcelain, glass, and silver fittings, made 
i Paris c. 1750. The problem of which 
apartment should display this diverse 
c lection of materials was neatly solved 
b removing the necessaire from public 
v \v, a state from which it has recently 
b j-ii returned. 

\ecessuircs de voyage have a long his- 
t< y in France. ( )ne bought by Charles \ I 
Q France on 3 May 1.387 from Henry de 

es appears in the 'Comtes de 
1' rgenterie". The entry describes uu 
eiuy de cuir bouilli . . . pendant a mm urns 
It desoie, garnyde trots pignes, line hrorfie 
a in mirroir, pour pigner Ie chief tin <lit 
Si/near [the king], et bailie ti Salomon, 
*>'< harbier. In the sixteenth century the 
■atcs tic tlcpcnsc Francois I show that lie 
> ned another of astonishing richness, 
Kwever it was not until the early 
eihteenth century that these collections 
)! iccessities were referred to as iieccss- 
i.s. In a letter dated 4 i March 1718, 
t| duchesse d'Orleans wrote. My son 
•t ' Regent of France] has gii en his sister a 
hssaire; that is a small square chest 
all that is essential for taking tea, 
%'ee and chocolate is found. I hi' cups are 
v te, the rest in enamelled gold. Such rich 
ttrssaires enjoyed popularity througli- 
>i the eighteenth cent ury. The mnrchand 
n-cier Lazare Duvaux supplied several 
a essaires to his distinguished clientele 

( ONNOISSF ( l( .1/)/-// 1 U.St I 

( )n 18 June I 750. forexample, hesupplied 
M.DuHot with one which contained lour 
rock crystal and gold Masks, a gold-moun- 
ted beaker, a funnel to fill the Masks, a box 
for soap, and another for a sponge, a small 
gold brazier, a mirror, a tortoiseshell and 
gold com!), two razors with handles o| 
mother-o -pearl pique with gold, earpick 
and toothpick. tongue-scraper and 
tw eezers, all in gold, and two eggsof rock 
crystal in gold mounts. However not all 
the iiccessaircs which are mentioned in 
Duvaux's day book are as grand as this. 
( hie which was ordered by Louis \\ as a 
gift to the due d'Aumont on ? April 1758 
was in a walnut case lined with blue and 
silver cloth containing four cut-glass bot- 
tles with silver stoppers, a glass beaker, a 
pot a pate and another pot for sponges, a 
tortoiseshell tongue-scraper and some 
sponges for the teeth. It cost 1.'?.") livres, 
with an additional three livres for the 
transport to Versailles. Lazare Duvaux 
was also frequently required to remodel 
the interiors of necessai res to take new fit- 
tings. In July 1774 the Mercure de France 
mentioned a necessaire at Monsieur 
(J rancher's shop an petit Dunkirtpie and 
noted that it contained all that was neces- 
sary for eating at table as well as being 
especially useful for catering to the sick 
in bed 

The necessaire now at the \ ictoria and 
Albert Museum is interesting not only be- 
cause it has survived almost intact (one 
instrument is m issing and the scissors may 
be replacements) but because it can be 
precisely dated. The set comprises a box 
of Brazilian rosewood mounted with 
handles, lock and hinges ot tinned iron. 
four cylindrical cut-glass bottles mounted 
in silver, two smaller cut-glass Masks, a 
covered cup and saucer anil a small 
covered jar in soft-paste porcelain moun- 
ted in si I ver. as well as a cup, dish, funnel. 

patch box, knife, two bodkins, and a com- 
bined earpick and tongue scraper all in 
silver and a pairof steel scissors. The case 
is lined with blue silk edged with silver 
braid and in the lid isa mirror covered by a 
thin cushion. The silver mount sand uten- 
sils, with the exception of the small box, 
bear the discharge mark used in Paris by 
the sous-ferm ier .JuYien Berthe between 10 
October 1750 and 1^ October 175(5 to in- 
dicate that tax had been paid on small sil- 
ver work. The silver cup bears an addi- 
tional mark, which although incomplete 
can be attributed to the goldsmith Claude- 
Nicholas (irebeude. (irebeude, himself 
the son of a Parisian goldsmith, registered 
his mark '< .N.<..' with a rose beneath a 
crow ned Heur-de-lysand t\\t>graiiis tic re- 
' nit tie (two dots which allude to the margin 
of alloy permitted by the Parisguild )<>n 44 
August 1 7^-2. Hisaddresswasgivenasrue 
St. Anne, in the parish of St. Bart he I e my , 
Paris. In 1748 he was listed as livingat the 
rue Basville, now beneath the Palais de 
Justice, where he remained for at least 
another year. However, two years later, 
on 4H May 1751. his apprentice. Pierre 
Pleyard moved to the workshop of J -J. 
I )u ha i ne I, because of ( irebeude s death. 
This event must have occurred sometime 
between 10 October 1750, the introduc- 
tion of the new discharge mark, ami the 
date of Pleyard \s departure. (Irebeude 
was probably a goldsmith of modest talent 
and no important piece is recorded today 
bearing his mark. The porcelain cup and 
saucer and the covered jar may be attri- 
buted to [he factory of St. ( loud both on 
stylistic grounds as well as that of the 
characteristically warm-looking, soft and 
glass\ paste from which they are made. 
The owners oft he factory, first the family 
of Pierre Chicaneau, and later that of 
Henri Charles Iron, claimed that porce- 
lain had been made at St. Cloud, near 

I Far I, 

\eces-a i re ile voyage "/ rosea ood , 
lined irith silk, and containing sih et alas, 
ami Si Cloud porcelain, French, c / 7~>d. 
Victoria mill Alhcrl Museum. London. 

( 'up mul saucer and pomnuidc pot of 
St. Cloud porcelain . c. / ? '~>0, referred to 
in a contemporary document as goblet 
a Relief a anse ( (inverts et sa soiiscoii| 
and |"il a ponunai le a relief 

Pis, since before l(>7S. The secret of 
rbufacture appears to have remained 
,vii Berthe Coudray, widow of Pierre 
3'caneau until her death m about 17-i-i 
v 'ii Henri (II) and Gabriel Trou. her 
so-; by her second marriage, renewed 
hr patent. In 17+6 Henry (li) Iron 
Mueathed the factory and a sister 
c ?ern at rue de la \ ille-l'Eveque, in 
h Faubourg St. Honore, Paris, to his 
'O Henri-Francois who continued pro- 
tot ion until the firm ceased in 17(><>. It is 
ic .riously difficult to date the porcelain 
>rluced at the St. Cloud factories. 
Scie pieces, as with the example- here. 
ni' be dated by the silver mounts which 
r« uently bear Paris hall-mark-. 

further confirmation of the date of 
b porcelain in the Victoria and Albert 
VI eu m's necessaire was the recent dis- 

fry of a manuscript which was used 
>yvhoever assembled the necessaire as 
ai' with which to form the compart- 

1 ts and as a stiffener in the cushion. 
1 document itemises in eighty-eight 
■ies objects purchased from a porce- 

i factory between IS November 174? 
l is July 1 7-til. From the description of 
i< pieces on this shopping list it is 
•< inable to a— ume that the porcelain 
it >ry was that at St. ( loud or at rue de 
i ille-l'Eveque in Paris. The list may 
e-ompared with the St. (loud trade 
u published in 1906 by the comte de 
bvagnac and the marquis de ( irollier. 
oi refer to porcelain painted in blue. 
nrated with feuillage en relief, two 
Uacteristic form- of St. Cloud decor- 

ation, to troncsd'arbres and the manuscript 
also refers to pots shaped as artichokes, 
again a St. Cloud form. The covered cup 
and saucer in the necessaire are presum- 
ably similar to the nine goblets a Relief a 
niise ( 'ouierts et leur souscoupes purchased 
first at seven lures but rising to eight 
livres each before June I74S. A com- 
parable piece with underglaze blue de- 
coration was about half price. The 
covered jar may be compared with the 
pots a pommade a relief which sold in 
I >c( -ember 1747 for 40 sous, as against SO 
sou- for a -miliar piece with blue decor- 
ation and 50 sou- for one en couloir. 
I hiring the period covered by the list the 
anonymous client purchased, in addition 
to tin- piece- mentioned above, no less 
than seventy-three pots a pommade with 
relief decoration, twelve with underglaze 
blue and one eu couleur; fifty-eight 
tobacco jars in relief, and only two in blue 
and white, twenty-four teacups en relief 
none bleu; twenty-two separate saucers 
and twelve separate goblets in relief, one 
goblet was of undecorated white porce- 
lain; twelve teapots en relief, one blue; 
fourteen pots a paste eu relief, two in hleu 
and one encounleu; eleven sugar pots in 
relief, two blue and one plain white; four 
candlesticks formed as tree-trunks; two 
pots pourri a feuillage sur terraces, a single 
goblet blanc inns a a use and one moyen pot 
en artichaud blanc. The most expensive 
item- of all were two of the tobacco jars 
which were described a- Feuillages 
guirlandes at twenty-four livres each in 
Mav 174!) 

The glass bottles and flasks in the 
necessaire are worthy of mention. During 
the first thirty or forty years of the eigh- 
teenth century the greater part of the 
glass produced m France was the so- 
called eerre fougere, a light greenish 
coloured glass. The clear glasses of 
England and Bohemia were much ad- 
mired and sometime before the middle of 
tin- eighteenth century a potash-lime 
glass, facon tie Bolieme, was developed. 
Such a metal was used in the bottles of 
the necessaire. The slightly pinkish tinge, 
and a propensity toward- crizzling may 
suggest that the glass emanated from a 
gla-s-house in central France. A similar 
bottle from a rather larger necessaire is 
depicted by J.-B.-S. Chardin in his 
painting Pipes et rases a boire (1760/3) 
now in the Louvre. 

Whilst it has proved possible to date 
the necessaire ami its contents to within 
the relatively short period between L iS 
July 1741) and '•is May 1751 , the identity 
of the ebentste responsible for the case, 
and. indeed the name of the assembler of 
all the diverse pieces has eluded u-. It 
seems likely that such a compendium of 
woodwork, silver, glass and porcelain 
would have been grouped together b\ 
one of the marchands-mercier such as 
Duvaux or ( i rancher. Despite our lack of 
knowledge it is rather the ver\ diversity 
of materials, combined with a small 
insight info eighteenth century commer- 
cial and social habit- which constitute the 
interest and attraction of the Museum's 
necessaire de / a 

i ( ONNOISSKl'H April 1H80 

Walter E.Gosden 


/ he era of ( 'arrossiers and ( 'ustom-made automobiles 

In tin* da\ of mas-, production, where 
computers reign, its very hard to be ;ui 
individual. Our automobiles seem to lie 
if the last outposts that ean reflect 
our individuality, for we choose what 
we u ish to own and the wa\ it looks. 
However, even with the most expensive 
an tomol >i les ava i la Me toda y. we a re limit- 
ed to how personal we can make them. 
One s choice is restricted to a tew dif- 
ferent l)od\ styles and the selection of 
colours for upholstery and paint. Al- 
though this may seem the rule we now 
to live bv . such was not always the 
circumstance, ;i few decades ago one s 
car could t inly reflect \ our 
1 1 1< 1 1 \ idual taste completely. 

In t he era from approximately the end 

I i! -t World War to the time just 

he fore the Second World War. existed a 

I that could he considered the aes- 

Kenaissance of t he motor car. I'h is 

grand time of Custom hodied cars was 

true in t he mid to late I'.K'IK 

earl.x I!i:;ik. on hoth sides of tin- Atlantic 

Ocean It was a prosperous time; the 

lived in enornn mis estates and 

mind m majestic autoniohih-s. 

• cou hi have gi me ti i 

omohile i lealer and upon 

ataloguc illustrating the 

ade a choice, as is 

'loll ti >dav . I here 

c though, one cou Id 

e| with a rep- 

lie I wn dozen linns 

• i lesi gn a iid con- 

hllilt automobile 

ile to < ti ler 

ted their auto- 

|l .1- ■ if I lesig'l] 

i a bodv I mill I 
luxnrv car 
m!\ limit 
lid have gone to their 

local I lerce-Arrow . Lincoln, Stutz 
agency and had the dealer make the 
arrangements for them to meet with a 
suitable body builder. The majority of 
the custom bodied automobiles during 
the era were limousines and town cars, 
and it was also a period when the chauf- 
feur was an important part of the family. 
He would play a significant part in the 
purchase of the automobile and had 
considerable influence over what auto- 
mobile and body builder his employer 
would chouse Since the body builders 
were scattered in various locations from 
New York t<> California, it was only 
natural that there would be annual shows 
in the larger cities to display their designs 
and craftsmanship. 

The Automobile Salons of the period 
touted themselves as Presenting the Aris- 
tocracy of Motordom, and this is exactly 
what they did. The New \ ork Salon held 
each year in the first week of December 
at the Hotel Commodore would start the 
season, and then be followed by Salons at 
the I ) rake Hotel on Lake Shore Drive in 
Chicago, the Biltmore Hotel in Los An 
-ills and the Palace in San Francisco. 
T he Salons were a significant social event 
for t he peers of society it catered to. I he 
New x oik Salon was the most exclusive 
and viewing was by invitation only. The 
I lot el Commodore turned over its grand 
ballroom for the display, and if there was 
an overflow of exhibits the Last Ha II room 
and the lobby were placed into service. 

Although the Chicago Salon let the 
general public view the automobiles the 
various car rossiers and automobile manu- 
facturers ha<l on display, the New ^ ork 
Salon did not. The exhibitors at the 
New ^ ork Salon were each allocated a 
certain amount of engraved invitations 
and possession of one of these was the 
oiilv wa\ one would be admitted to see 

the Salon at the Commodore. The 
invitations were sent to the distinguis 
ed clientele who had the Hnanc 
commensurate to afford the fine aut 
mobiles and coachwork on display, th< 
were also sent to the top executives 
the automobile companies in Detroi 
The general rule was that the chauffei 
saw the Salon during the day ami hi 
the chance to discuss the possibilities!, 
the purchase of a custom built aut 
mobile with the representatives of tl 
various body builders. The evcnii 
hours saw the staff in charge of th 
exhibits don tuxedos to welcome the [ 
prospective customers who were i 
evening dress. The body builders ha, 
their very best designs on display o 
both domestic and European chassis anil 
were prepared to accommodate th 
slightest whim of their customer. If, fc , 
example, a customer saw a four-doo 
convertible built by the HolbroOi 
Company that he particularly liked, hi. 
the body was mounted on a Stutz chass 
and he preferred the running gear of th 
Lincoln, this would be built to order. 
The body builders aimed to please, an> 
if their customer wanted to have then 
do the building but incorporated th 
styling features of several of th< 
automobiles exhibited by the other hod 
builders, notes would be made and thi ; 
would be done. The custom bod; 
builders frequently borrowed design 
ideas from each other, it was expect© 
to be done; the customer's desires hadt | 
be satisfied completely. The auto 
mobiles were brought to the Hote , 
Commodore by truck, drained of a | 
gasoline and oil. They rolled the car 
into a special elevator and the auto- 
mobiles were taken up to the grain 
ballroom and set up for display. 

The actual building of the automobile 

i 1 not start until the customer had spent 
me time with one <>t the artists on the 
[iff of the body builder. I sually a 
i ruber of designs would be done before 
• customer was satisfied. The choice ol 
nholstery fabric and colour, exterior 
lour, the style of interior hardware and 
I pointments, all had to be decided 
ton. A deposit of usually one third to 
ie half of the total price was advanced 
; the start of construction. The total 
lice of a custom built car would gener- 
y range from #5.000 to 5^0.000; this 
lire might not seem like a considerable 
lount of money by today s standards 
t, in this period a brand new Chevrolet 
Ian sold for $ (i?.~> and gasoline was 18c 
r gallon! A custom bodied car was by 
means an inexpensive proposition, 
ie price for the body alone was .S'S.KOO 
d up depending upon the extent of 
i tra work, or special requirements; such 
nigs as needlepoint upholstery, ornate 
irquetry in rosewood or burr walnut, 
■! t crystal decanters for the bar. could all 
; d thousands of dollars to the price over 
illd above the cost of the actual con- 
duction of the body. 
The actual building of the body was 
one from a full-size body draft that 
: owed all the details of the wood frame 
i irk the body sheet metal would be 
] iled to. All framework was done by 
1 nd, the joints were screwed and glued 
taether, with iron and cast bronze 
lackets lending strength and support. 
Aluminium was used for the skin over the 
fiime work and was shaped into form by 
1 mg beaten by wooden mallets. Lac- 
Iter was introduced as an automobile 
I int in the mid lJhJOs and the colours 
distil were usually conservative deep 
I tes, greens and maroons. The uphols- 
t y material was usually the very finest 
ll>ol Broadcloths and Bedford Cords 
i ported from England. The exterior 
td interior handles were cast in bronze 
fd plated, the interior handles often 
I ving a filigree design and being silver 
I ited. Landau leather or the finest 
divas provided the roof covering. It was 
it unusual on town cars to see the rear 
c npartment passengers provided w ith a 
CK'k and speedometer - to keep tabs on 
te chauffeur. 

The firms that built the custom made 
t dies for the automobiles grew from the 
tiditions set by the builders of horse 
Ijawn carriages. The body building 
fins of Brewster. Derhani, and Judkins 
fd their roots in the carriage trade. It 
Ms a natural transition that the builders 
c the finest carriages went on to build 

the finest bodies for motor cars \ 
number of firms that got their start in the 
early VOs had a tine design staff that 
could interpret a customer's idea to 
produce a design that was pure poetry in 
metal. Many of these firms, such as 
LeBaron Carrossiers of New \ ork, at 
first did not have their own facilities to 
build their own bodies and had other 
firms such as Derhani, Healey and 
Company, or Demarest and Company, 
build the bodies for them. The founders 
of one of the most popular body builders. 
LeBaron Inc., Raymond Dietrich and 
Thomas L. Hibbard both met while 
working for the old established firm of 
Brewster and Company. They went on to 
leave LeBaron to found two other note- 
worthy coachbuilding firms. Dietrich 
Inc. of Detroit. Michigan and Hibbard 
and Darrin of Paris 

By far the majority of custom body 
builders were in the north-eastern section 
of the tinted States, with such famous 
firms as Locke, Derhani. W illoughby . 
Brunn. Demerest, Merrimac, Walker, 
VVaterhouse, Rollston, Judkins, Rollson 
Ilolbiook. Healey, and Fleetwood call- 
ing this area of the country home. Ames- 
bury, Massachusetts hail a part of its 
village known as "Carriage Hill' because 
of the concentration of custom body 
builders then-. New York City was a 
centre of body design firms, and the cities 
of Buffalo. Itica. Hudson, Rochester in 
New ^ ork state all had major firms 
within their borders. Philadelphia and 
Fleetwood in Pennsylvania had major 
firms and the principal body builder in 
California was the Walter M. Murphy 
Compain located in Pasadena. The Mur- 
phy company, because of the favourable 
climate, specialised in convertible 
bodies, building many on Duesenberg, 
Packard and Rolls Royce chassis. 

Many of the firms became well-known 
for building a particular body style, 
LeBaron made mainly sporty, open body 
styles, as did Murphy in California. 
Brunn and Company, the Derhani Bod\ 
Company and the Holbrook Company 
wore known for their fine town cars, 
phaetons, and convertibles. Locke and 
Company and the Rollston Company 
wore known for their elegant town cars, 
while the John B. .Judkins Company was 
recognised for its coupe and berline body 
styles; Dietrich Inc. was known for its 
convertibles and sleek sporty sedans. 
Many times a small production run of 
perhaps ten to thirty of a particular body 
style wore made for a major automobile 
manufacturer Dietrich Inc. did a num- 

ber of small production runs of converti- 
ble body styles for Packard. Lincoln, and 
Franklin, while LeBaron Inc. and Locke 
and Company made a number of phaet- 
ons for Chrysler and Lincoln. I hese 
small production runs, while still being 
considered a custom-made body gave the 
bod\ builders die needed revenue and 
took much less time to build than a one of 
a kind design for an individual customer. 
Many times a major automobile manufac- 
turer would like the fluid lines of a parti- 
cular custom -body style and arrange \\ it h 
the designer to have them adapted for 
their regular production models. 

Not very often, but on occasion an 
owner would become very fond of the 
custom body style of their particular 
motor car. When the running gear- 
chassis started to show signs of fatigue, 
instead of commissioning a body builder 
to make a completely new body the old 
body would lie removed and be com- 
pletely refurbished and mounted on a 
new chassis. The longer the span of time 
existed between mating an old body on a 
new chassis was, the more peculiar the 
end result may have looked. Asthe l!).'5()s 
progressed the fenderlines became more 
bulbous in an attempt to streamline, and 
if a body limit m the late lO'sJOs was mated 
to a chassis ten years newer, the end 
result often produced a product that was 
not very attractive. But, then those who 
chose to have this done wore rich enough 
not to care what people thought, they 
knew what they wanted and liked and 
that was all that mattered. 

The great depression ofthe 'SOstook its 
toll on the majority of the custom body 
builders. There was never anv great 
quantity of custom built automobiles to 
begin with and this low production got 
even less with the collapse ofthe stock- 
market in the fall of \iHl). The body 
builders for the most part did not start to 
feel the effect until UW1, many of the 
custom coach work firms closed then- 
doors from lack of work. A few ofthe 
body builders managed to survive by 
doing custom modifications to regular 
production bodies, the Derhani Bodv 
( oinpany existed until the early 1970s. 

It was an era that can never return, it 
was a time when the artists and craftsmen 
had free reign to create complete har- 
mony of design and turn that vision of 
d( sign into a rolling reality, carefully and 
slowly crafted in bronze, wood, alloy, 
fabric and leather. 

They were the land yachts of the 
twentieth cent urv and their oceans were 
the highways ofthe world. 

IE CONNOISSEl'R April 1980 



. CONNOISSEUR April 1980 

: connoisseur April 1980 

^Z v. 






Mario Amaya 


I Fifth Avenue in New York City 
grandiose Beaux-Arts style 
building designed by Thomas Hastings 
(of Carriere and Hastings) in 1!)2">. next 
to a modest mid-nineteenth century 
brownstone townhouse. These structures 
ho i i>c both the editorial offices of Forbes 
Magazine, Americas second largest and 
most influential businessmen's periodi- 
cal, and the Forbes Magazine collection of 
paintings, drawings and Faberge objects 
owned by Malcolm Stevenson Forbes. 

Son of an impoverished Scots immi- 
grant, who rose to become the best- 
k now ii financial columnist of his day and 
who founded Forbes Magazine in 1917, 
Malcolm Forbes, publisher, author, ex- 
state senator, t wire-decorated war hero. 
pilot, balloonist, motorbike enthusiast , is 
generally regarded as the last of the 
prodigal art collectors. His properties 
alone read like some International 
Heritage shopping list: the early seven- 
teenth century chateau di Balleroy in 
Normandy designed by Francois Man- 
sart; the Palais de Mendoub in Morocco; 
a I 71.(10(1 acre ranch in ( olorado; Lauca- 
la, a Fijiian Island, a fishing camp on 
Tahiti, not to mention a colonial family 
property in New Jerse\ and the tenancy 
peppercorn u gear of Old Battersea 
House, London, attributed to Sir Chris- 
topher \\ ren 

Old Battersea House contains a superb 
collection oi Victorian paintings, the 
special pro\ ince ol one of Forbes' sons, 
( hristopher ( 'harles, an art historian and 
general rina tor of the collections, as well 
as editor of tilth century art. In the 
palace in Morocco, where Mr. Forbes 
loves to entertain his Arab friends, are 

to\ soldier collect ii hi and a large 
group ol Nort h African pan 

I llfids. after almost a decade- 

I \ emeiit with polit ics, Malc< >lm 
- t drew I he full force of his prodi- 
gious em into Forbes Magazine. 
lie bi and under his 
leadership zinc underwent a 

■us expansion, bringing with it 
alt li w Inch would allow 

n " ■ . c, illeel ing in earnest . 

ic to hold back, he had soon 
largest collec- 
ts b\ ( arl Faberge outside 
of Russia Most of which is displayed in 

glass vitrines in the grand lobby of the 
editional offices building. 

With the largest collection of Imperial 
Easter eggs in private hands, the Forbes 
collection might easily be called the best 
of its type anywhere outside Russia 
itself, and in fact contains more Imperial 
Faster eggs than exist in the Soviet 
Union today. The 'Orange Tree' egg, 
presented by Czar Nicholas II to his 
mother, Maria Feodorovna in 1911, is 
probably the greatest of these eggs and 
the most fabulous of all the conceits 
dreamt up by Faberge. The tree has 
four main branches rising from a golden 
trunk which holds sprays of neophrite 
leaves and flowers of white enamel with 
diamond centres as well as fruits, of 
citrines, amethysts, pale rubies and 
champagne diamonds. This extraordin- 
ary tree sits in a tub of white agate 
overlaid with gold trelliswork, enriched 
with enamelled green swags and set with 
cabochon rubies. The whole thing stands 
on a neophrite base. But the 'surprise'. 
which every Faster egg had to have, is 
the real tour deforce. The top of the tree 
opens to reveal a singing bird which 
moves its head from side to side and flaps 
its wings as well as opening its beak. This 
incredible object has an ancestor in a tree 
created by Richard in Paris in the eigh- 
teenth century. 

Another egg, made for the Duchess of 
Marlborough, functions as a clock. It is 
of such superb materials and classical 
design that it overwelms one with its 
richness and craftsmanship. The most 
stunning egg. in my opinion, has three 
'surprises' inside. Firstly a yolk, which 
when opened reveals a superbly crafted 
enamelled brown hen, which when it is 
opened, reveals a small diamond stud- 
ded standing-easel that contains a pic- 
ture frame. This object, although con- 
taining a portrait of the Czarevitch, is in 
fact not royal. It was commissioned by 
Alexander Ferdinandoy itch Keleh for his 
wife, the former Barbara Bazanov who 
owned gold mines in Siberia. King 
Farouk ordered the stand of floral swags 
to hold it. 

The most stunning in terms of work- 
manship of all the 1381 pieces of Fab- 
erge currently in the collection is a silver 
presentation paddle-steamer some 29 

inches long displaying in minute am 
accurate detail miniature silver table 
stools, life-boats, and life-belts. It 
inscribed 'For the Heir Czarevitch, Alexi 
Nicolaevitch from the Volga Ship Builders' 
The interior which lights up has a musica 
movement which plays 'God Save th< 
Czar' and 'Sailing Down the Volga'. 

Other fantasies include a mi nature 
watering-can of Nephrite with a golc 
enamelled scarlet spout and handle; a 
minature basket of 24 exquisite sprays ol 
lilies-of-the-valley each with a nephrite 
leaf, the flowers of pearls on gold stems; 
and other items such as lorgnettes, cuff- 
links, and household objects like menu 
holders, ashtrays, decanter stoppers, 
vodka cups and kovshes. 

Christopher Forbes recalls the earlyj 
collecting days: the first piece of Faberge, 
which belonged to my mother, was a gold 
cigarette box which Father bought as a gift 
for her. Then he bought one or two ot 
Faberge things. He didn't get into buyim 
paintings seriously until well into the 
1960s. Up until then it was mainly decor 
ative objects. 

Knowing that people like to wor, 
surrounded with paintings, Forbes soon | 
stacked his staffs office walls with pic-U 
tures, ranging from enormous Frenchjl 
military paintings by Meissonier andjl 
Detaille to modern-day Realists. Then 
remainder of the collection is displayecH 
in the townhouse adjoining, where 1 
Forbes keeps his office and which is usefl 
for entertaining. 

Forbes' office was also designed bj| 
Thomas Hastings (1860-1929) at which' 
time the 1840s townhouse was complete 
ly renovated in the 1920s. Here is hung 
the great Rubens Cupid supplicati 
Jupiter's consent to his marriage with 
Psyche, a grandiose w r ork, of pre-1620. 

Above the fireplace is Reynolds' poi 
trait of the Irish peer Clotworthy, fir. 
Fori of Massereene, one of Reynold: 
earliest recorded portraits, painted be 
fore his first trip to Italy, and therefor 
dated c. 1744-6. Other works in the room 
include a wonderful RembrandtesqueJ 
Fort rait of a Lady by Morta Kronson 
Danzig, Claudio Bravo's Messaoud and 
his Son, Sir Frank Brangwyn's view of 
Tangier, 1888, Fromentin's The Lion 
Attack, signed and dated 1892, and Hen- 



ion paddle steamer. 
It nyth. !U inches. 

' ha ii ye tree eyy, by ( 'arl 
ny n jeu elled fruit the 
in ts its f wad, flaps 
its beak. 

(Bottom, riyht) Duchess of Marlborough 
eyy, by ( 'arl Faberge. The eyy u as made for 
the Duchess, the former Consuelo 
Yanderbilt, during a visit to Russia in 

1 '.><).>. 

(Right) Keleh hen eyy, by Carl Faberye, 
enclosing an enamelled lien and an easel 
bearing a portrait ofNicholasll. 

Photographs: II. Peter Curran. 

iik F rans Schaefel's The Sinking of the 
. >.ngeur\ 1S54. The staircase landing is 
cminated by the overwhelming (ius- 
i ,e Boulanger Hercules at the feet of 
Inphale, 1861. done the year the artist 
; inted Prince Napoleon and his friends 
lessed up in togas in the atrium of the 
laisoti Pompieanne . 

Apart from Bouguerau, Baron Leys, 
i hreyer, Benjamin-Constant, and other 
i ce unfashionable and now extremely 
pensive Salon artists of the nineteenth 
ntury. there is also a group of contem- 
iraries that might be considered equally 
f-beat. For instance, one room contains 
wall of Paul Cadmuses all bought in the 
rly 1960s. There is also a splendid 
bup portrait by John Koch of Mr. 
)rbes' family and an important group of 
her works by this twentieth-century 
mantic Realist. Christopher Forbes 
veals: Koch was commissioned again in 
)76 to do another family conversation 
ece. However, then the artist must have 
•ard that there were note twelve of us and 
e p dure was never started. 
Forbes bought a Monet waterlilies in 
le late sixities. and Christopher says. Of 
e \00 painted by him, this was very much 
ie out of kOO. My father agreed that it 

would be better to gather a collection that was 
the best of its type rather than just collecting 
the usual run of the null Impressionist 
paintings. So he snitched gears, since he 
had always liked genre pictures and began 
buying the French academics. The military 
paintings are one of his great enthusiasms. 

The Forbes collection of military 
paintings are mainly concentrated on 
four major artists: Jean bonis Finest 
Meissonier, Jean Baptiste Fdouard I)e- 
taille, Alphonse Marie de Neuville and 
Ftienne Prosper Berne-Bellecour. 

The younger Forbes notes. The English 
paintings were pursued with concentrated 
effort. We have added about forty pictures 
since the catalogue of English paintings was 
published. Sow it would be difficult to put 
together such a list of great Victorian pain- 
ters. We have managed to get major examples 
of almost everybody and a number of famous 
Academy pictures. The focus on the Acad- 
emy teas interesting because there teas 
always a lot of contemporary criticism and 
reaction to them, and thus they are not only 
works of art but important social documents 
of their own time. During this period Mr. 
Forbes continued with his autograph 
collection and his Faberge, / always 
preferred autographs with personal connec- 

tions. Fetters from Polk. Woodrow Wil 
sou, Coolidge, and Hoover among 
others, began to pile up along with letters 
from Paul Revere (the expense account 
of his famous ridel, and a diary ol a 
Hiroshima bomber. He also began col- 
lecting arabic bronzes, paintings and 
drawings, all of which were housed in his 
palace in Morocco and probabh re- 
present the largest collection of its ty | >(■ in 
the world. His favourites are the Toul- 
ouse-Lautrec whi h used to belong to 
Somerset Maughan; the Van (iogh and 
the Rubens. He admits his collecting 
taste is eclectic, and he even owns ki- 
netic art which is at his house in New 

He says of his various collections / 
would not like to sec these things 'frozen' in 
museums, but perhaps one day they will go 
back into the market place and be recycled . 
From his priviledged position as owner of 
one of the world's great financial papers. 
he gives us one hint: Everything we have 
bought and collected are all worth consid- 
erably more than the stocks and bonds, the 
pension funds and tli rift plans, that we have 
set up in the last two decades. Investors 
take note! 


Anton a Thorncroft 


i Iiisti iricallv pack 

■ >\ en lent s. A I i'i ac 1 \ 

pr< >duced Ii\ 

iuil\ I wised arm 11 nl 

ii I lie generation follow ing 

k . at I heir best . a significant 

mi |o art liiston Perhaps this 

ow in the past; perhaps it is 

British artists who are 

w standards of excellence. 

seems certain is that the great 

artist sol the post -\\ a r period 

Uothko, Johns, Lichtenstein. 

Motlw rw ell, Tw oinbly, Noland 

i\\ sell for e\ce|)tii diallv high, and 

to the point . stable | iriees. 

art is a lunch tinner. 

established market than its critics 

est Just as the finest ()hl Masters 

ii . - on tin- ma rket si i t he most 

\ ami artistically important 

works ot the modern school are now 

ii museums ami are beyond 

I In- 1 1 a i h of col lectors. \\ hen the Nat ion - 

( ,.i lien of \usl ra lia in ( anberra can 

II lollars for a painting 

i>\ Jackson 1'ollock, to he matched by a 
ice from I In- Nati< >nal ( iallerv in 


Washington lor another Pollock, even 
the Invest sceptic must pause to re- 
consider his blinkered hostility to the art 
i if t his period. 

One feature of modern American art is 
that the salerooms play a different, less 
i Ion i ma nt , role than in most other sectors. 
Sotheby's, the leading' auction house 
dealing in contemporary work, holds 
sales twice a year in New V>rk and 
London, but the output of some of the 
leading artists, such as Jasper Johns and 
Pollock, only rarely appears under the 
hammer. The dealers are much more' 
significant, sometimes with exclusive ac- 
cess to an artist, and often creating 
reputations and establishing price levels. 

The salerooms also have a reputation 
lor tickle prices and uncertain demand in 
this area. The percentage of lots bought 
in at a contemporary sale is usually much 
higher than average - last December in 
Loin Ion Sotheby's was very pleased with 
a L i~i per cent HI. But the substantial 
number of unsold paintings is really just a 
feature of the market, the result of over- 
optimistic reserves from owners who 
have paid too much in the first place for 

second-rate works, or a high price for a 
line painting attracting to the saleroom 
less important canvases from the same 
artist. In addition there is the very real 
problem of establishing stable price 
levels for artists who are still producing, 
given the vagaries of critics and cus- 
tomers and the lack of informed comment 
in the press on contemporary art. 

Then again modern American art did 
suffer badly during the great oil price rise 
recession of lt)74/.'j. This brought to an 
end an equally unreal boom. Fora couple 
of years in the early 'seventies newly 
enriched collectors were snapping up 
anything. Sotheby's in April 1974 had its 
most successful ever contemporary and 
modern sale with just 13 percent of the 
lots unsold; by December of the same 
year the bubble had burst and almost half' 
the lots, in value, were bought in. Some 
artists are only now recovering to the 
price levels of seven years ago, and of 
course, in real terms after inflation, 
prices are much lower. This is one reason 
why reserves are often irrational and 
pictures are unsold. 

Vet the fact remains that the work of 

< top artists has remained in constant 

: nand and prices have moved steadily 

> yards. The United States spawns mil- 

i laires by the thousand and many arc 

; -suaded to display their affluence by 

leeting contemporary American art. 

e country supports a large number of 

] -time artists and any work by a big 

, ne which becomes available is much 

i ght after. In December Sotheby's was 

•y pleased to have a Pollock to dispose 

n London and although it was only an 

on paper the good price of 154,00(1 

lars was realised. 

There is still a great deal of antagonism 
ween the dealers, who feel they 
nee red this market , and the salerooms 
ocame in rather late. Leslie Wadding- 
, one of the leading dealers in contem- 
•ary art who still operates from London 
?n though around 90 per cent of his 
ssare tooverseas buyers, is particular- 
trenchant about the auction houses. 
ere is an absence of know-how. The;/ are 
ling with reputations that are twenty 
rs ild. They are really trading in com- 
dities and are not interested in twentieth- 
^ury art. John Kasmin, another spec- 

ialist now working with the Knoedler 
Gallery, says people owning the top pic- 
tures rarely put them into sales. Auction 
houses get narks sent in by executors, or 
people going broke, or by dealers who hare 
g ire n up trying to sell the paintings. I reckon 
half the lots sold in London come from this 
last source. Sometimes the paintings in 
auctions are not eery well cared for: they 
hare a shop-soiled loid< 

Of course there are arguments on both 
sides. Kasmin admits that there are 
people (like the former Shah's family) 
who enjoy buying at auction. Some people 
distrust dealers - and pictures can go for 
bargain prices in sales. Leslie Waddington 
agrees on that last point. / have bought 
paintings in auctions and sold them almost 
immediately afterwards for double the price, 
thanks to the ignorance of the auction 
houses. Other advantages of dealers, 
apart from their greater knowledge, is 
that they can often offer a prospective 
purchaser a number of canvases by a 
particular artist and they also provide a 
service, especially in taking payment 
over a year or even accepting another 
painting in part-exhange. 


Frank Stella. Double Scramble, 
acrylic on canvas, 7JX/J'/ inches. 
Sotheby's, December 1979, £W,<)<)<). 


Jackson Pollock. Painting Number £]. 

oil on paper, signed and dated "Jf9\ 

l!)i/:X. ,'?'/: inches. 

Sotheby's, December 1979, £.70, (HH). 


/. « . i-l -x 


L _■- 


£k a 

* <>■&>'*, 

z£s. — X. v# -v* 

[ may r^»sntra 





-J J 

W!B| ' 

.oT^ ^* w*- 


^ ' -A -^ < - , ^ 


*J " 



'/»* •» - . ■'■■ 

Saul Steinberg. 

Table Series - Moonlight. 
ml. brass, rubber stamps ami mixed malm 
on panel , signed and dated ' 1974 . 

»'/ - 1 .' niches. 
Sotheby's, December I'.lt'J, €?.<><><>. 

The salerooms refute the criticisms. 
pointing out that the *20 per cent commis- 
sion they take, halt' from the buyer, half 
from the seller, is usually less than the 
dealer's mark up. Certainly in the last 
two years the reputation of the auction 
houses in handling contemporary Ameri- 
can artists has improved and in New 
York, which is the dominant centre, they 
are now getting some important works. 
Even so London can match New ^ ork in 
prices. It gave a good indication that the 
market was recovering its confidence in 
late 1976 when it sold a work by Cy 
Twombly for £66,000 and last December 
a collection of works by Christo, dating 
from 1904 to 1975, established new price 
levels for such mixed media creations at 
auction, the prices ranging up to £19,000. 
Leslie VVaddington can still remember 
when a Christo was offered for sale at 
Sotheby's New York by an auctioneer 
who giggled at the improbability of it all. 

As in every sector it would be ex- 
ceedingly foolish to buy modem Ameri- 
can art as an investment. Leslie VVad- 
dington is categorical: / nerer sin/ things 
will go up. Art is a poor inrestment. A case 
in point is Warhol. A few years ago a good 
example of his pop art might have sold for 
"200, 000 dollars: now a sum nearer 
100,000 dollars is more likely. Indeed the 
whole Pop Art movement is out of fash- 
ion, except, as always, the important 
historical works of the early 1956-60 
period by artists such as Liechtenstein and 
Rauschenberg who now have an estab- 
lished and historical reputation. 

Waddington, if forced to name artists 
that will stay in demand, prefers to 
pinpoint schools - the abstract ex- 
pressionists active between 1947-53, re- 
presented by Rothko, Pollock and New- 
man; the early colour Held paintings by 
artists such as Noland around I960; and 
the early pop painters. But. however 
much committed dealers might regret the 
mercenary element in the decisions of 


nirMWirnTH linn minimi inn minm i i . *uM 

il will not tin 

llv in a tunc of political and 

uncertainty when art locks a 

i ir mi v tlian paper cur- 

■ s I ndoubtedly the fluctuations in 

.liar have an impact on price and 

. 1 11 1 for contemporary American art. 

German and Swiss buyers who 

acquired painting's when the dollar was 

against their own currencies 

would now have difficulty in selling at a 

profit, given the recent decline in the 

\ nine of the dollar. Such factors are an 

taut reason why some ol the most 

il and ex | >en si ve works of this period 

rarely come up for sale. 

I i idol ibted l\ the economic climate has 
more impact on contemporary art than on 
silver, books, or Old Masters. Some 
nerve is required to pay high prices for a 
preference for the avante garde when it 
lacks the stamp of time. In a recession the 

adventurousness of much contemporary 
art looks foolhardy and collectors with- 
draw into tin- safe and the known. Anoth- 
er distinctive feature of contemporary art 
is that it is still a small market at the top 
level. AsThilo von Watzdorf, who heads 
Sotheby's London department says, it is 
not easy to get sales together. There are [en- 
large collections in Europe and since the 
whole business is just thirty gears old not 
mang people are prepared to sell off their best 
works. They are much more valuable these 
ilags than currency. He regards contem- 
porary art as a temperamental but an 
established market, theonly weakarea in 
his view being the photo realists. As 
compensation he is encouraged by the 
appearance at auction of works by Chris- 
to, which recently sold well in London. 
This coincides with a record saleroom 
price for a sculpture by David Smith, 
Voltri XX, sold in New York in Novem- 

ber. It went for IS.">, 000 dollars, a reeor< 
for contemporary American sculpture. 

In the same sale there were sixteei 
artist records, including an interestin) 
00,000 dollars for Tourists by I)uan< 
Hanson. This was not only an auctioi 
record for a super-realist work but whei 
the same sculpture appeared in the sale 
room in 1975 it had realised only 33,001 
dollars. The buyer was a London dealer 
Other notable records were the 62,501 
dollars for colour field artist Helen Fran 
kelthaler, and 35,000 dollars for a worl 
by the abstract expressionist Adolpl 
Gottlieb. A Morris Louis, Dalet Chet 
fetched 75,000 dollars, and a Rothki 
42,500 dollars. The auction underline< 
the fact that contemporary art is ver 
much a collector's market - 62 per cento 
the lots sold were secured by privab 
American buyers compared with 18 pe 
cent going to American dealers. Foreigi 

Ijalers took \i percent of the market. 

Sotheby's success has Keen I it ■ 1 1 >»■< 1 by 

ie achievements ot Christie's since it 

, arted holding auctions in New , * ork in 

[ )??. It lias Keen particularly prominent 

i contemporary art sales, perhaps be- 

• nise both vendors and dealers wel- 

■ inied the c< m 1 1 >et i tu hi to Sot lie by s, and 

, st summer secured prices ot l?o,o<)(i 

ollars for a Louis; 55,000 dollars tor a 

ork by Jim Dine; and 54,000 dollars for 

u Ellsworth Kelly. Hut such auction 

rices may well have been equalled and 

lore likely bettered at transactions 

irough dealers. 

This is the distinctive feature of con- 
Miiporary American art: no balance has 
et been reached between the dealers 
nd the salerooms. In many other fields, 
irough their influence with the media, 
ie apparent pureness of their trans- 
ctions, and the publicity given to high 

prices and the seeretiveness about (all- 
ures, the auction houses have seized the 
initiative. Since dealers are the main 
customers in most areas they cannot take 
their opposition lo the salerooms growth 
too far. Hut in contemporary art the 
dealers still think, probably correctly, 
that they have the edge, certainly in 
knowledge and perhaps in price. I he\ 
gel higher prices because the\ provide a 
better service. The gam for the vendor is 
obvious but the purchaser also benefits 
through better advice ami perhaps better 
financial terms. At the moment there is 
animosity between the two groups, but 
since their ultimate objective is the 
same - the general acceptance of con- 
temporary art as a fresh perspective on 
human emotions, but one that will re- 
main desirable for many decades to 
come, it is time to cut down on back biting 
and concentrate on co-operation. 


Alexander (.'alder. Coloinbe blanche 
painted metal , signed irith the initials 
and dated '70 ,>. ; X ) .' inches. 
Sotheby's, December 1U7D, £!),~>(H). 


Cy Twoinblv. Bolsena, 

oil, crayon and pencil mi canvas, 

signed and dated "(i!)'. 7U X U~i inches. 

Sotheby's, December 1D7U, £.1J,<><)(). 


Kyt.teW,iA3U3ttixxux^.t*/ni*-£i*H ,; ■ ■::diA 

Raymond Head 


in London there is 

unity In see an important col- 

m hi' textiles, including some Span- 

m and ( Mtonian silks, velvets 

ries. They w ere all collec- 

ning of this century by 

Baron Edniond de Rothschild and they 

of I he most important collec- 

to come up for sale. It is particularly 

sting for its collection of Ottoman 

textile- about which little is known. 

In the twelfth century Anatolia and 

the surrounding districts were firmly 

.\ the Seljuk Turks. However, by 

the beginning of the fourteenth century 

another tribe of central Asian origin, the 

< ►sinalllis called by the Europeans the 

Ottomans, hail ousted the Seljuks from 

control. On the death of Osman I in 1346, 

the Ottomans were poised to conquer 

Nicaea, (iallipoli ami most of Asia 

Minor They were halted in their expan- 

westward by another marauding 

compieror, rimur, who at the battle of 

Ankara in 140*2 captured the Ottoman 

leader Bayazid I. This successfully re- 

prieved the <>ld Byzantine Empire with 

ipital at Constantinople for another 

fift\ years, but in 1453 Mehmet ll. the 

uen 'I' . stormei I tin- city. It subse- 

l\ became the new capital of the 

an Empire m place of Kdirne. 

s being an incomparable war- 

Mehmet II was also a man of taste 

discernment. Through 

dice lie attracted the leading 

isalis. pi icts and w ritel's tu 

ing those from other 

ally Italy. At his 

( i mstanzoda Ferrara 

it cd his court. His 

extended tn the id 1 1 is 

I lie ( ienoese and 

who had tied the 

.en speedih 

' i ndeed I erchants, par- 

ic \ cm ith their trading 

>pe and the 


i ire Persia. Eg\ pt . 

Greece. Bulgaria and Hungary were 
under their domination. After passing its 
height in the sixteenth century, the 
Ottoman Kmpire continued until 1944 
when Turkey became a republic. 

All great art has to be created out of an 
already existing tradition and Turkish 
textiles are no exception. From the few 
fragments that are extant we know that 
the Seljuk Turks and certainly the By- 
zantine Empire had a highly-developed 
textile industry. These provided the 
basis for later Turkish manufacture. As 
early as the fourteenth-century red vel- 
vets are mentioned in the inventory of 
Orhan dated 1348. No examples of this 
earliest phase have survived, although 
illuminated manuscripts suggest that 
silks and velvets were originally plain. 

By the fifteenth century Bursa - the 
'Turkish Florence - was well established 
as the foremost centre of manufacture. 
Their weavers were highly accomplished 
and the rivals of the Italians. Their 
formidable technical achievements were 
such that they could manufacture textiles 
involving eight colours, as well as velvets 
decorated with silver and golden thread, 
dotted velvets and velvet brocades. In 
all ninety-one varieties are known to 
have been produced during the last 
quarter of the fifteenth century. That 
this period can even be considered a high 
point is indicated by a Code of Law of 
1504, drawn up for the city of Bursa 
which warned its artisans to keep to the 
old high standards of twenty-five years 
previously. Textiles from this period are 
rarely found. 

After the conquest of Constantinople 
textile manufacture began there in as- 
sociation with the court, and subsequent- 
ly in many other cities including Scutari 
and Aniasya. Some mills wove fabrics on 
looms, suitable for covering divans, 
while others made narrower rolls that 
could be used for garments and cushions. 

'Turkish textiles were in great demand 
throughout Europe and the Middle-Fast. 
In Europe many of the earliest examples 

which survive were initially copes, chas 
ubles and altar cloths. So great was th< 
demand that looms sprang up every 
where, so much so that at the beginninj 
of the sixteenth century the numbers o 
looms was restricted and quality control 
rigidly enforced. 

Textile designs afford an interestinj 
field of study and speculation. Many o 
their motifs are drawn from the natura 
world, as one would expect from thi 
exigencies of an orthodox Sunni religion 
Unlike Persian textiles, where animal 
ami people frequently appear, Ottomai 
art, at least the public art, was restricte< 
to the portrayal of flowers, trees an< 
geometrical shapes. The Turks seem t< 
have had a genuine interest in botanica 
studies and their traditional love o 
flowers exerted considerable influenci 
on seventeenth-century European horti 
culture. Not surprisingly this interes 
overflows into the art, being especially 
noticeable in their textiles, pottery anc 
tile designs. This study did not preven 
the designers from cultivating the ne\ 
patterns composed of hybrid flower.' 
tulips and carnations are frequentl, 
crossed as are artichokes and pomegra 
nates. Cherry blossom, five- and sever 
petalled lotuses, carnations, cypru 
trees, ivy-like tendrils and especially th 
tulip appear in designs. The tulip, 
native of Turkey, had been adopted a 
the emblem of the Ottoman house. Ac 
cording to a legend, the Suleiman mo; 
que at Edirne was built on a tulip gardei 
and it was near Edirne in 1554 that ! 
western visitor first recorded his in] 
pressions of seeing tulips. Another sourcj 
of designs was China. In 1452 Turkej 
had been granted special permission b 
the Chinese Emperor to import silks anl 
like the porcelain they were decorated 
One of the most famous designs consist 
of three discs and a Chinese cloud or tig< 
stripe motive. This is thought to have i 
origin in Central Asia, probably evolvii 
from the earliest shamanistic traditioi 
of the nomadic tribes. Certainly it is 

^ m 

Red velvet cushion cover with pattern in 
meted thread and green velvet, Turkish, 
seventeenth century, '<■'< ■' .'■'> inches. 
The handsome design consists of run s 
of large palmettes containing tulips and 
carnations. It n us our oj the must popular 
patterns of Turkish relicts and main/ 
variants arc known. At each cud oj the 
cushion are sir lappets, alternately gold . 
and silver containing tulip-like forms. 

imposing motif, dthough when it is com- 
bined with other mot it's, it loses its strik- 
ing atavistic effect. 

The designs themselves were most 
probably drawn by court artists as were 
the tile designs. Unlike Safavid Persia 
where Riza I'Abbassi, and Italy where 
Jacopo Bellini are known to have 
produced textile designs, in Turkey no 
names have come down to us. During the 
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, designs 
were very much based on European 
proto-types, especially those from Italy. 
There was, much interchange of ideas; so 
intricately did the reciprocal influences 
operate that it is almost impossible to 
unravel who copied what from whom. 

Italian merchants had traded freely in 
Constantinople for a long time, shops 
there sold the velvets of Genoa, Venice 
and Florence. Similarly Turkish artists 
visited Venice and the merchants had 
warehouses on the Grand Canal. All this 
led to great cultural exchanges and des- 
pite Papal pleas for a new crusade against 
the Turks, Italians openly sought their 
help in settling domestic political dis- 
putes. Italian designers had incorporated 
into their own patterns features like the 
five- and seven-petalled lotus and arti- 
choke which probably had a middle east- 
ern origin, but so enthusiastically had 
they been taken up, that they very much 
become their own. These textiles are 
more richly decorated than their Turkish 
counterparts which are more simple, less 
rich in effect. What the latter lacked in 
grandeur they replaced with a bold sim- 
plicity. This is especially so during the 
seventeenth century when Turkish de- 
signers returned to fewer colours and the 
use of silver and gold had been restricted. 
Crowns when they appear in Turkish 
textiles are an obvious Italian influence 
possibly having been made for export to 
Europe. It says much for the demand and 
appreciation of Turkish textiles, parti- 
cularly when of a lavish kind, that in 1574 
an order had to be sent to Bursa and 
Bilecik forbidding them to use gold in 
their fabrics as its extravagant use had 




il ry's supplies. 
si rve <»l the 

i in the seven- 
centuries. An the 
door and Liotard show, 
• indolent and 
I he textile industry was 
slightly. An the seven- 
it nry progressed Turkish weav- 
n became more indepen- 
r< ign influences. Delicate floral 
design, often resembling 
nclon the tiles of the period 
produced. This later development 


Red i eli et with tu o heights of pile and 
pattern in gold thread, Turkish, late 
si rteenth or early set enteenth century, 
assembled from several pieces, 

■ > inches. 

The Turkish designer and nearer have here 
run, hi ued their talents to produce a highly 
unusual textile which brings together 
dements from sei eral different traditions 
in a bold and thoroughly original 
composition. The rich velvet pile of the 

pound is woven in two heights, 
no ns to produce a Ion -relief pattern of 
,i run ih near floral lattice; both the 
pile on-pile technique, which is eery rare 
in Turkish i el icts. and the pattern itself 
inspired by Italian prototypes. Within the 
lattice are two motifs in gold thread. One, 
a large tulip flower, is typically Turkish. 
The other, a pointed oval cartouche 
containing a delicately drawn tulip plant, 
ones something to Safin id or Mughal 

(Far right ) 

Red i ell et a ith pattern in gold thread, 

Turkish, sixteenth century, two lengths 

■ tide liy fide, (>•'» • /•' inches 

■ insists of a run ilinear 
lattice, formed by a double stem clasped 

and enclosing enormous 
thistb different kinds. It is 

/ from the patterns oj Italian 
silks and i eli ets, but the Ottoman designer 
has ■ ! his model , eliminating 

detail ig the three dimensional 

ll to flat silhouettes. 

• the result , 
/ /// gold thread on 
r, in mi oj n imson i • i i et . IS 

Turkish large- 
<i rteenth 

IE coxxoissei'R April 1980 


.iii.i i-.»'.innti 1 ii rn»»niinni - r i 


■ ■ 


Blue satin with pattern in goldthread 
mill silk, Turkish, seventeenth century. 
assembled from several pieces, 
kSX.26 inches. 

As the seventeenth century progressed , 
European design-influences tended to 
disappear from Turkish weaving and the 
Turkish designers elaborated a fully 
independent tradition. The dense design oj 
this blue satin comp, ises two bold motifs in 
gold thread, outlined in cream silk; one is 
a large Turkish tulip flower, the other 
an unidentifiable plant. Each of these 
motifs is overlaid with thin arabesques and 
delicate stems of tulips, carnations and 
other flowers, in red, blue and green. 
This style, with its multitude of small 
plants superimposed on large plants, is a 
characteristic feature of Turkish textile 
design in the seventeenth century. 
Such patterns evidently appealed to the 
European public as something new and 
exotic and they were extensively imitated 
by Italian designers. 

(Far left) 

Blue velvet with pattern in gold and silver 
thread and red velvet, Turkish, seventeenth 
century, three pieces joined side by side, 
71 X52 inches. 

The blue colour of the ground is unusual 
in Turkish velvets. The pattern, simple 
but impressive, consists of rows of large 
star-shaped rosettes, containing smaller 
rosettes with radiating tulips and 
carnations. In the spaces between these 
large star shapes are cross-shaped motifs 
composed of four leaves radiating from a 
star. The same basic arrangements of rows 
of crosses fitted between rows of stars had 
been common in Near Eastern tile-work 
since the Middle Ages. Velvets with pattern 
of this type were evidently very pojnilar in 
Turkey and a number of variants are 
known, some of which have been assigned 
to the sixteenth century; a seventeenth- 
century dating seems preferable 



mier which 
. i|)ied by Kuro- 

eing these 

I hat the\ 

er tor gar- 

Kven though the 

\ sophisticated in 

their art and 

heir furnishings that 

■ || nomadic ori- 

is always sparse even in 

iiiseholds. Around the re- 

,\ere divans spread with 

ered with cushions of 

i ami wool fabrics in the winter, and 

,n, .I Mlk in tin- summer. Lady Man 

\ Montagu described the scene in 

rooms are nil spread with Persian 

>s, and rinsed at one end about tiro 

This is the sofa, which is laid with a 

urpet, and all around it a sort 

■ h, raised half a foul , covered with rich 

sill: Mine is a senrlet cloth, with a gold 

f'riiKjt about this are placed, stund- 

ujainst the u all. Two rows of cushions, 

, ry large and the next little ones; 

an,! here the Turks display their greatest 

magnificences. They are generally limeade , 

ndery of gold u ire upon u lute 

satin imtliing inn look more gay and 


li < i cushion coi er a ith pattern in 
t thrt ml and green l elect, 
i uteenth century, 

I m press u e design slum s a i cry large 
ct utra ith u decorated i use 

nations, tulips and other 
I tin four corners are more tulips 
ul at i <i<-lt end si i lappets, 
ild, contain 

Id uitil silt er 
h century, 

fo combine 

i brutally 
I urge 






panne Hebuterne. Self-portrait, 

u tercolonr on paper, 15 X .i.~> cm. 
t nine Modigliani Collection. 


tanne Hebuterne. 

ortrait of Modigliani reading, 

incil on paper, 27.5 X 25 cm. 

tanne Modigliani Collection. 


Carol Matin 

marine Hebuterne is chiefly reinem- biographers emphasise her slavish devo- likely a chief cashier in a large store, 
?red as Modigliani's last and most un- t ion t<> him and her suicide at the age <»f and Kudoxie-Anais Tellier, a housewife, 
ibrtant lover, whom he painted at least twenty-one, two days alter Modigliani s They also had an older son Andre who 

venty-five times and drew many tunes own death. Paradoxically, Jeanne's was to become a landscape painter. The 
ver. Although in recent years, some suicide caused the price of Modigliani's family lived on the Montague Sainte 
lention has Keen made of Jeanne works to rocket whilst at the same tune Genevieve, behind the Pantheon on 
(ebuterne's pencil portraits of Modig- eclipsing her artistic value in favour of the South Hank of Pans. Hebuterne 
ani, the fact that she was a gifted artist in the tragic figure she had become. Taiin recent con vert to (at holi- 

er own right has been neglected, despite Jeanne Helm as born on (i April i neophyte, 

er talent having been acknowledged by 1S!)S, the daughter of Achille-Casimir- I t< liavi read Pascal to Jeanne and 

^temporaries. Most of Modigliani's Hebuterne, an accountant or more her mother as they peeled potatoes. 

itherwise had a conventional 
I \ the 
violin. I he fact I une a 


I the 
■■■■ IIM lww «' MM1 iTirninwiMiiminm™rimiiTi 

iterne. Landscape 

I) I cm. 
, } nun ( 'ollection. 


(liujht, above) 

Jeanne Hebuterne. Modigliani's face, 
pencil on paper, 21.5 X 27 cm. 
Jeanne Modigliani Collection. 

Jeanne Hebuterne. Modigliani 
drinking in a cafe, pencil on paper. 
Sold by Sotheby Parke-Bemet in 1973 
as a Modigliani self-portrait of 1910. 
Present whereabouts unknown. 


■ . '■' ' 



•j.scinated Foujita. Yet her shyness and 
•■•ticence contrasted with her sense of 
1-ess; from contemporary accounts and 
Wodigliani's portraits of her, she was 
> ven to wearing turbans and hats and 
Making strikingly original clothes in reds 
rid violets, greens with ochres, which 
ere unusual colour combinations forthe 
eriod - though perhaps less so in the 
arnival atmosphereof Bohemian Mont- 
arnasse. Her only surviving self-por- 
•ait seems to bear this out. It is believed 
y her descendants to have been painted 
efore she met Modigliani, when she was 
bout eighteen years old. It is also the 
nly watercolour we know, measuring 
5 X 35 centimetres and shows her head 
nd shoulders; she is dressed in red and 
ears an unusual floppy grey hat and a 
ecklace of bright turquoise beads. The 
iongation of the lace and neck strangely 
refigures the style she was to learn from 
lodigliani and the sharp directness is 
characteristic of all her work. The 
iortrait is a competent amalgam of fra- 
ctional teaching and contemporary 
chniques, and the medium is handled 
ith great sensitivity. 
Jeanne Hebuterne met Aniedeo 
►lodigliani in July 1917. He was then 
lotorious for his temper and drinking 
ather than for his painting which was 
inly beginning to sell; he was a Montpar- 
uisse character, a swagger Bohemian, 
taunchly independent of any artistic 
ontroversy; he was also very handsome 
Hid his hypnotic gaze (partially caused, 
;dniittedly, by the continuous use of 
■ocaine) had been the glory and the ruin 
)f many a woman on the South Bank. 
Ait hin a few months, Jeanne and Modig- 
iani were living together in cheap hotels 
n Montparnasse; it was only by July l!)l!) 
hat they finally moved into a studio- 
ipartment of their own at 8 rue <!e la 
irande Chaumiere. In terms of back- 
ground and culture, they had nothing in 
•omiiion, for Modigliani came from an 
'xtremely cultured and liberal Jewish 
amily in Livorno. Perhaps at this time, 
■ach corresponded to the other's ideal. 
Modigliani. by now, was tired of strong- 
n.nded women who insisted he consider 
hem as equals; he now wanted the 
•eassurance of a completely imques- 
ioning relationship built around his 
mmediate needs. Jeanne brought up in a 
conventional family where decisions 
.vere taken by its males, never had the 
leep personal conviction of the ini- 
>ortance of her own talent and probably 
suffered from chronic emotional insecur- 
ity (and instability too, it has been said). 











J e '• 





er the J 


- ■ • ' '■' 

[t is one oi tins 

I e Matarazz 

theii • • taioj 

• ■ • " - 
. • • • 

• • ■ ? e 1 se . In t h< I . 

P face as a nan 

• - - 

- • . f Doi 

i • | 


• ■ ed. All his 
• ■ • tighi 

age and would not have 
" rans- 
parent .* was becoming. Fort: • n 

.. - >f Modig- 

thei - -■ and all the photo- 
re very posed. But there 
reas i t i defend himself ft i 
sen 1 -■ " 

Heroic Bohei : the drawir.^ 

e the authorised photographs: the 

- : the Modigliani legend has 

■ out of: ■ ■ sion of him. 

Modigliani encouraged her efforts. 

his influence upon her is 

Jeanne to have 

: a personal style and the 

ich more to come. In the 

drawings showing Modigliani 

reading, the line is much more pr< 

:j even, than Modigjiani's of the 

terested than he had 

e late 1917. in making 

iriious patterns on paper that 


points arc- Modigjiani's own 

powerful features and his concentration 

on his reading. We see Modigliani as 

quiet and studious, sur- 

by books and art magazines He 

prefer reading in bed. a wise 

move seing that when he reads by the 

the cold makes him wear his coat. 

The poses arc >o natural and un- 

,ed, and Modigliani seen 

oblivious of the artist that nowhere in 

" ese portraits is Jeani resence felt, 

• in the actual handling of the 

technique. This remoteness is in direct 

contrast to Modigliani's conception of 

portraiture. The drawings that show him 

reading in bed by candlelight present the 

furnishings and show Modigliani in 

ime position, except that the angle 

has been shifted. The frontal view is 

i own to !>e by Jeanne and is in Jeanne 

1 jdigliani's collection; the other is re- 

i ted to l>e a Modigliani self-portrait in 

■ Alsdorf collection in VVinnetka, 

I inois. Pierre Sichel in his monograph 

i Modigliani has described it as ,S'<7/- 

( rtrait in bed. Even sick and exhausted us 

i appears to be here, Modigliani was still 

\ a tching. Yet Modigliani, who does not 

I pear to be particularly ill seems to be 

1 sorbed in the reading of his nevvs- 

per. The tranquillity of the atmos- 

tere, as well as the incidental details 

d stylistic features surely indicate that 

e author of these two drawings must be 

ie and the same. All these features are 

esent in the other portraits of 

odilgiani - which we know to be by 

anne; the one showing Modigliani at a 

ble is slightly more hesitant in line and 

ore constricted: it may have been 

•awn a little earlier, although Paillette 

turdain has dated it on the drawing as 

MS. In the case of such a brief career as 

at of Jeanne Hebuterne, a few months 

• weeks even, can make a significant 

fference. In these drawings, Jeanne 

so reveals herevident talent at still-life; 

c\ arc self-complete balanced in their 

.vn right and draw n in the Cubist idiom 

[odigliani was said to abhor - which 

4'ain shows the independence of 

'anne s endeavours. 

There are also in her daughter's col lec- 

OIls two still-life drawings. The first is 

iccinctly drawn in a Cubist mode. 

lowing the statutory bottle and jug, on 

hat appears, from the evidence of other 

rawings, to be Modigliani's night-table; 

ic planes interpenetrate and it anv- 

ody's style would appear to have been 

not i'd. it is that of Juan (iris; but as this 

as the prevalent style of the period 

Inch affected paintings and graphics, 

lere is no reason to name anv one source 

i preference to another: Jeanne's adop- 

on ol it in this respect is far more 

nportant than any traceable source 

he other drawing is a view of a table In 

n open window; the cup, coffee, pot, 

lasses, bottle and bowl overlap in a 

lore naturalistic manner and are drawn 

i'li a completely self confident hand. 

■ ith no corrections. Jeanne must have 

ecu | > leased with I he m as I hex arc both 

Igned 'Hebuterne' in her peculiar 

lackward-slanting writing. It is interest 

llg to see that she does not siyn her 

christian name, so that her works could 

onceivably be taken for those ol a man 

Their studio-apartment in the rue de la 

i rand C ha unite re cert a in I \ looked like a 

u bi si st ill life, with bottles, newspapers 

and cigarette ash everywhere which 
Jeanne apparently never swept; she did 
not cook either and they took their meals 
at Rosalie's restaurant. She did not look 
after her baby daughter (also called 
Jeanne) and she was sent to be cared for 
by a wet-nurse in the country. 

The two other portraits are believed 
by some critics to be self-portraits by 
Modigliani; they present many similar- 
ities: one shows Modigliani at a cafe and 
the other has in the background a canvas 
on its stretcher, drawn perhaps in the 
studio he was living in with Jeanne 
Sotheby Parke-Bernet has described the 
first one as drawn in 1910 and the other 
one in the Alsdorf Collection in Chicago 
is said to date from 1918/19. Yet in 1910. 
Modigliani was beginning to concentrate 
on sculpture and his drawings generally 
relate to those endeavours. He was only 
to start drawing people regularly in 

cafes, after he had given up sculpture 
around mid-1914; he also needed quick 
cash as his allowance from Italy had been 
stopped because of the war. Then, the 
authoritative pose and the loose Mowing 
line that characterise both drawings 
point to the Chicago dating for both 
works. Furthermore, the rapid rounded 
notation that indicate shoulder, sleeve 
and glass are >ery typical of the last 
period of his work, that is from r. 191? 
onwards. Already in the drawings of 
Modigliani reading. Jeanne has bor- 
rowed a couple of these stylistic 
features - others include the way hands 
and fingers are drawn. Modigliani was 
Jeanne's mentor and constant inspiration 
and. as was noted at the period, exercises 
in his style were bound to happen. If we 
look at all these drawings of Modigliani 
brow sand mouth and sense of precision in 
the rendition of the expression are closer 




111- c tiwoissi i u .\pril I'.'SO 

' '- I I 


— a 

of 1919 



- - t is 


■ • >f 
-■ - : ' 

style, an 
In rawing f- 

fi e has 


• • 

1915 to 1916 t <fthe 

- 5 a l ire timid attempt to 

ith a technique and to learn 

. • is in this 

. : . ere always a sign of respect for 

ni Yet he never painted Jeanne 

sually with either blank 

- blueor brown, depend- 

His changing 

• towards Jeann< -traced in 


puple -pent about a year, from 
g of 1918 onwards in the south of 
e. to < --.ape the hardships of war- 
Paris which were too much of a 
Modigliani's fragile health, and 
es Jeanne was now pregnant. She 
drew him dozing in a deckchair. with a 
eniently at hand. The drawing 
•v sadly faded. From this period 
• her only known landscape, a large 
su ring 73 X 61 centimetres 
and signed 'Hebuterne'. The large oO 
painting, which is the only surviving 
work in this medium, shows a dizzy view 
ourtyard seen from a high window 
- a - -'• ' prefiguration of her own 
it was probably painted in Nice in 





1 ? hotel room they occupied shortly 
» fore the birth of their (laughter. The 
>; lette is Cubist, autumnal browns and 
peens but the success owes nothing t<» 

yone but herself. Paulette Jourdain 
; ys that she regidarly went on drawing 

the Academie Colarossi, but no sur- 
ving life-drawings have as yet been 
! scovered. It has also been said that 
ter her death, a scries of drawings were 
und where Jeanne has portrayed lier- 
i If Lucrezia-style, holding a dagger to 
•r breast, but these too are lost. 

Jeanne's way of life moved around 
odigliani's and never did he appear to 
ake any concessions to what might have 
■en her needs; she would wait up for him 
■ go to fetch him at La Rotonde, stand- 
g in a corner for hours sometimes whilst 
1 went on drinking. She never ques- 
iiied his use of drinks or narcotics, 
?ver attempted to curb them. It has 
•en said that he was violent to her. even 
: public and despite the fact that she was 
regnant most of the time; yet she never 
sacied, never protested but according to 
aulette Jourdain, would sulk like a child 
>r hours and she would often ask 
aulette - who was fourteen at the time, 
ut often felt more mature than her - to 

take her hand as if to still her ever 
recurring fears. Her child-like conduct 
extended into irresponsibility; not only 
did she not take any interest in her 
daughter - of the two, Modigliani was far 
more the parent - but also when he was 
dying, she never once thought of calling 
in a doctor but watched his agony, as 
desperately helpless as he was. Jeanne 
seemed to have reached such mental 
numbness that even the most elementary 
reactions were stunted. When Modigliani 
finally died of tubercular meningitis, on 
^24 January 19"20, she was primarily over- 
come by her loneliness and above all by 
the fact that the centre had gone from her 
life. Her parents, to whom Paulette says 
she went willingly, did not make her feel 
welcome: Jeanne was not even allowed to 
sleep with them in the flat in which she 
had been brought up. The Hebuternes 
were furious at her return, now an un- 
married mother of two prospective half- 
Jewish children, and Paulette is con- 
vinced that it was their attitude which 
finally drove her to suicide. 

Jeanne was hurriedly buried in a 
cemetery in Bagneux, only days after 
Modigliani's triumphant funeral at the 
Pere Lachaise cemeterv which everv 

artist and writer in I 'an sat tended. It «;i^ 
only years later that Modigliani's brother 
obtained the Hebuternes permission to 
rebury Jeanne beside him at the Pere 
Lachaise It was the Modigliani family 
who brought up their daughter Jeanne; 
Andre Hebuternc is still alive but has 
consistently refused to meet Jeanne 
Modigliani or talk about the past. 

Everyone in Paris who ever met 
Jeanne Hebuterne in Paris knew that 
she was highly gifted. Some of the early 
appreciations oi Modigliani mention it as 
well. One of the earl 1st and most sensitive 
comments is to be found in Francis 
Carco's obituary of Modigliani and 
Jeanne in L'Evenement: Tins young 
woman who killed herself before she was able 
to curry out fully the promises of a genuine 
talent, refused to survive the man whom she 
loved and guided her in her art. 

I dedicate this article to Jeanne 
Modigliani. My thanks are due to 
Madame Paulette Jourdain and 
Mademoiselle Laure Neschtheim. 
'Modigliani' by Carol Mann will lie 
published by Thames and Hudson in the 
Spring, priced £5.95 or ££.95 in 


in < uwoissi i n April I'JSD 

l.i/iuir 'I horn ton 


Mariano Fortuny \ Madrazo was not just 
re a t or of clot lies from another world 
1 le was also a painter, 
ilier, engraver, decorator and 
ol furniture and avant-garde 
|)plianees Horn in ( iranada in 
IK? I , son oft lie painter Mariano Fortuny 
\ Marsal, lie was to develop a taste lor 
<otic and the oriental through the 
moorish splendours of the Alhamhra ami 
I'm Moroccan furniture, textiles and 
objects brought back b\ his father from a 
campaign in North Africa under General 
Prim I he famiK moved to Home and 
eventually to Venice, after the death of 
n\ jh n\ Trained as a painter in 
Paris and nourished m his love for 
sumptuous (alines b\ his mother's 
collection ol Renaissance velvets and 
brocades, Fortun\ set upon his own in 
a one-roomed studio in the Palazzo 
Pesaro Orfei. on the (am po San He net o. 
I lie palace, famous in the sixteenth 
centurx tor its great receptions, was, by 
1900, ramshackled, neglected, and in- 
habited i>\ three hundred and fifty local 
men Kortuny gradually managed 
tn oust these si | natters and take over the 
whole building. He then installed work- 
shops for textile printing, engraving, 
photography, carpentry, painting and 
technical research. I here, he and his 
i<l a w i >rld w huh w as out of its 

wife, Henriette, held the 

i4 tin- glorious colours used for 

fabrics. She imported pig- 

- from Hra/il. indigo from India. 

Mexico, ancient eggs 

lie w hite w as Used to fix the 

id stacks i if si raw from 

\ ellow . Shimmering 

ses in plum, turquoise, 

lender . pale 

pink and cherry red. the clinging 

di licat( t'rillv mush rooms; 

i s; hea\ _\ gold and 

i ' \ e 1 1 e t I a 1 1 ' :■ 

k w ith silver and 

edged with fur: saris as soft as moths' 
wings; kimonos in stencilled cotton; 
togas; djellebas; burnous; gauze tabards 
festooned with irridescent glass beads 
from Murano. These were to transform 
into dream creatures some of the best- 
known women in the artistic and fashion- 
able circles of the time. Isadora Duncan, 
Sarah Bernhardt, Eleanora Duse, la 
(asati dressed a hi Fortuity, so did the 
countesses Morosini and Halbi-V allier, 
the Duchess of Gramont, the Princess 
Mdivani, Madame Jose-Maria Sert. 
Madame Volpi, the Gramatica sisters. 
His clothes were recorded in literature 
by Proust. Mary McCarthy, Paul 
Morand, L. I*. Hartley, d'Annunzio. 

During the 1920s and 1930s, Fortuny 
opened shops in Paris and New York to 
sell his clothes and accessories, de- 
corated Consuelo Vanderbilt's new 
house, transformed the salon of Marie- 
Laure de Noailles and the gaming rooms 
of the Hotel Excelsior on the Lido. He 
experimented with his own cyclorainic 
lighting system for the stage and de- 
signed decors and costumes tor opera, 
theatre and ballet in Paris, Berlin, Dres- 
den, Madrid and Home. Fortuny paten- 
ted every one of his inventions, terrified 
at the thought of being plagiarised . . . 
ironically enough, as the motifs for his 
textile designs were themselves taken 
from Coptic Egypt, India. Byzance, 
Flanders. Islam. .Japan, Renaissance 
Italy, antique Greece. But it needed 
Fortuny 's genius to use all these diverse 
sources in order to create clothes of such 

Fortuny, who died in 1949, left the 
Palazzo Orfei to the Spanish Govern- 
ment, who declined the bequest, as the 
building needed too much money to 
restore. His widow, Henriette. then gave 
the palace to the City of Venice. How- 
ever, before the creation of a Fortuny 
Museum in the mid 1960s, a number of 
-ales were held; not only Fortuny clothes 
but the old textiles, furniture and arms 

which had enriched the palace were sold 
for a song. Liselotte Hohs, a painter 
living in Venice, was one of the lucky 
people who was able to buy Fortuny 
dresses, capes and jackets in pristine 
condition during this period - her collec- 
tion was built up between 1958 and 1964. 
She lent a part of it in November last 
year to the Alain Blondel Gallery in Paris 
for the launching of a book on Fortuny. 
Written by Anne-Marie Deschodt, it is 
published by a new company based in 
Paris, Editions du Regard. The colour 
photographs were taken by Sacha Van 
Dorrsen and many of the black-and- 
white illustrations were printed from 
Fortune's own plates. 

Another book, 'Mario Fortuny, His 
Life and Work", this time in English, will 
be published this spring by the Aurum 
Press in London. The author, Guillermo 
de Osma, has given as much importance 
to Fortuity's role as an artist and de- 
signer as to his clothes. Happily, there 
will soon be an opportunity of seeing 
Fortuny s work in real life. From 19 April 
to 13 July, the Musee Historique des 
Tissus, 34 rue de la Charite, Lyons, will 
be holding a big Fortuny exhibition. | 
There will not only be textiles, photo- 
graphs, engravings, paintings, a theatre 
maquette and personal souvenirs, but 
around a hundred costumes which have 
been lent by French, American and 
English museums as well as private 
collectors. The Parisian Societe Ecart, 
who re-edit models by exceptional design 
ers of the early twentieth century, will be 
lending two lamps based on Fortuny's 
originals. The Lyons musuem has had 
many requests from institutions abroad 
wishing to take on the exhibition, but 
many of the fabrics are extremely fragile 
and packing and transport always entails 
a risk. However, the Fortuny exhibition, 
sponsored by Alfa Romeo, will be housed 
this autumn in the Brighton Museum, 
Sussex, home of the highly active De- 
corative Art Society. 


, ail of a 'Dclphos' dress in silk taffeta, n ilh 
i illn siccus. I'atenteil ni I'.illi, this technique 
tleating silk nits to make rortitni/ s name 
l, ■ inspiration for these cli input/ a ml pleated 
i uses came from mi ancient (iri'i'k statue. 

I, t to m I 

' • Fortuity museum in \ cilice, 

■ -elite Paluzzn I'esaro-Orfet. 

I licit,!, I 

Short emit it /III put/otlu s/i i ' * n /;/ .*///, 
struck ii itli silicr Itirtiini/'s lu.rnrious jackets 
ami coats nert it urn hi/ tashioiialtle iconn ■ 
his • I M pints' dresses 

tlititttnii, centre) 

Sill.' i el i el ili/eil u itli enelii ueul anil s tin el n itli 
i/old , ni fiftccittli-ccntiiru \ enetiiiii uispi ration 


'imp a lilt i, 
atljiislalili trtpittl hose 










' » 




\\ est 

th the 

I rl ai 


■iouth Ai 



. ietry 


. tinwood. tulip- 


- available gners 

•'the principal 

work is the ham 

in a unifying 

ttic woods allowed 

if marquetry to achieve 

re fully, a goal 

would I eeri difficult to attain 

ted range of native wood-. 

ed with sophist ted know- 

■ cutting and 

•ods wen 

the development of curved 

furnit lly true on the 

be chests 
and curved-fn modes which de- 

ed on tulipwood and kingwood for 
decorative effect, 
igh solid mahogany and figured 
eneer dominated Chippen- 
>tyle to the exclusion of most other 
tic woods played a crucial 
part in the development of the lighterand 
re produced in the 
if the i ighteenth century. 
Judicious use of exotic veneers was a 
favourite device used to lighten and 
enhance the beauty of the background 
wood, which was generally mahogany, 
e rare woods allow- 
ed the evolution of a furniture style 
which, as with Stuart and early Queen 
Anne furniture, relied heavily on sur- 
decorated with contrasting but har- 
monious rare veneers for their aesthetic 

Despite their value exotic woods did 
not attain the importance or widespread 
use of walnut or mahogany, the main 
wood- of cabinetmaking during the eigh- 
teenth century. Their use was generally 
restricted to achieving colourful effect- 
and highlighting or else in veneer decor- 
ation, particularly in marquetry or the 
later Adam and Sheraton style-. Pieces 
were constructed entirely of rare woods. 
usually satinwood, rosewood, or padouk; 
but these pieces were exceptions to the 

general practice of using walnut or ma- 
hogany for furniture construction. 

There are several reasons for the i 
tricted use of rare woods and the ah 
exclusive use of them in veneer form. 
Economic factors dictated to a . 
extent what uses the woods were put to. 
Most of the timber-, were limited in 
number of trees growing and the actua. 
-ize- of the trees, making the wood rare 
and therefore expensive. Economising, 
was accomplished by sawing the wooc 
into veneer and applying it onto carcases 
of less expensive woods, such as deal or 
oak. Limited supplies also prevented 
rare woods from attaining the importance, 
of walnut or mahogany, which were 
available in far greater quantities. This 
w as particularly true of mahogany in the 
mid- and late-eighteenth century, when 
entire shiploads of prime mahogany were 
to England on a regular basis. 

In addition, manv rare woods came 
from small or twisted trees, making the 
wood unsuitable for solid construction 
and usable only in veneer form. This was 
especially true of ebony and East Indian 
satinwood but affected many other tim- 
ber-. Many rare timbers come from small 
tree-, but in the East Indies this problem 
of natural smallness was compounded by 
extensive cutting of the most desirable 
tr< es This had been accomplished by the 
Indian and Eastern traders long before 
the Europeans came, leaving only smal- 
ler, second growth trees. In the Carib- 
bean (but not in Honduras) prime virgin 
timber was harvested in the seventeenth 
century and cut out in the early to mid- 
eighteenth century, again leaving only 
the -mailer and less desirable trees to be . 
taken later. Especially affected was West 
Indian satinwood at one time available in 
substantial size and suitable for solid 
work. By the late eighteenth century all 
the prime satinwood had been cut. leav- 
ing only small numbers of inferior wood 
suitable only for veneer. 

A final factor necessitating the use of 
veneer was that often the woods were so 
unstable and liable to checks and twisting 
that they could only be used in veneer 
form, applied onto a stable base wood 
such as deal or oak. Zebra wood, from 
Jamaica, was notorious among cabinet- 
makers because of its tendency to shrink 
violently and rapidly unless worked with 

(t utmost patience and understanding. 

ivever, satinwood and rosewood were 
it able exceptions to the predominant 
it of exotic woods in veneer form. Their 
m )ility and relative abundance during 
It early eighteenth century accounts for 
tt ir widespread use and the existence of 
pees made of the solid woods, parti- 
( arly Georgian satinwood furniture. 

lad it not been for problems of sup- 
i; , expense, and working difficulties, 
t' re probably would have been far more 

< rk done with exotic woods. Designers 
( tainly had no prejudices against them, 
i -an be seen by contemporary accounts 
i f the colourful and imaginative pieces 
' ich have survived. We also know from 

< itemporary accounts that many new 
ods were experimented with in the 

< .enteenth and eighteenth century, 
i heating a willingness on the part of 
I th designers and craftsmen to try new 
1 iods. Only rarity and difficult working 
| aperties prevented their wider use. 

Prior to 1650 and the settlement and 
i ve opment of the West Indies and 
. nericas England got most of her exotic 
llnbers from the East. Some woods, 
I rticularly boxwood, came from the 
>ar East, but most were drawn from 
rica, India, and the East Indies. 
' lough composed of a wide variety of 
■ )ods. these shipments consisted mostly 

< ebony, satinwood, sandalwood, sapon 
>od, snakewood, and amboigna. 

As early as Kilt) the Dutch and 
>rtuguese were familiar with many of 
le choice woods available in the East 
rough their extensive trading in the 
iea. Because of the dangerous voyages 
ick to Europe it was common tor 
erehant ships to conduct inter-Asian 
fading before returning home, and we 
low from letters of (he East India 
pmpanies that their ships often trans- 
ited timber and furniture in the area 
'fore returning home. Knowledge of 
e woods and where they grew came 
)OUt because of this trade Not only did 
ic Dutch and Portuguese bring back 
lipments of the woods; exposure to the 
laid and carved designs of the East 
ifluenced the development of later 
uropean styles, particularly mat- 
net ry 
English difficulties in procuring these 
■suable Eastern woods were two-fold. 
irst, the competition in the area was 
erce. The English were forced to com- 
ete and fight with Indian. Arab, Dutch, 
nd Portuguese traders, which made the 
•ade a difficult and hazardous business, 
■onsequently attention focused on high 

profit items such as spices and cottons, 
rather than on general trade. Exotic- 
woods came back haphazardly, and were 
rarely (if ever) exclusively sought by 
English ships. The second problem asso- 
ciated with the Eastern trade was that 
the rare woods had been prized for 
centuries, and the best timber had al- 
ready been cut. Trade in the woods 
increased after 1650 when the English 
military and trade position in the East 
had unproved with the expulsion of the 
Portuguese. Trade in the area was al- 
ways a risky business. 

European demand for the various 
woods was very strong throughout the 
seventeenth century, especially during 
the marquetry period. There was also 
much curiosity about timbers of newly 
settled areas, and an open mindedness 
about using them in furniture. The 
English and European experience m the 
East introduced them to the possibilities 
and excitement of rare woods. This 
realisation contributed to Europeans 
quick and appreciative use ot exotic 
woods in other parts of the world 

Of all the areas supplying cabinet 
wood to the diversified and demanding 
English furniture makers in the eigh- 
teenth century the Caribbean became by 
far the most productive and important. 
As mentioned, getting wood from the 
East posed problems for the English. 
There were also at least four circum- 
stances which made it particularly ad- 
vantageous for the British to draw their 
timber from the West, not all of them 
specifically related to the furniture 
trade. One important advantage which 
the British had in the West Indies was a 
supremacy in trade and military matters 
over other European countries. This was 
extremeh important to the economic 
development of the area as it allowed 
relatively unhindered emphasis on trade 
and economic matters rather than on 
military consolidation. Until the mid- 
eighteenth century the precarious posi- 
tion of the English in the East was a 
severely inhibiting factor in their trade 
with the area. Control of the Caribbean 
allowed the English to develop the assets 
of the islands, turning them into plant- 
ations and supplying England's agricul- 
tural needs. The blessings of the islands 
were all carefully noted by early settlers, 
from fertile soil and good weather to vast 
virgin forests. Rapid clearing of land for 
sugar and cotton plantations may have 
been a reason for the settlers' early 
familiarity with the various woods of the 
island We do know that export of trees 

felled in land i a as seized on as a 

way of turning an additional profil from 
the land aside from cash crops such as 
sugar, tobacco and cotton. In the early 
vears of settlement satinwood was the 
best known exotic wood of Jamaica, but 
by KiSll there was » fairly complete 
know ledge of all the available timber. 

The second advantage of the ( a rib- 
bean, and one not to be overlooked in the 
days of slow sea travel, was the relative 
proximity of the Caribbean to Britain. 
Items could 'it transported back to 
England much more economically than 
from the East. 'The East India trade was 
a high profit, high risk business dealing 
mainly in luxury goods. In contrast, the 
West Indian trade was a volume business 
dealing in the agricultural staples. The 
islands were also far more settled with 
British than the East. Because of the 
large English population and proximity 
to the home market the was much more 
familiar with the tastes and demands of 
Britain. The economies of the two areas 
wore very integrated, with a correspond- 
ing sensitivity of each area to the needs of 
the other 

The outstanding advantage which the 
Caribbean had was the quality and 
quantity of its exotic woods, especially in 
Jamaica. Rosewood, satinwood, ebony, 
lignum vitac, and other exotic woods were 
readily available, of greater dimension 
and often better quality than the same 
wood from the East. The Caribbean 
retained its predominance after the 
forests of the other islands were cut out in 
the mill- to late- eighteenth century 
when the relatively untouched forests 
of Honduras were tapped, providing 
quality timber of large dimension, 

Among the exotic woods in the West 
Indies and Jamaica which were commen- 
ted on and used in Stuart times was a 
curious, hard wood known as Reddwood 
or Mothogoney. It was initially used as a 
veneer in marquetry work, as most rare 
woods were during this period. It was 
only after the marquetry period had 
ended and solid wood construction was 
again fashionable that mahogany was 
used in any quantity. It was the enthu- 
siastic and rapid acceptance of mahog- 
any, previously an exotic wood, that 
ensured the importance oi' the West 
Indies as Britain's supplier of cabinet 


I li I black ami white 
London Seeker and Warburg t'l'J.Vl 

( ireer in her new book relates the 
false starts and misfortunes that have dogged 
rs of women artists With a passion 
that her subjects rareh achieved, she rages 
t I he obstacles that have impeded artis- 
tic development the family and its obliga- 
(he tendency to imitate, the need to 
ingratiate, self-annihilation through love, 
false | liaise, fuux-uaii ete (which she equates 
the suppressed female libido), lack of 
serious criticism and (worst of all) the dis- 
appearing of Mrrf Consideringthe snares, it is 
suprising that any woman artist survives the 
passage of time. Those that do reappear in our 
distort books are often strong characters if not 
eccentric in either mind, manner or dress 
Hud //mi been u little less '/cully made, Ruskm 
.ed to a modest member of the fair sex, 
//mi a mill! hiu e been u great painter. 

\ et looking at the Mona Lisa, < ireer finds in 
it an essence n/ alien, challenging femaleness 
a Inch bus in,l lost ils pungency after fii e hundred 
I his reinterpretation of Pater (which 
- t he flavour of much of (ireer s prose) 
• st that something similar has now 
lit he field of art history . Lor the 
breadth and sweep ol this book, which travels 
e from the cloister d . t he nineteenth 
ocksal (heart historian'stendency 
to cultivate a limited, recondite interest. It is 
died with an attention to detail that 
■ been impressive if an equal tho- 
ad ' ieen applied to e\ a \ period 
with the progress of time the available 
in leases, the field of inquiry 
Mies patch\ and uiie\ en. 
'ii need intention is to m\ est i 
artists as 'a group' She illustrates 
- il discuss t he w ork of the w ell 
in Morisot andCassatt. argu- 
■ li ies not w ish to duplicate 
elsewhere Mm 

ease duplicate 

mblished in sur\ eys 

ularh those b\ Lisa 

K ndj .1 Wilson 



alai ed picture of the 

I llh Id ll.hlM.s o| \\ \| I s 
Mil. I Ml |; fowls 

Hi/ Richard Ilaslam 

VMi pages 

London: Penguin Books £6.95 

Vol. I ME l: \oi(l ll-UK.ST I LSTER 

fig Alistair Rowan 

564 pages 

London: Penguin Hooks £8.95 

It is, as I happen to know , a source of profound 
satisfaction to Sir Nikolaus Pevsner, who, 
though now no longer active, is still very much 
interested, to have seen the actual publication 
of the first volumes of The Buildings of 
Scotland, of Ireland and of Wales. All three 
series are now firmly launched and will cer- 
tainly continue. Scotland will need ten vol- 
umes Ireland nine and Wales six 

Scotland's curtain-raiser was reviewed in 
these pages just overayearago; it is good to be 
able to report that her first Irish and Welsh 
companions are just as good. Both these are 
devoted to areas which are markedly rural in 
character and in parts very sparsely pop- 
ulated: Londonderry is the only sizeable tow n 
in either book. This means that both volumes 
are. as Mr. Haslam remarks of his, rich in 
minor buildings but poor in major ones. This 
particularly applies to the churches. In Powys 
(Montgomeryshire, Radnorshire and almost 
all of Breconshire) the principal pleasures 
reside m rather remote places like that little 
gem, Partrishow, and, for its astonishing 
though much restored screen, Llananno. In 
North-West lister (the counties of London- 
derry, Donegal, Fermanagh an«l Tyrone) one 
has to be an amateur of Victorian architecture 
to derive much satisfaction from the churches: 
scarcely anything remains earlier than 1600 

The Welsh volume also contains only one 
really major country house. Powis Castle (for 
one cannot count Leighton Hall, that mon- 
strous product of High Victorian tycoonery). 
Here, thanks largely, it has to be said, to 
Knglish architects, I Ister comes off a good 
deal better, for in addition to such houses as 
Florence Court. (aledon and Baronscourt, 
there is Castle Coole, winch really is, as is 
claimed. James W \ att's masterpiece, and one 
of the most perfect Neo-classical houses m 

In 'Powys' the parishes are arranged in 
three sections, corresponding to the historic 
counties: in mv view a verv wise decision. 

Incidentally, Breconshire can claim nearl 
half of the ninety entries beginning wit 
'Llan-', which means a church, or enclosure. 

Neither region is well supplied with easil 
worked building stone. In parts of Brecoi 
shire there isOld Red Sandstone (by nomeai 
always red); but if ashlar wer 
required, as at Powis Castle, it had to b 
Grinshill New Red sandstone from Shrop 
shire. In Montgomeryshire the stone is s 
intractable that 'magpie' timber-framing, an 
for Georgian buildings brick, was the rule. I 
North-West Ulster there is plenty of ston 
(admirably described here) but, again, ver 
little that can be ashlared. So most of the olde 
buildings are of hard, uncoursed rubbk 
stone, masked by roughcast, pebbledash o 
cement rendering, nearly always white 
washed. Only the brownish-black basai 
characteristic of parts of north-east Derry an' 
Tyrone was left uncovered. For Castle Cool 
the first Lord Belmore brought in Portlan 
stone, a glorious extravagance. The use c 
brick goes back to the seventeenth centun 
but until the 1830s it too, all too often, wa 
hidden by an overcoat of plaster. 

Both these authors, like his younger colla 
borators in England, are rather more expan 
sive than the Master. Conan Doyle stayed her t 
(Clyro Court) to write 'The Hound of th 
Hasken illes': a pleasing gobbet of inform 
ation which would not, I think, have crept inti 
a Pevsner volume. Bridges, including cana 
aqueducts, railway viaducts and stations (nov 
often disused), and, in Lister, lighthouses, an 
constantly cropping up. Mr. Rowan find 
room for a page of scathing indictment o 
Modern Redevelopment at Londonderry 
.Xeir housing . . . makes no attempt to relate to th 
future of the town as a whole. Multistory 
blocks, too large and too aggressive in character 
. . white, slab-like units that are in sorry contras 
to the older architecture that still remains. Cole 
raine would appear to be in some respect 
even worse, ('aledon is one of the few places U 
merit exploration on foot. And whereas Mr 
Haslam s Introduction concludes on an opti 
mistic note. Mr. Rowan's ends with fourverj 
significant pages entitled The Future". Thei 
impact is. alas, deeply disturbing. 

Alec Clifton-Taylo 

- .win wii Akmoi k 

itfil by Robert Elgood 
'. i pages, £vi illustrations 
, >ndon: Scolar Press t'T."> (H) 

ice Russell Robinson s excellent but brief 
i ok 'Oriental Armour' went out of |>rinl 
me vears ago, there has been n<> single 
iliune to which one may turn to for an 
i count of Islamic armour. It is this gap which 
e present work - a collection of sixteen 
tides by fourteen authors - hopes in some 
ty to fill. Its editor justly complains that the 
bject is one neglected by Islamicists. A 
•rusal of four of the best introductory books 
i Islamic art, containing in all some thou- 
nd pages of text and almost as many plates. 
vealed a scant three pages worth oftext and 
■e sole photograph devoted to the arts of war 
viihnel's 'Islamic Arts' is a notable excep- 
m), and this for an industry which must 
ive consumed a vast portion of national 
ealth at all times, and accounted for the 
•eater part of the metahvorking ateliers' 
roduction. The neglect is surprising, for 
-ins and armour are potentially of interest to 
wider audience than perhaps any other 
roll i of artifacts: to the political and military 
istorian, to the epigraphist, to those interes- 
;d 111 metahvorking technology and to those 
jncerned with the development of decora- 
ve style. Vet. as a glance at the bibliography 
lows, the field is populated largely by arms- 
nd-armour specialists, and the incursions 
f the 'straight' Islamicist are all too rare, 
'his volume amply shows what riches are 
ms missed. Arms were often lavishly 
ecorated - no mere practical accoutrements 
ut symbols of rank and power worthy of the 
nest decoration possible, f nfortunately, 
lany of the better collections are held in 
pecialist museums, often difficult of access, 
nd this may have tended to discourage 
cholars, many of whom would be further 
iscouraged to find that very few examples 
urvive from before the fifteenth century. 
Vith the exception of textiles, manuscripts 
nd possibly Iznik pottery, artifacts of later 
enturies have until recently suffered a 
eneral neglect. A group of twelfth-century 
■ronzes discussed here by Melikian-Chirvani 
lay possibly be bucklers, but on the other 
iand they very well may not be; while, after 
'resenting a number of swords apparently 
lelonging to the Prophet Muhammad and 
•ther early Islamic notables, A R. Zaky 
?aves us slightly bewildered with the state- 
lent: some historians of Islamic art do nut agree 
"ith attributing these swords to the seventh or 
ighth century .... He does not say whether 
ie is of their number. More certain ground is 
cached with the weapons of the sixteenth to 
'ighteenth centuries, where rich decoration 
md inscriptions, including a fair number of 
lates and artists' signatures, seem t< i abound. 
*or sheer quality of craftsmanship one 
nay single out the sixteenth-century Persian 
laggers discussed by A Ivanov. YAonld 

that other artifacts of the period disp 
half this - U. i 1 1 ' The majority of articles , I 
small (some even rather obscure) groups of 
weapons thus. Melikian-Chirvani on a group 
of eighteenth-century Persian axes; I \\ 
Flnidt on the nineteenth-century weapons 
from Bukhara and Z. Zyglllski on Islamic 
w capons in Polish collections A more g( 
history of the development of arms and 
armour, based largely on manuscript illustra- 
tion, is given in articles by M \ ( lorelik and 
I) Nicolle. .1 D Latham with YY. Paterson 
discusses archery . ami < i Tantuin a Muslim 
treatise on warfare. Two articles are con 
cerned with inscriptions, on Persian armour 
by I,. P. Klwell-Sutton and on a group of 
daggers by A Ivanov. The book is richly 
illustrated and has footnotes and biblio- 
graphy. From the topics mentioned above, it 
will be apparent that the work does not form a 
coherent history of the subject, and indeed 
some important areas are ignored completely' 

(firearms, for example). Robert Elg I has 

shown considerable organisational talent in 
the editing (four articles come from behind 
the Iron Curtain and one from the Middle- 
East). Let us hope that this volume's success 
fill appearance will encourage him to start on 
another, where he will exercise stronger 
control over the subjects included and 
produce, as far as it is at present possible, a 
general history of Islamic arms and armour 
Such a volume would be welcome indeed 

Olucr Watson 


Edited by Ernest Scheidegger 

Introduction by Walter Ruegg 

-,'?S pages. 340 illustrations 

Text in English, French and German 

Editions Erpf, Rathausplatz 5, Heme 

Hans Erin, undoubtedly the most popular, 
versatile and imaginative living Sw iss pain- 
ter, has just celebrated his seventieth birth- 
day at the height of his powers To mark the 
event, an enterprising publisher is bringing 
out a sumptuously produced monograph on 
his oeuvre, that will ultimately comprise three 
large volumes, of which the first has recently 
appeared. It is devoted to his paintings, the 
best known as well as the most striking part of 
his life work; a further tome on his drawings is 
scheduled for publication in the autumn of 
litSO, and a third, on his graphic work, for late 
in 1981. 

The essential feature of Frni's art. beside 
his stupendous virtuosity, is his no less 
amazing diversity. He has been influenced 
by many artists, including his compatriot 
Hodler, Picasso, Dah, the Surrealists, and, 
further back, by Delacroix and the French 
romantic school, while the meticulous preci- 
sion of his draughtsmanship, specially in his 
numerous portraits, recalls Ingres. , 1 et he has 
assimilated all those seemingly contradictory 
influences into a svnthesis that is oeculiarh 

ii Intimti 
roils works 
nnniistakealilv reci i 

i| iiitn 'spc i 
is much o i\ en ti > hr< >odu 

aiicy betw ecu hunianacli hiding 

his ow n. .md t lie limit -lessiies> . .] 
i lea \ ( nirs a- w ell as . >\ rr t hi unable 

riddle of the world His philosophic specu- 
lations are apt to find expression in his work, 
and he describes art as a means of illuminat- 
ing tin basis on I background oj our physical, 
spiritual and soct ■ corld At the same time. 
lie is much impressed by scientific and 
technological developments, and has an in- 
satiable curiousity about past and present 
events -be they in the realm of sport (of 
which he used to be a passionate addict!. 
industry, native and foreign fauna, history. 
iii\ t hology and religion. 

His contemplative character goes together 
with an ardent desire to help suffering hum- 
anity as much as is in his power as an artist 
Committed to every aspect of humanist 
endeavour, a sworn enemy of every kind of 
tyranny, be it of the nazi or communist 
description, he projects his ideas in enormous 
mural paintings, such as Social World. World 
of Chemistry, In Health is Ereedom. It is. 
incidentally, with large murals that he first 
made his name and achieved a wale renown, 
in particular with the 1(H) metres long and five 
metres high one he painted for the Swiss 
National Exhibition of 1939 in Zurich. 

His blend of exuberant fantasy and skill in 
the impeccably precise depicting of machin- 
ery, devices, buildings, as well as stunningly 
litelike human beings, finds a particularly 
appropriate in those large-scale symbolical 
works, a field which he has made particularly 
his own. They abound in his lifework almost 
as much as Ins self-portraits, which by now 
must be as numerous as those of Rembrandt. 

Arguably, his greatest achievements are 
not his huge murals, but his imaginative 
portraits of significant personalities, such as 
his masterly Albert Einstein., shown in casual 
clothes in front of a blackboard with a maze 
of complicated equations, photographically 
exact yet radiating genius, humour, as well as 
a profound humanity. Rene Eli in 


at the 


Caxton Book Fairs - 

Antiquarian Books.. Maps and Prints, 

a: the Rembrandt Hotel. 

Cromwell Road, London S\\"l . 

( >/>/><>«(<• r/i<- 1' &■ A 

Thursday April 17th, 10 a.m. -8 p.m. 

HE ( OXXOISSEl'R April I'.'SH 


Virginia FitzRoy 



w 'late 


i -mall to 

t-nough to 

of fur- 


■ 1935 
'■ 1914, 


ableau III. 


The exhibition offers elucidation for those 
- about but baffled by abstract 
painting. It is in its ami didactic (the accom- 
panying leaflet which discusses the whole 
problem of abstraction is clearly written and 
good value), but manages to be so without the 
distraction of wall texts and blown-up photo- 
graphs Thi> seems to be in accordance with 
the general policy of the Tate Gallery, which 
prefers the works to speak for themselves. It is 
also an art-historian's exhibition, selected by 
a team of experts in the different fields 
covered - broadly, Paris and Cubism, the 
Netherlands and De Stijl, Munich and the 
Blaue Reiter, Russia and Suprematism, Italy 
and Futurism, Britain and Vorticism, and the 
I'S.v The selection and hanging to some 
extent mirror this scholarly approach. 
Predictably, the three principal exponents of 
abstract painting during the decade 1910-20, 
Malevich, Mondrian. and Kandinsky, are 
given star billing and are magnificently re- 
presented by key works borrowed from Hol- 
Munich, Paris and New York. 

But the visual impact of the best abstrac 
painting of this time is watered down by th 
inclusion of works of less outstanding ae; 
thetic appeal which are there to illustrate th 
development of a particular artist's oeuvre, c 
the importance of a painter to his contem 
poraries; this is especially so in the sectio. 
which deals with Hoelzel and Itten whos 
work is never seen in this country but whos 
role as teachers and theorists of colour an 
free expression amongst artists associate 
with the Bauhaus was crucial. Some of th 
lesser known Dutch artists, Adrianus Jo 
hannes de Winter for instance, as well as 
good proportion of the Zurich Dad 
group - the Arps excluded - are of art-histoi 
ical significance only. The hanging is likewis 
biased towards illustrating certain develop 
ments and relationships, leaving little roor 
for the best paintings to breathe, though thi 
was obviously a deliberate decision. Only i: 
the case of Malevich, who is shown on tw 

adjoining walls and squeezed between othe 
lesser artists, do the works really suffer. 

["hese criticisms are far out weighed l>y I he 

\ 'itenient of being confronted by mi many 

i isterpieces ol tin* same period and of being 

|e to appreciate the main diverse forms 

nil abstract ion took as the artist grappled 

th the problem of how to tree his art from a 

tpendence on the visible world. As Peter 

•rgo points out in his excellent introduction 

the exhibition catalogue, Abstraction is not a 

'le, but what Delaunay called 'a change <>/ 


The exhibition is worth a visit for the 
ondrians alone He is represented b\ a 
fficient number ot first-rate pictures to 
able the visitor to observe and comprehend 
e path which he took after his encounter 
th Cubism: from the Dune Landscapes of the 
rly years of the decade with their intense 
lies and yellows, through the bleached and 
.quisite Pier and Ocean works of r. 1914/."), to 
e rejection ot all reference to external 
ality m the years 1917/8 with the establish- 
ed of the familiar grid format. This is 
lquestionably the most complete and siic- 
■ssful of all the sections in the exln- 
tion - step by logical step Mondnan can be 
•en to enter a new world. 
II " exhibition continues until I. '5 April 

Francesra Temple Roberts 

Eric 1 lenry Kennington. 

Design for a Mural for the dining hall at the 

( "rosse and Black well factory, \ auxhall, 

// uteri -ohm r. 

Jeremy Cooper Limited, London. 


|J »^ j ''•"»> '>" ''*> 

.!■ iseph Simpson 

I'lie \1 
Sir .Johnston Forbes Kobe 


/.''/ 1 
}/» r Li mill il . London 


I - ' resh insights into the variety of the art of the 
period \H'M) to 1940 is provided by Jeremy 
Cooper's latest exhibition of water-colours, 
draw ings and prints. Much of its interest lies 
m the unfamiliarity of the works display e« I 

Architectural views and designs, often 
overlooked, make up a large section of the 
exhibition There are fine watercolours oi 
County Hall, Westminster, painted l>\ Wil- 
liam VValcot soon after its completion in 19.S.S, 
and of one of the water towers at Crystal 
Palace. Sydenham, built by Brunei in Is.*)-.', 
and painted by Matthew Webb in 190? Cih 
views are also seen m several engravings b\ 
William Washington, and in three water- 
colours by Cyril Farey, and architectural 
perspective artist of the 19S0s The country is 
represented by a perspective of Stoke Park, 
Northamptonshire. 1859, by Richard Makil- 
waine Phipson, and by W.A. Nicholls' de- 
lightful \ lew s of Bishop's Park . fill ham m the 
IsiiOs and ls?l)s, long since surrounded by 
urban development. Two groups of mural 
designs are especially attractive: Kric Henri 
Kennington s for the dining hall at the (rosse 
and Blackwell factor;, at Imperial Wharf. 
Nine Elms Road, in use between 1907 and 
19-20, and Sigismund Christian Hubert 
Goetze's allegorical lunettes executed r, 1910 
Goetze is best known for his mural decorations 
for the Foreign Office winch he worked on 
between 1914 and 1941 

Other subject matter is not neglected. 
Among the portraits are three superb etch- 
ings Joseph Simpson's of Sir Prank Brang- 
wyn m I !I4.">. who had encouraged him to take 
up etching, and. by the same artist. The 
Mummer (1947) the actor Sir Johnston 
Forbes Robertson; and the lively Wise r than 
the Wise, of James Abbott McNeill Whistler 
b\ his Australian pupil Mortimer L Menpew 
Reproductions of famous \ ictorian paintings 
arc often interesting in themselves, as, for 
instance. Sir Frank Short's mezzotints after 
G.F. Walts or Frederick Hollyer's platino- 
types of Burne-Jones' drawings, executed 
under the hitter's eagle eye and exhibited in 
1898 alongside the originals The exhibition i- 
at 9 Galen PI; c, I ittle Russell Stiv. :. 
London wi I . April 



The Arts Reviewed 




li Museum exhibition of 
K79- Mi?'i repn s< 

itbitual niuseuin 
1- <\\ pri i u\ w here make the 

gap m their 
sum of 
I find the necessary 
e. ( hie parallel 
h s 1 lamburg's acquisition c if an 
if British prints, hut for 
part their search would have 
- :: the market for 
ew years American 
i it her hand . especially those of 
i ades b\ the foremost painters. 
essful a domestic market 
H ith soared toprohibitive price 
ipeared from circulation, fac- 
ecessity limited the thorough- 
ly sh Museum's collecting, 
es whose presence would 
ire continuous picture of 
an print-making such as - 

Maurice Prendergast, John Marin. Ivan Al- 
bright. Hen Shahn, Gabor Peterdi, Joseph 
Albers, Jackson Pollock, Claes Oldenburg, 
Frank Stella, but as the museum has ex- 
pressed its intention of filling further lacunae 
when appropriate material becomes avail- 
able, it would be ungenerous to dwell on 
existing imbalances now. The 1960s'70s sec- 
tion is to my mind disappointing in view of the 
wide range of striking imago being produced 
in these years, but will doubtless be greatly 
improved in future. Printsofthe 1950s, which 
became very craft-conscious with a conse- 
quent tendency to superficiality, are not 
represented at all. The collection is nonethe- 
less an outstanding accomplishment within a 
barely two-year period, and is probably, as 
the museum suggests, the only extensive 
group of American prints in Europe. 

The early part of the exhibition, which 
concentrates on Whistler and his diverse 
disciples, already had a strong basis in the 
museum collection, thanks to Campbell 
Dodgson's keen appreciation of his contem- 
poraries. Whistler's economic line, his feeling 
for spaces, and his effective wiping of the 
surface ink. exemplified in his Venice Set of 
1879/80, are reflected in the work of some 
half-dozen other printmakers in the show, 
who also share his preference for picturesque 
views, be it Europe or America. A note of 
change, however, is sounded in the prints of 
Joseph Pennell, who substitutes for Venetian 
mists the smogs of Rhineland industries or 
American railways junctions. Aesthetic 

though his treatment may be, his choice o 
subjects suggests that acceptance of the les.' 
attractive features of urban landscape that 
distinguishes much of American art. A certain 
uncompromising realism, a rejection of all 
preciosity, is to develop out of this, binding 
together the printsofthe between-wars period 
and the modern, and setting them apart from 
their British counterparts. 

The most fascinating part of the exhibition, 
because the American character begins loi 
emerge so clearly, consists of the printsofthe 
Ash-Can school and the American Scene. The 
former group, made up of eight artists with 
their roots in newspaper illustration, over- 
turned the safe traditions of the American 
Impressionists and set out to depict all sides of 
daily life without glossingoverthesqualorand 
pathos. The only one to seriously engage in 
print-making, John Sloan, tempered his real- 
ism with a rich sense of humour, and this too j 
set the tone of many subsequent American! 
prints, such as those of Reginald Marsh, 
Mortimer Borne, and Peggy Bacon, which 
often border on caricature. Sloan's skilful 
etchings leave a sympathetic record of both 
New York high life and the tumultuous 
existence of the poor. 

His closest successor and one-time pupil, 
Reginald Marsh, shares his powers of acute 
observation and his robust empathy with the 
common lot. The sordidness which sometimes 
serves for gentle amusement in Sloan's work is 
here embraced, without becoming 
actually grotesque in the manner of the 
German Neue Sachlichkeit artists who also 
influenced Marsh. He uses an etching stroke, 
as does Sloan in his later plates, which is wide 
and a little crude, conveying the essential 
toughness of life. 

The pungent atmosphere of street-life in- 
fuses this whole period of prints. The nine 
striking dry-points by Martin Lewis plunge us 
straight into very tangible and recognisable 
places, heading wearily home in a fading light 
under the overhead telephone cables of Dan- 
bury, or leaning out of an upstairs Greenwich 
Village window on a warm night to watch 
children running below, and couples in door- 
ways. Lewis combines a ravishing technical 
virtuosity with highly original compositional 
devices such as the powerful abstracted pat- 
terns m Shadow Magic, and the monstrous 
shadow cast over the house by the passing 
figures in Wanted. Occasionally he achieves 
the tension which is such a noticeable element 
in the four plates by Edward Hopper. Xightan 
the El Train brilliantly penetrates the ex- 
perience of late night in a large city - the 
sinister sense of isolation. The two at the far 

The . \rts Reviewed 

iid of the carriage have heroine conspirato- 
■ al in the silence, the viewer feels utterly 

xcluded. The draughtsmanship for winch 
[topper is now so highly regarded loses none 

f its potency in the transition to the copper 

George Bellows unquestionably takes his 

lace among the giant sot lithography with his 

ioyesque Dame in a Madhouse and .1 Stay at 

harkey's, drawn directly on the stone with 

stonishing assurance at a tune when the full 
ange of lithographic techniques was unfami 

ar to American artists. However, with the 
iusinessmen's Hath. Bellows powers ol 

haracterisation slip into caricature, a risk 
ihich is too prevalent in American art of this 

Another weakness, occasionally found in 
he \sh-Can school, hut certainly among the 
legionalists, is an inclination to folksiness 
i^heii social comment is intended. Benton is 
Perhaps the worst offender, although the two 
>rints chosen here are excellent, and the 
langer also is avoided with Grant Wood's 
>hriner Quartet, alheit it reveals nothingof the 
-trong rural flavour and the beautv w Inch can 
ilso he found in his prints. 

The European influence infiltrates here 
md there, brought by the Armory Show of 
1913, by war-time immigrants, or acquired 
hrough travel. One of the loveliest products is 
he Charles Sheeler lithograph of the steeph - 
-ising Delmonico Building, Constructivist in 
feeling, and very sparingly drawn. The one 
print by Stuart Davis testifies to his inter- 

national affiliations, hut does not justify his 
pre-eminent reputation. 

Tin- jump to the l!)?lls. with a few examples 
from the fids, is difficult to make. In terms of 
his career I )e Kooning provides a bridge with 
the artists of the ,'i()s and '40s, but as his print- 
making activity lias been entirely since 19(50 
and the example shown is of 197 1 . there is no 
visual link to assist tin' viewer. Early prints 
have been acquired by Robert Rausehenberg 
and Jim Dine winch set the tone of artistic 
preoccupations of the (ids. along with the loan 
of one of Warhol's Marilyn silkscreens. A 
different type of "realism" underlies this work, 
a nonchalant exploitation of photograph 
commercial images or an exaggerated ap- 
preciation of the everydav object. In this 
latter category. Dine and Jasper Johns gi\e 
the print-lover the most pleasure, since both 
have concentrated on mastering printing 
techniques, and their skilful elaborations of 
even the most banal motifs are beautiful in 
texture and detail. Similarly, a totally unham- 
pered love of the etched line can be indulged 
in the reductive designs of Brice Marden's 
plates of I !I7 1 , or, for the extremist, the gTain 
of aquatint and the plate's indentation on the 
paper in Robert Rv man's easily-maligned 


The modern works re-emphasise the casual 

link between important painters and im- 
portant prints which has been one of the great 
strengths of the American print -ma king tradi- 
tion. The exhibition lasts until 4 May. 

.lau Johnson 


The colourful t xt lies of the African continent 
are the subject off ie latest exotic ex hi bit ion at 
the Museum ol Mankind (the Ethnographic 
department of the British Museum, in Bur- 
lington Gardens, London wl). Divided into 
two sections, the exhibition successfully com- 
bines visual appeal with solid technical 

In the first room each showcase contains 
several examples of ;i particular tvjie of textile 
and represents one of various regions o| 
Africa There are embroidered gowns from 
West Africa. Yoruba adi re cloths with curious 
patterns made either l>\ t icing or stitching the 
material or by painting starch on to it before 
dying it In indigo, cut-pile raffia cloth from 
/aire, warp striped cloth from Madagascar, a 
colourful woven hammock from Sierra Leone, 
an intricately patterned silk textile from 
Ghana, aptly called adiriniasu ("my skill is 
exhausted) and many others Riding a lone on 
a dais is an example of the < pi ilted cotton horse 
armour, embellished with patchwork, made 
in the Sudan 

In the second room the technical processes 
of making the cloth are described. The raw 
materials making the cloth such as col ton, silk 
and raphia, and how thev are prepared 
are displayed, along with the different 
dyes — indigo for blue, brimstone wood for 
yellow and so on. Next come the complex 
weaving techniques on the different types of 
loom, several set up with all the necessan 
tools in working order Lastly the decoration 
of the cloth by dying, embroidery, applique 
or some other method, is explained 

Sadly these traditional ways of weaving and 
decorating textiles have largely been dis- 
placed in Africa bv industrial processes and 
in i port «'(1 alternatives, and it is only in ethno- 
graphic museums such as the Museum of 
Mankind, which has one of the most sub- 
stantial ami representative collections any- 
where, that a great main of these beautiful 
[scan he seen Hriony Llewellyn 

(Far l.rft) 
John Sloan. 
Turning out I he light . 

Hritish Museum, London. 

Part of a woollen cloak for a man 

of the ( hleuli Berbers. 

Western High Atlas, Moroeeo. The motif 

here is userted 

as the rl 

Hritish Mus; nm, London. 


.lit I 


lit orgt 

' 'hapter 

i.sii med the reliquary 
tli, ( ierard Lo\ et . in 
I In Belgian city of 
il it three years later 
r>l Lambert in Liege. It is 
objects tu survive from the 
'ions of tlic I )ukes of Bur- 
liosi endary in their day, 

(1 the basis of their immense political 
s been lent in honour 
itindred and fiftieth anniversary of 
Indepi and (lit- one thou- 

the foundation of 
The exhibition will include a full 
(I ami comparative mat- 
erial including armour from the Tower of 
ill It will be on show at the \ ictoria 
London, from 26 March 
I: imi 



Madeleine Elisabeth Pigalle, 1751-1827. 

Portrait of Louis Armand Pigalle des 

Granges, c. 1780. 73 x 60cm. 

Brother of the painter aged hi years. 

Michel Segoura, 11 Quai Voltaire 75007 Paris. 

i Bottom) 

Eighteenth-century terrine, Sceaux Faience. 

Chez Xicolier, 7 Quai Voltaire, Paris 7. 

This exhibition of "Carre Rive Gauche', 
33 Quai Voltaire, 75007 Paris will be on show 
from 24 April until 28 April. It will consist of 
about one hundred antique dealers and 
art galleries. 

Hiroshige u (1826-1869). 
Fishing Boatsat Tsukudajima from the series. 
Thirty-six views of Eastern Capital 
Published by Aito in 1862, 
from the Vever Collection. 

Japanese Gallery, (>0i> Kensington Church 
Street. \VH is holding an exhibition 
of wood block prints by Hiroshige I 
' 1797-1858) and Hiroshige (1826-1869) at the 
above address from 1 February - 30 April. 
There will be prints from the famous series by 
the Hiroshige school showing Edo (Tokyo), 
Mount Fuji, the highways and byways of old 

(Belou ) 

Ruskin Spear If v 

Brightly shone the moon that night. 

The Royal Academy are holding an exhi 
bition of Ruskin' Spear's work, from 8 March 
to Hi April tills year. The exhibition rep 
resents the many Carets of Ins work, genre, 
still- life and landscapes, the famous views of 
London life and his portraits of such famous 
people as Mrs. Thatcher, Edward Heath and 
Barbara Castle. 

Leon Bakst 

Fantasy of Modern Fashion. Atalante, 
pencil , brush ti ml ink and u atercolour, 
signet! and dated ' 191*2', 
// inches. 

On IS March 1980, Sotheby's New Both! 

Street, are holding a sale ol Impressionist 

Ballet pictures The properties include that ol 
Hani tiopal. who was one ol the main ex- 
ponents of Indian classical dance. The most 
important work in tins property is the oil 
painting by Georges Lepaulle of Mane Tag- 
lioni and hei brother in 'La Sylphide , one of 
the most famous romantic ballet portraits ever 
painted. The property of VVilloughbv Nor- 
man includes the most important work by 
Bakst in the sale Fantasy of Modern Fashion, 
Atalante'. dated 191-2. The property of 
Robert Paterson, the impresario who 
produces pop and classical stage productions. 
includes a collection of drawings by Picasso 
and Diaghilev, Masssine and others. There is 
also a caricature of Stravinsky playing 'Le 
Sac re du Prin temps', by Jean Cocteau, 1 9 IS. 
Leomde Massme's property includes manu- 
scripts for the choreography of some of his 
most famous ballets, and a number of portraits 
of Massine by designers who worked with him 
on ballets such as Picasso, Derain, Matisse 
and others. There are also works from the 
collection of the late Tilly Ix>seh, the famous 
Austrian dancer discovered by Max Bern- 
hardt for his production 'The Miracle', in 
which Lady Diana Cooper, also starred. 
Towards the end of her career, she began to 
paint and two of her works are included in the 
sale. She was a great friend of Cecil Beaton 
and there are designs by him for her and an 
extraordinary book of photographs Cecil 
Beaton tit led 'My Royal Past, in which all the 
famous Queens are modelled by men with the 
exception of Tilly Losch. The property of the 
late Stanislas Idzikowsky, the Polish dancer 
who joined Diaghilev in 1915 and became 
famous for his creation of fantastic character 
roles includes programmes, designs, photo- 
graphs and costumes. Apart from these paint- 
ings, there is a bronze portrait of Nijinsky by 
Una Troubridge from the collection of His 
Highness Prince Sadruddin Aga Khan. 

The Arts Council of Great Britain are organis- 
ing an exhibition of the life and work of the 
distinguished British architect Sir Edward 
Lutyens, to be held at the Hay ward Gallerv in 
London in the autumn of 1981. Any inform- 
ation; letters, drawings, photographs, fur- 
niture or memorabilia relating to Sir Edward's 
lite an I hi : hitectural work in this Country and 
abroad would be most gratefully received 
Please send to Colin Amery, Chairman, T\ 
Lutyens Exhibition ( ommittee, c/o The 
Council of Great Britain, 105 Piccadilly, 



dams Ltd. 

Agnew & Sons Ltd. 

Alexander Gallery 

m sw i 

ntury Paintings 



Asprey & Co. Ltd. 

Mew Bond Street. 

1 'AH 



■ 2511H 

ind watches, objets 

Bentley & Co. Ltd. 

Bond Street. 1 ondon wi Y9DI 
K)651 ii325 

. [ntique watt ht s, Jewelled 
ian enann 

H. Blairman & Sons Ltd. 

reet, London wiy $hb 


and Works of Art 

Blond Fine Art Ltd. 

I 1 mdon \v 1 


h paintim 


Bluett & Sons Ltd. 

Ion wi 

Art, and 


Ion swi ■ 

( abk m n« i 

The Bruton Gallery 

High Street. Bruton, Somerset baiooab 

2i 15 
Specialists in European sculpture oj the l'Jth 
and 20th centuries: Ayrton, Barye, 
Bourdelle, Carpeaux, Carrier Belleuse, 
Dalou, Daumier, David d' Angers, 
Despiau, Falguiere, Maillol, Moore, 
Plazzotta, Rodin, Wlerick 


14 Old Bond Street. London wi 
Tel: 01-491 7408 

Paintings, Drawings and Prints by Old and 
Modem Masters, Oriental Art, European 
Works oj Art and Sculpture 

Crane Arts 

321 Kings Road, London sw] 

Tel: 01-352 5857 

Early Saive Paintings. Also young artists 

with irreverent flavour 

Crane Kalman Gallery 

178 Brompton Road, London SW3 

Tel: 01-584 7566 

20th century British and European Masters. 
Younger British artists. (Also unjustly 
neglected painters ) 

Andrew Simon Crosby 

PO Box 510, Edinburgh 10, Scotland 
Tel: (031)447 800(1 

Oriental Carpet boohs and boohs on Glass 
Collecting. Catalogues free on request. 
Dealer in Turkoman Carpets from the 
presynthetic period 

T. Crowther & Son 

2*2 North End Road, Fulham, 
London sw6 inh 
Tel: 01-385 1375/7 

I 'ery fine and extensive stocks oj Georgian 
period furniture, carved wood and marble 
chimneypieces and accessories, oak and pine 
room panelling and garden ornaments 

Euston Gallery 

126 130 Drummond Street, 

London NWI 

Tel: 10-387 6134 

Extensive range of Old and Contemporary 

Paintings and Prints, 50 page catalogue 36p 

Fine Art Society 

148 New Bond Street, London WI 
rel: 01-629 51 16 

British Art of the 19th and 20th centuries, 
Paintings, Watercolours, Drawings and 
Sculpture and Decorative Arts 

Fischer Fine Arts Ltd. 

3l 1 King Street. St James's, London swi 
rel: 01-839 3942 

20th century Masters and Contemporary 
Paintings and Drawings 

Fox Galleries 

5/6 Cork Street, London wi 
Tel: 01-734 2626 
Cables: Foxart London wi 
Telex: 268048 Extldng 

Fine Paintings British and European 1700 
to 1965 

S. Franses 

71 Kmghtsbridge, London swi 

Tel: 01-235 1888 

Oriental and European Carpets, Tapestries 

and Works of Art 

Frost & Reed Ltd. 

41 New Bond Street, London wi 
Tel: 01-629 2457 

18th- 19th century English and Dutch 
Paintings, Contemporary English and 
Modern French Paintings 

Fry Gallery 

58Jermyn Street, St. James's, 

London swi 

Tel: 01-493 4496 

Cables: Fryart, London 

English Watercolours and Drawings of the 

18th and 19th centuries 

The General Trading Company 

144 Sloane Street, Sloane Square, 
London swixqbl 
Tel: 01-730 0411 

18th and 19th century English Furniture, 
Porcelain, Pewter, Prints. Decorating. Fine 
quality modern China, Crystal and Gifts 

Christopher Gibbs Ltd. 

118 New Bond Street, London wiyqab 

Tel: 01-629 2008/9 

Old Masters and Works of Art 

Richard Green (Fine Paintings) 

44 Dover Street, London wi 

Tel: 01-493 7997 

18th and 19th century English Paintings. 

11th and 18th century Dutch, Flemish and 


17th to 19th century European Paintings. 

Grey-Harris & Co. 

12 Princess Victoria Street, Clifton, 


Tel: Bristol 37365 

.-1 leading West of England repository for 

Jewellery, Old Sheffield and quality Electro 


Halcyon Days Ltd. 

14 Brook Street, Hanover Square, 

London wiyiaa 

18th and early 19th century English 


Papier Mache, Tole, Treen, Tortoiseshell, 

Porcelain and prints. Fine contemporary 

Bilston enamels 

H. Harris & Son 

-4/52 New Oxford Street, London 


'el: 01-636 2121 

Vine 18th century English Furniture and 
Works of Art 

l V. R. Harvey & Co. (Antiques) 

7-70 Chalk Farm Road, 
London nwi San 

: ine 17th to early 19th century furniture, 
locks and Works of Art 

/lichael Hedgecoe 

Jhobham, Woking, Surrey. 

>1: Chobham 8206 

•ine Antique furniture Restoration and 

le-L'phol story by Craftsmen 

ieim Gallery 

•9 Jermyn Street, St. James's, 

.ondon swi 

Tel: 01-493 0688 

)/<7 Master Paintings and Sculptures in 

narble, bronze and terracotta 

Vlilne Henderson 

»9 Mount Street, London wi 

Tel. 01-499 25O7 

Chinese and Japanese Paintings. Japanese 

\reens and prints, Oriental Embroidery 

-lennell Ltd. 

Davies Street, Berkeley Square, 
.ondon WIY2NY 
Tel: 01-499 3011 

Antique and Modern Jewellery and Silver, 
Domestic Silver by tfie Hennels from 1737 


19 Old Bond Street, London wi 
Tel: 01-493 1394 

'ewellery, Antique, Victorian and fine 
Modern Silver 

jeorge Horan 

Oriental Antiques) Ltd. 

i8a Kensington Church Street. 

,ondon w8 

Tel: 01-937 9532 

3y appointment to the Corps 

Diplomatique. Fine Oriental Ceramics, 

3ronzes, Jades, Ivories. Carvings etc. 

'ona Antiques 

Stand 1 1, Antique Hypermarket, 

16 Kensington High Street, London w8 

Tel: 01-937 7435 

19th-century English animal paintings 

\lan Jacobs 

I Duke Street, St. James's, London swi 
rel: 01-930 3709 

Specialising in 17th century Dutch and 
Flemish Old Master Paintings 

Alexander Juran & Co. 

74 New Bond Street, London wiyqdd 
Tel: 01-629 2550 

Did and Antique Caucasian and Oriental 
Rugs and Carpets 

R. A. Lee 

1 9 Bruton Place, I ondon wi 
Tel: 01-629 5600 and 499 6366 
Works ol Art, Fine Furniture, Clo 

Little Gallery 

5 Kensington Church Walk, London wX 
Tel: 01-937 8332 

Tuesday to Saturday 1 1 a.m. to 6 p.m. 
or by appointment 

18th, 19th and 20th century Watercolours 
and Drawings 

London Art Centre 

15/16 Royal Opera Arcade, Haymarket, 

Pall Mall, London swi 

Tel: 01-930 7679 

Why pay more' (25 foi exquisitely, hand 

carved framed traditional English oil 

paintings on canvas 

D. M. & P. Manheim 
(Peter Manheim) Ltd. 

69 Upper Berkeley Street, Portman 

Square, London wi 

Tel: 01-723 6595 

Member BAD A Specialist in Fine 

English Antique Porcelain, Pottery, 

Delftware and Enamels 


6 Albemarle Street, London wix }HF 
Tel: 01-629 5161 

Cables: Bondartos 
Fine impressionist and 20th century 
Paintings, Drawings and Sculpture. 
Graphics and Photographs by leading 20th 
century Artists 

Roy Miles Fine Paintings 

6 Puke Street, St. James's, London swi 

Tel: 01-930 8665 

Cables: Miles Art London 

Gallery hours: Monday-Friday, 

10 a.m. -5 p.m. 

I 'ictorian Paintings and Old Masters 

John Mitchell & Sons 

8 New Bond Street, London wi 
Tel: 01-493 7567 
Old Master Paintings 

Morton Morris & Company 

32 Bury Street, St. James's, 

London SWIY6AU 

Tel: 01-930 2825 

English paintings and drawings of the 17th, 

18th ana early 19th centuries 

Gerald Norman (Fine Art) Ltd. 

93 Jermyn Street, St. James's, 
London swi 
Tel: 01-930 3222 

Specialists in 18th, 1 9th and 20th century 
English watercolours. Art consultants and 

James R. Ogden & Sons Ltd. 

42 Duke Street, St. James's, London 


Tel: 01-930 3353 
Specialists in Ancient Jewellery, 
Jewellers and Silversmiths for four 
generations. Also at Harrogate 

Parker Gallery (Estb. 1750) 

2 Albemarle Street, 1 ondon \\ I 

I el: 4 

Marine, Milita -graphical and 

Sporting Paintings, Prints and 

Watercolours, ( )ld Maps, Ship Models and 


David Peel & Co. Ltd. 

2 Carlos Place, Mount Street. 
I ondon W I 
European Works of Art 

Phillips & Harris 

54 Kensington C hurch Street. 

London wS 

Tel: 937 31 33 

Selected European, Oriental furniture and 

Works of Art 

Piccadilly Gallery 

16a Cork Street, London WI 
Tel: 01-629 2X75 and 01-499 4632 
British Figurative Painters, International 
Symbolist, Jugenstil Works, Museum 
quality. British and Continental Drawings 

Pitt & Scott Ltd. 

20/24 Eden Grove, London N78ED 

Tel: 01-607 7321 

Telex: 21857 

Packing and shipping of fine-art works 

throughout the world 

H. W. Poulter & Son 

279 Ftilham Road, London swio 

Tel: 01-352 7268 

18th century Chimney Pieces, Grates, 

Fenders and Chandeliers, Restorations in 


G. T. Ratcliff Ltd. 

Durwards Hall, Kelvedon, 

Essex co 1 ""PC 


Enormous Antique Furniture stocks in 

showroom condition including lacquer and 

decorated pieces 

Howard Ricketts 

180 New Bond Street, London wiyqpd 

Tel: 01-409 1971 

Fine European Arms and Armour, Islamic 

and Works of Art, Early Photographic 


Frank T. Sabin Ltd. 

4 New Bond Street, London w 1 
Tel: 01-499 5553 

English Paintings, Watercolours and Fine 
Antiquarian Prints 

Spink & Son Ltd. 

5-7 King Street, St. James's. London swi 

Tel: 01-930 7888 

Cables: Spink London swi 

Coins, Medals and Orders, Oriental Art 

English Furniture, Paintings, Drawm 

and Silvt: 




r- "1 


mp > Ltd. 
William TiJlman Ltd. 

n i Dining 
Johnny Van Haeften 


Earle D. Vandekar of 

icom (i attn. Earle 
mdC I WO. A. 

mental and 

William Walter Antiques Ltd. 

i Vaults, ( lhancery 1 
iqs Id 01-242 3248 9 
nd old Shi 

> Id 

Weston Gallery 

\\ in Longville, Norwich. Norfolk 
! Norwich 860572 

English Pamiing< from 11th- 19th 
hool and Dutch 
/ itic Masters 

Louise Whitford Gallery 

25a Lowndes Street, London swi 
01-235 3155 

1 9th and early 20th century English and 
European [huntings specialising in works oj 
Australian and Middle Eastern interest 

Wildenstein & Co. Ltd. 

147 New Bond Street, London wi 
Tel: 01-629 0602 
Cables: Navild, London wi 
Telex: 267155 Navild G 

Old Master and Impressionist Paintings and 

Williams & Son 

2 Grafton Street, London WIX3LB 

Fine Traditional English and European 
Paintings from the 19th and 20th centuries 

Temple Williams Ltd. 

Haunch of Venison Yard, Brook 


London wiy 1AF 

Tel: 01-629 1486 

Fine Regency Furniture, Works oj Art, 
I aluations 

Winifred Williams 

3 Burv Street, St. James's, Lond • 
Tel: 01-930 4732/0729 

Important 18th century English and 
Continental Porcelains and Enamels 
Collectors' pieces oj Museum qualit] b 

W. H. Willson Ltd. 

15 King Street, St. James's, 
London swiy6qu 
Tel: 01-930 6463 

Fine Stock of Antique Silver 

Christopher Wood Gallery 

15 Motcomb Street, London swi 
Tel: 'H-235 9141/2 

I ictorian paintings, drawings and 
watercolours, studio pottery, works 
and photography 

Harriet Wynter Ltd. 

352 Kings Road, London SW3 
Tel: 01-352 6494 
Telex: 21879 Harriet 

Antique Scientific Instruments and n 
secondhand and Antiquarian Books 
history oj science and technology 

Charles Young 

Second Floor, Old Bond Street H 
6-8 Old Bond Street, London wijj 
Tel: 01-499 1117 and 491 3430 

English Paintings 1600-1900 and 
Old Masters 


5 p m -1 a m 
1 p m -1 am 

IfiRtan Collect ion 


Mayorcas Ltd. 

Member of the BAD A Ltd . 

Decorative FRENCH Aubusson Tapestry Panel of the 

Louis XVI period, c 1 775, from the series 'Les 

Amusements de la Campagne, byJ.-B. Huet, woven 

in fine silks and wools in soft tones of red, blue, green, 

saffron and ivory, with a border of simulated carved 

wood; mounted in moulded water-gilt and aquamarine 

'craquolle' frame, with oatmeal-coloured inslip. 

Overall size:-5' 1"wideby2' 1"high(1,55 x 62 cms) 

38 Jermyn Street, St. James's 

London S.W.i Telephone: 01-629 4>95 

: a£/H^ 


2 30 ml 




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delightful to hand and eye. With repeated applications 
surf, ices assume a glowing patina. Renaissance was 
developed tor the British Museum, the acknowledged 
world leader in conservation research, and with the 
consent of the Museum is now made availahle to readers 
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Galerie 1 1( lOgsteder I 7 

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Shrubsole Ltd., S.J. 
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Sladmore Gallery 
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Thorn Galleries, Frederick 
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situation not earlier than 2S days from the day you sent your order 
and not later than two months from that d.w . 

Please do not wait until the last moment to inform us. When you 
write, we ft ill tell you how to make \ our claim and what evidence ot 
pa) ment is required. 

nan tee to meet claims Iron; leaders made in accordance with 
ive proi edure as soon as possible after the Advertiser has been 
d bankrupt 1 ir insolvent up to a limit of £10,000 per annum in 
respect ol al rs < laims may be paid for highe